Contact Information:

Media Contact

Emmanouil Dermitzakis
Emmanouil.Dermitzakis@unige.ch
41-788-827-922

Twitter: UNIGEnews

http://www.unige.ch




Kredyty mieszkaniowe Kredyty mieszkaniowe

Sprawdź aktualny ranking najlepszych kredytów mieszkaniowych w Polsce - atrakcyjne kredytowanie nieruchomości.

PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION
RSS - Press News Release
Add Press Release

The human genome: A complex orchestra


2015-08-20
(Press-News.org) A team of Swiss geneticists from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), and the University of Lausanne (UNIL) discovered that genetic variation has the potential to affect the state of the genome at many, seemingly separated, positions and thus modulate gene activity, much like a conductor directing the performers of a musical ensemble to play in harmony. These unexpected results, published in Cell, reveal the versatility of genome regulation and offer insights into the way it is orchestrated.

Chromatin, a complex of protein and DNA, packages the genome in a cell. It also arranges DNA in a way that it can be "read" by a group of proteins called transcription factors, which activate or repress gene expression. However, DNA sequence varies between individuals and thus it leads to molecular variation between people's chromatin states. This ultimately causes variation in the way humans respond to the environment. Understanding the genetic and molecular processes that govern chromatin variability is one of the great outstanding challenges in life sciences, and would open the door to fully uncover how genetic variation predisposes individuals to a wide range of complex diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases.

The scientists' study in Cell reports how genetic variation affected three molecular layers in immune cell lines that were derived from 47 individuals whose genomes had been fully sequenced: transcription factor-DNA interactions, chromatin states, and gene expression levels. "We observed that genetic variation at a single genomic position impacted multiple, separated gene regulatory elements at the same time. This extensive coordination was quite surprising, much like a music conductor (i.e. genetic variant) directing all the performers (i.e. transcription factors, chromatin modifications) of a musical ensemble to change the volume (i.e. gene expression) of the music," explains Professor Bart Deplancke from EPFL. Contrary to the traditional model, which holds that gene regulatory elements impact gene expression in a quasi-independent fashion, researchers identified a much more harmonized and synergistic behavior: far from being linear, gene regulatory elements are actually coordinated in their actions.

The new evidence shows that the genome is not just a linear assembly of elements that interact in a pairwise fashion, but rather that it takes place under a more complex organization where different elements form intricate networks. If one element does not act properly, the whole system in which this element is embedded will be disturbed. "We have discovered basic biology rules of how the genome functions and how regulatory sequences act together to impact the expression of a gene," says Professor Alexandre Reymond from UNIL. Although the Swiss scientists are still far from medical applications, the mechanistic principles they uncovered shed light on very fundamental aspects of genome biology. "It is still too early to determine if one day we would be able to modulate gene expression in a targeted way, but this study reveals a level of complexity of genome function that was previously unanticipated", concludes Professor Emmanouil Dermitzakis from UNIGE. "Applying our discovery to medicine would mean identifying a single conductor and defining its role among all the other conductors for each musical ensemble - rather than merely listing all the performers playing in our genome orchestra."

INFORMATION:


ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Carnegie Mellon-led team identifies structure of tumor-suppressing protein

Carnegie Mellon-led team identifies structure of tumor-suppressing protein
2015-08-20
An international group of researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicists Mathias Lösche and Frank Heinrich have established the structure of an important tumor suppressing protein, PTEN. Their findings provide new insights into how the protein regulates cell growth and how mutations in the gene that encodes the protein can lead to cancer. The study is published online in Structure, and will appear in the Oct. 6 issue. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a known tumor suppressing protein that is encoded by the PTEN gene. When expressed normally, the ...

'Memory region' of the brain also involved in conflict resolution

2015-08-20
The hippocampus in the brain's temporal lobe is responsible for more than just long-term memory. Researchers have for the first time demonstrated that it is also involved in quick and successful conflict resolution. The team headed by Prof Dr Nikolai Axmacher from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB), together with colleagues from the University Hospital of Bonn as well as in Aachen and Birmingham, reported in the journal "Current Biology". Decision conflicts occur often in everyday life In their everyday life, people are constantly confronted with decision conflicts, ...

Study examines breast cancer mortality after ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosis

2015-08-20
Researchers estimate the 20-year breast cancer-specific death rate for women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ to be 3.3 percent, although the death rate is higher for women diagnosed before age 35 and for black women, according to an article published online by JAMA Oncology. Ductal carcinoma in situ breast (DCIS) cancer, which is also referred to as stage 0 breast cancer, accounts for about 20 percent of the breast cancers detected through mammography. Some women with DCIS experience a second breast cancer (DCIS or invasive) and a small proportion of patients ...

People with psychopathic traits are less likely to 'catch' a yawn than empathetic folks

2015-08-20
People with psychopathic characteristics are less likely to be affected by "contagious yawning" than those who are empathetic, according to a Baylor University psychology study. Yawning after spotting someone else yawn is associated with empathy and bonding, and "catching" yawns happens with many social mammals, among them humans, chimpanzees and dogs, researchers say. The study -- "Contagious yawning and psychopathy" -- involved 135 college student respondents and was published online in the journal Personality and Individual Differences. "You may yawn, even if you ...

Multiple strains of C. difficile cause severe patient outcomes

2015-08-20
NEW YORK (August 20, 2015) - No single genetic strain of the widespread Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) bacteria appears to be any more harmful than other strains, according to new research published online today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. The findings contradict previous research suggesting that the emergence of the most severe C. difficile infections (CDI) could be linked with a particular strain known as Ribotype 027 (R027). C. difficile is a highly infectious diarrhea that ...

AGA proposes alternate pathway to recertification

2015-08-20
Bethesda, MD (Aug. 19, 2015) -- Frustrated by a maintenance of certification process that doesn't improve patient care, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) this week released a proposed alternate pathway to recertification that is based on established learning theory. 1,3 It eliminates the high-stakes examination and replaces it with active, adaptive, self-directed learning modules that allow for continuous feedback. AGA shared the proposed pathway with the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM), which runs the current maintenance of certification ...

Daycare doesn't lead to aggressive behavior in toddlers

2015-08-20
Working parents often worry about sending their toddlers to daycare. But the results of a new study that tracked almost 1,000 Norwegian children enrolled in daycare indicate that working parents can breathe a sigh of relief: The amount of time children spent in daycare had little impact on aggressive behavior. The study is published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. "From a public perspective, our findings are important because they should help ease parents' fears about the potential harms of early non-parental child care," ...

NASA's GPM Satellite analyzes Tropical Storm Danny's rain structure

NASAs GPM Satellite analyzes Tropical Storm Dannys rain structure
2015-08-20
Tropical Storm Danny became the fourth named storm of the season on August 18 when it formed in the central Atlantic about 1,660 miles east of the Windward Islands. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite passed over Danny the next day and analyzed the structure of its rainfall. Danny originated from an African easterly wave that moved off of the coast of Africa 4 days earlier on the 14th of August. Storms that form in this region are known as Cape Verde storms and typically form towards the height of hurricane season. In a typical season, ...

Ductal carcinoma in situ carries a higher risk of death than previously thought

2015-08-20
TORONTO, ON, August 20, 2015 - Women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are twice as likely to die from breast cancer compared to the general U.S. population, according to a new study led by Dr. Steven Narod. "Our work shows that DCIS has more in common with small invasive cancers than previously thought," explains Dr. Narod, a scientist with Women's College Research Institute and a professor with the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto. "In these cases, we've found that there's an inherent potential for DCIS to spread to other ...

Afatinib: Added benefit in certain mutations confirmed

2015-08-20
Afatinib (trade name: Giotrif) has been approved since September 2013 for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating EGF receptor mutations who have not been treated with an EGF receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI). After a first early benefit assessment in February 2014, the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) now reexamined whether the drug offers an added benefit over the appropriate comparator therapy. The new benefit assessment was conducted because a ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

How your brain decides blame and punishment -- and how it can be changed

Uniquely human brain region enables punishment decisions

Pinpointing punishment

Chapman University publishes research on attractiveness and mating

E-cigarettes: Special issue from Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Placental problems in early pregnancy associated with 5-fold increased risk of OB & fetal disorders

UT study: Invasive brood parasites a threat to native bird species

Criminals acquire guns through social connections

Restoring ocean health

Report: Cancer remains leading cause of death in US Hispanics

Twin study suggests genetic factors contribute to insomnia in adults

To be fragrant or not: Why do some male hairstreak butterflies lack scent organs?

International team discovers natural defense against HIV

Bolivian biodiversity observatory takes its first steps

Choice of college major influences lifetime earnings more than simply getting a degree

Dominant strain of drug-resistant MRSA decreases in hospitals, but persists in community

Synthetic biology needs robust safety mechanisms before real world application

US defense agencies increase investment in federal synthetic biology research

Robots help to map England's only deep-water Marine Conservation Zone

Mayo researchers identify protein -- may predict who will respond to PD-1 immunotherapy for melanoma

How much water do US fracking operations really use?

New approach to mammograms could improve reliability

The influence of citizen science grows despite some resistance

Unlocking secrets of how fossils form

What happens on the molecular level when smog gets into the lungs?

Using ultrasound to clean medical instruments

Platinum and iron oxide working together get the job done

Tiny silica particles could be used to repair damaged teeth, research shows

A quantum lab for everyone

No way? Charity's logo may influence perception of food in package

[Press-News.org] The human genome: A complex orchestra
Press-News.org is a service of DragonFly Company. All Rights Reserved.
Issuers of news releases are solely responsible for the accuracy of their content.