Contact Information:

Media Contact

Natasha Pinol
scipak@aaas.org
202-326-6440

Twitter: AAAS

http://www.aaas.org




Kredyty mieszkaniowe Kredyty mieszkaniowe

Sprawdź aktualny ranking najlepszych kredytów mieszkaniowych w Polsce - atrakcyjne kredytowanie nieruchomości.

PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION
RSS - Press News Release
Add Press Release

Predator-prey pattern consistent across diverse ecosystems


Predator-prey pattern consistent across diverse ecosystems
2015-09-03
(Press-News.org) This news release is available in Japanese.

Ecological communities around the world are richly varied, but a new study finds that many of these diverse communities follow an unexpected, yet consistent pattern: where prey are abundant, there are not proportionally more predators. Instead, as prey biomass increases, the ratio of predator-to-prey biomass decreases. This pattern was systematically identified across different areas, including grasslands, forests, lakes, and oceans, revealing an underlying structural organization of ecosystems. Pinpointing underlying structures such as this one is important as such structures regulate many of the goods and services that ecosystems provide, such as carbon sequestration and food production, Just Cebrian explains in a related Perspective. To examine ecological trends on a grand scale, Ian Hatton et al. analyzed biomass and production measurements of tens of thousands of populations across 2,260 ecosystems in 1,512 distinct locations globally. The authors note a clear pattern of biomass scaling, with an exponent consistently near ¾, where there the biomass of predators is threefold less than the biomass of prey. Similar changes are also observed when comparing per capita productivity and biomass, implying that in the absence of predators, prey populations increase if food is available, but with an ever-diminishing tendency. The authors suggest that competition for resources and other negative interactions among prey species may be contributing to the sublinear scaling observed.

INFORMATION:

Article #8: "The predator-prey power law: Biomass scaling across terrestrial and aquatic biomes," by I.A. Hatton; T.J. Davies at McGill University in Montréal, QC, Canada; K.S. McCann; J.M. Fryxell at University of Guelph in Guelph, ON, Canada; M. Smerlak at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, ON, Canada; A.R.E. Sinclair at University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC, Canada; A.R.E. Sinclair at Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute in Arusha, Tanzania; M. Loreau at CNRS in Moulis, France.


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Predator-prey pattern consistent across diverse ecosystems Predator-prey pattern consistent across diverse ecosystems 2 Predator-prey pattern consistent across diverse ecosystems 3

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Mutation protects plants against harmful explosive, TNT

Mutation protects plants against harmful explosive, TNT
2015-09-03
This news release is available in Japanese. Researchers have identified a mutation in plants that allows them to break down TNT, an explosive that has become highly prevalent in soil in the last century, particularly at manufacturing waste sites, mines, and military conflict zones. TNT, or 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a toxic and persistent environmental pollutant that accumulates in the roots of plants, inhibiting growth and development. The identification of a plant mechanism that not only evades the negative impacts of TNT, but breaks down this harmful substance could ...

Special edition: Science in Iran

Special edition: Science in Iran
2015-09-03
This news release is available in Japanese. A special news edition, Science in Iran, looks closely at the scientific challenges and triumphs of a country that has faced international isolation in recent years. Following an exclusive interview about the Iran nuclear deal with Ali Akbar Salehi, president of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Science International News Editor Richard Stone delves further into the state of Iran's scientific endeavors. Decades of economic sanctions have deprived Iranian scientists of critical scientific resources and collaboration. ...

Fighting explosives pollution with plants

2015-09-03
Biologists at the University of York have taken an important step in making it possible to clean millions of hectares of land contaminated by explosives. A team from the Centre for Novel Agricultural Products (CNAP) in the University's Department of Biology has unravelled the mechanism of TNT toxicity in plants raising the possibility of a new approach to explosives remediation technology. TNT has become an extensive global pollutant over the last 100 years and there are mounting concerns over its toxicity to biological systems. The study, which is published in Science, ...

Growing up on a farm provides protection against asthma and allergies

2015-09-03
Researchers at VIB (a leading life sciences institute in Flanders, Belgium) and Ghent University have successfully established a causal relationship between exposure to so-called farm dust and protection against asthma and allergies. This breakthrough discovery is a major step forward towards the development of an asthma vaccine. The results of the research were published in the leading journal Science. It is commonly known that drinking raw cow's milk can provide protection against allergies. A 14-member research team, led by professors Bart Lambrecht and Hamida Hammad ...

Making the easiest judgments first

2015-09-03
Evidence from a new study published in PLOS Computational Biology by researchers from Brown University and led by Assistant Professor Thomas Serre suggests that when we analyze scenery we simply make the easiest judgments first, rather than following a priority order of categories. There are many ways we understand scenery. Is it navigable or obstructed? Natural or man-made? A face or not a face? In previous experiments, researchers have found that some categorization tasks seem special, in that they occur earlier than others, leading to a hypothesis that the brain has ...

Huddling rats behave as a 'super-organism'

2015-09-03
Rodents huddle together when it is cold, they separate when it is warm, and at moderate temperatures they cycle between the warm center and the cold edges of the group. In a new study published in PLOS Computational Biology, Jonathan Glancy, Roderich Gross, Jim Stone and Stuart Wilson from the University of Sheffield found they could simulate huddling by assuming simply that touching individuals in turn brings their temperatures closer to an ideal body temperature. According to the model, these selfish individual behaviours improved the ability of the whole group to regulate ...

Why aren't there more lions?

Why arent there more lions?
2015-09-03
Why aren't there more lions? That was what puzzled McGill PhD student Ian Hatton, when he started looking at the proportion of predators to prey across dozens of parks in East and Southern Africa. In this case, the answer had nothing to do with isolated human hunters. The parks were teeming with potentially tasty treats for the lions. So one might imagine that the population of lions in each park would increase to match the available prey. Instead, what Hatton and the McGill-led team discovered was that, in a very systematic way, in crowded settings, prey reproduced less ...

New role for an old protein: Cancer causer

2015-09-03
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (September 3, 2015) - A protein known to play a role in transporting the molecular contents of normal cells into and out of various intracellular compartments can also turn such cells cancerous by stimulating a key growth-control pathway. By conducting a large-scale search for regulators of the signaling pathway known as PI3K/AKT, which promotes cell survival, growth, and proliferation--and which is highly active in cancer cells--researchers at Whitehead Institute and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center have implicated the protein RAB35 in the oncogenic ...

California rising

California rising
2015-09-03
For millions of years, the Pacific and North American plates have been sliding past -- and crashing into -- one another. This ongoing conflict creates uplift, the geological phenomenon that formed mountains along the west coast. A new analysis by UC Santa Barbara earth scientist Alex Simms demonstrates that the Pacific coastlines of North America are not uplifting as rapidly as previously thought. The results appear in the journal Geological Society of America Bulletin. "Current models overestimate uplift rates by an average of 40 percent," said Simms, an associate ...

NASA's GPM sees Hurricane Jimena's eroding eyewall

NASAs GPM sees Hurricane Jimenas eroding eyewall
2015-09-03
Hurricane Jimena, a once powerful Category 4 storm with maximum sustained winds estimated at 140 mph by the National Hurricane Center, has continued to weaken well east of Hawaii. The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite analyzed rainfall rates and saw the eyewall was eroding. The eyewall of a hurricane contains a storm's most damaging winds and intense rainfall. It consists of a vertical wall of powerful thunderstorms circling a hurricane's open eye. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. GPM captured data on Jimena ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

How your brain decides blame and punishment -- and how it can be changed

Uniquely human brain region enables punishment decisions

Pinpointing punishment

Chapman University publishes research on attractiveness and mating

E-cigarettes: Special issue from Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Placental problems in early pregnancy associated with 5-fold increased risk of OB & fetal disorders

UT study: Invasive brood parasites a threat to native bird species

Criminals acquire guns through social connections

Restoring ocean health

Report: Cancer remains leading cause of death in US Hispanics

Twin study suggests genetic factors contribute to insomnia in adults

To be fragrant or not: Why do some male hairstreak butterflies lack scent organs?

International team discovers natural defense against HIV

Bolivian biodiversity observatory takes its first steps

Choice of college major influences lifetime earnings more than simply getting a degree

Dominant strain of drug-resistant MRSA decreases in hospitals, but persists in community

Synthetic biology needs robust safety mechanisms before real world application

US defense agencies increase investment in federal synthetic biology research

Robots help to map England's only deep-water Marine Conservation Zone

Mayo researchers identify protein -- may predict who will respond to PD-1 immunotherapy for melanoma

How much water do US fracking operations really use?

New approach to mammograms could improve reliability

The influence of citizen science grows despite some resistance

Unlocking secrets of how fossils form

What happens on the molecular level when smog gets into the lungs?

Using ultrasound to clean medical instruments

Platinum and iron oxide working together get the job done

Tiny silica particles could be used to repair damaged teeth, research shows

A quantum lab for everyone

No way? Charity's logo may influence perception of food in package

[Press-News.org] Predator-prey pattern consistent across diverse ecosystems
Press-News.org is a service of DragonFly Company. All Rights Reserved.
Issuers of news releases are solely responsible for the accuracy of their content.