Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, which include the subtypes mGluR2 and mGluR3, have been known targets for addiction treatment. Unfortunately, mGluR2/3 agonists studied to date have shown important limitations, including development of tolerance and decreasing food intake along with drug intake. Thus, scientists have been working to identify novel targets with selective compounds that would have a more promising therapeutic profile.
The first study, by Dr. Michael Scofield and colleagues, investigated whether non-neuronal glial cells regulate the activity of brain circuits that mediate relapse to cocaine. They used a molecular switch called Gq-DREADD to activate glial release of the chemical messenger glutamate in a key reward center of the brain, the nucleus accumbens. The authors found that activating glutamate release prevented relapse to cocaine use in rodents who previously self-administered this drug. They also found that the effect of glial activation was mediated by stimulating mGluR2 and mGluR3.
Scofield, from the Medical University of South Carolina, explained further, "Our findings show that glutamate homeostasis regulated by astroglia can profoundly alter neuronal circuitry, in particular the brain synapses mediating relapse to cocaine."
The second and third studies reported encouraging anti-addiction effects of AZD8529, an AstraZeneca drug, which works by selectively enhancing the stimulation of mGluR2.
Dr. Zuzana Justinova, from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and colleagues reported that AZD8529 reduced nicotine self-administration and prevented relapse to nicotine seeking following withdrawal in squirrel monkeys. They also showed that this drug decreases the ability of nicotine to stimulate dopamine release in brain regions implicated in reward in rodents.
"Our results from non-human primate models suggest that AZD8529 could provide a novel safe and effective treatment for nicotine addiction," said Justinova.
A different research team, led by Daniele Caprioli also at the National Institute on Drug Abuse, discovered that AZD8529 reduced cravings to self-administer methamphetamine in rodents following voluntary abstinence. This novel animal model importantly differs from the more traditional model of experimenter-forced abstinence, as it more closely simulates the human condition of relapse after periods of voluntary abstinence associated with addiction treatment.
Caprioli said, "Our results suggest that AZD8529 can serve as a novel treatment for decreasing methamphetamine relapse and craving in humans with methamphetamine addiction."
Altogether, these three studies conducted using different addictive substances suggest that the use of compounds that selectively target mGluR2 have the potential to successfully treat addiction.
Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry, summarized, "It is unusual to have three papers supporting a new treatment mechanism emerge at the same time. Enhancing mGluR2 function may hold promise for the treatment of addiction."
Notes for editors
The articles are:
"Gq-DREADD Selectively Initiates Glial Glutamate Release and Inhibits Cue-induced Cocaine Seeking" by Michael D. Scofield, Heather A. Boger, Rachel J. Smith, Hao Li, Philip G. Haydon, and Peter W. Kalivas (doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.02.016);
"The Novel Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Positive Allosteric Modulator, AZD8529, Decreases Nicotine Self-Administration and Relapse in Squirrel Monkeys" by Zuzana Justinova, Leigh V. Panlilio, Maria E. Secci, Godfrey H. Redhi, Charles W. Schindler, Alan J. Cross, Ladislav Mrzljak, Amy Medd, Yavin Shaham, and Steven R. Goldberg (doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.01.014)
"Effect of the Novel Positive Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 AZD8529 on Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving After Prolonged Voluntary Abstinence in a Rat Model" by Daniele Caprioli, Marco Venniro, Tamara Zeric, Xuan Li, Sweta Adhikary, Rajtarun Madangopal, Nathan J. Marchant, Federica Lucantonio, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Jennifer M. Bossert, and Yavin Shaham (doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.02.018).
The articles appear in Biological Psychiatry, Volume 78, Issue 7 (October 1, 2015), published by Elsevier.
Full text of the articles is available to credentialed journalists upon request; contact Rhiannon Bugno at +1 214 648 0880 or Biol.Psych@utsouthwestern.edu.
Journalists wishing to interview the authors may contact: Michael D. Scofield, Ph.D., at firstname.lastname@example.org, +1 843 876 2246; Zuzana Justinova, M.D., Ph.D., at email@example.com, +1 443 740 2522; and Daniele Caprioli, Ph.D., at firstname.lastname@example.org, +1 443 740 2710. The authors' affiliations, and disclosures of financial and conflicts of interests are available in their respective articles.
John H. Krystal, M.D., is Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the Yale University School of Medicine, Chief of Psychiatry at Yale-New Haven Hospital, and a research psychiatrist at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System. His disclosures of financial and conflicts of interests are available here.
About Biological Psychiatry Biological Psychiatry is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, whose purpose is to promote excellence in scientific research and education in fields that investigate the nature, causes, mechanisms and treatments of disorders of thought, emotion, or behavior. In accord with this mission, this peer-reviewed, rapid-publication, international journal publishes both basic and clinical contributions from all disciplines and research areas relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of major psychiatric disorders.
The journal publishes novel results of original research which represent an important new lead or significant impact on the field, particularly those addressing genetic and environmental risk factors, neural circuitry and neurochemistry, and important new therapeutic approaches. Reviews and commentaries that focus on topics of current research and interest are also encouraged.
Biological Psychiatry is one of the most selective and highly cited journals in the field of psychiatric neuroscience. It is ranked 6th out of 140 Psychiatry titles and 10th out of 252 Neurosciences titles in the Journal Citations Reports® published by Thomson Reuters. The 2014 Impact Factor score for Biological Psychiatry is 10.255.
About Elsevier Elsevier is a world-leading provider of information solutions that enhance the performance of science, health, and technology professionals, empowering them to make better decisions, deliver better care, and sometimes make groundbreaking discoveries that advance the boundaries of knowledge and human progress. Elsevier provides web-based, digital solutions -- among them ScienceDirect, Scopus, Elsevier Research Intelligence and ClinicalKey -- and publishes over 2,500 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and more than 33,000 book titles, including a number of iconic reference works. Elsevier is part of RELX Group plc, a world-leading provider of information solutions for professional customers across industries. http://www.elsevier.com