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Emotional behavior altered after multiple exposures to anesthesia during infancy

2015-09-03
Repeated exposure to anesthesia early in life causes alterations in emotional behavior that may persist long-term, according to a study from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in collaboration with the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, and published in the Online First edition of Anesthesiology, the official medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists®. Each year, approximately one million children under the age of four undergo surgery with general anesthesia, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrospective ...

Study finds increased risk of MGUS in Vietnam Vets exposed to Agent Orange

2015-09-03
A study that used stored blood samples from U.S. Air Force personnel who conducted aerial herbicide spray missions of Agent Orange during the Vietnam war found a more than 2-fold increased risk of the precursor to multiple myeloma known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), according to an article published online by JAMA Oncology. While the cause of MGUS and multiple myeloma (plasma cell cancer) remains largely unclear, studies have reported an elevated risk of multiple myeloma among farmers and other agricultural workers and pesticides have ...

Customizing 3-D printing

2015-09-03
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- The technology behind 3-D printing is growing more and more common, but the ability to create designs for it is not. Any but the simplest designs require expertise with computer-aided design (CAD) applications, and even for the experts, the design process is immensely time consuming. Researchers at MIT and the Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya in Israel aim to change that, with a new system that automatically turns CAD files into visual models that users can modify in real time, simply by moving virtual sliders on a Web page. Once the design meets ...

Variations in cell programs control cancer and normal stem cells

2015-09-03
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (September 3, 2015) - In the breast, cancer stem cells and normal stem cells can arise from different cell types but tap into distinct yet related stem cell programs, according to Whitehead Institute researchers. The differences between these stem cell programs may be significant enough to be exploited by future therapeutics. Deadly tumor-initiating cells seed metastases throughout the body and cause relapses in patients. Whether these tumor-initiating cells can also be referred to as stem cells, specifically, cancer stem cells, has been up for debate. ...

Babies benefit from parenting classes even before birth

2015-09-03
A brief series of classes to help first-time parents better support each other through the often stressful transition to parenthood has a positive effect on birth outcomes as well, according to health researchers. A decade ago Mark Feinberg, research professor at the Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center for the Promotion of Human Development, Penn State, developed Family Foundations, a series of classes for expectant parents. In two research trials, the program was shown to improve the way parents support each other -- to reduce parental stress, depression and anxiety; ...

Clues from ancient Maya reveal lasting impact on environment

2015-09-03
AUSTIN, Texas -- Evidence from the tropical lowlands of Central America reveals how Maya activity more than 2,000 years ago not only contributed to the decline of their environment but continues to influence today's environmental conditions, according to researchers at The University of Texas at Austin. Synthesizing old and new data, researchers were the first to show the full extent of the "Mayacene" as a microcosm of the early anthropocene -- a period when human activity began greatly affecting environmental conditions. "Most popular sources talk about the anthropocene ...

Targeting newly discovered pathway sensitizes tumors to radiation and chemotherapy

2015-09-03
In some patients, aggressive cancers can become resistant to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. In a paper published in the journal Nature Communications, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine researchers identified a pathway that causes the resistance and a new therapeutic drug that targets this pathway. "It was previously known that RAF (a family of proteins that regulate cellular signaling) governs resistance to therapies. We discovered an undescribed role for RAF and learned precisely how it occurs in a broad range of cancers," said lead author ...

Acupuncture reduces hot flashes in breast cancer survivors

2015-09-03
PHILADELPHIA -- Acupuncture may be a viable treatment for women experiencing hot flashes as a result of estrogen-targeting therapies to treat breast cancer, according to a new study from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Hot flashes are particularly severe and frequent in breast cancer survivors, but current FDA-approved remedies for these unpleasant episodes, such as hormone replacement therapies are off-limits to breast cancer survivors because they include estrogen. The results of the study are published this week in the ...

Back to school and back to sleep

2015-09-03
Montreal, September 3, 2015 -- Sleep matters for kids, especially when they are stressed. A new study led by researchers Jinshia Ly, Jennifer J. McGrath and Jean-Philippe Gouin from Concordia University's Centre for Clinical Research in Health and the PERFORM Centre shows that poor sleep might explain how stress impacts health in kids. A good night's sleep Getting a good night's sleep might buffer the impact of stress on kids' cortisol level, which is a hormone produced in the adrenal gland to regulate the body's cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems. While short-term ...

Not on my watch: Chimp swats film crew's drone

Not on my watch: Chimp swats film crews drone
2015-09-03
Cool. Calm. And oh, so calculated. That's how a chimpanzee living in the Royal Burgers' Zoo in the Netherlands set out to swat an aerial drone that was filming her group. In an article in the journal Primates published by Springer, Jan van Hooff and Bas Lukkenaar explain it as yet another example of chimpanzees' make-do attitude to using whatever is on hand as tools. The incident happened earlier this year, on 10 April, when a Dutch television crew was filming at the zoo in Arnhem. The idea was to use a drone to film the chimpanzees in their compound from different close-up ...

Greedy kestrel provides first proof of bird breeding in Ancient Egypt

2015-09-03
Amsterdam, September 3, 2015 - 3D imaging of a mummified kestrel that died due to forced overeating provides evidence that the ancient Egyptians bred birds of prey as offerings for the gods, according to a new study published in the Journal of Archaeological Science. The digital CT imaging revealed that the kestrel was force-fed its last meal - a mouse - suggesting it was kept in captivity. This is the first evidence to point to mass breeding of raptors as offerings to gods. The researchers behind the study, from the American University in Cairo, Stellenbosch University ...

Elsevier's reviewer recognition platform expands its functionality

2015-09-03
Amsterdam, September 3, 2015 - Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, has announced that its Reviewer Recognition platform has launched a new functionality which enables reviewers to list their entire review history, including their reviews for non-Elsevier journals, in one place online. It also allows them to share their Reviewer Page publically - increasing visibility and recognition of their work. Through the Reviewer Recognition platform, Elsevier reviewers already have access to a personal review ...

SA fossil is the long-awaited link to the evolution of turtles

SA fossil is the long-awaited link to the evolution of turtles
2015-09-03
A 260-million-year-old fossil species found in South Africa's Karoo Basin continues to provide information into the murky origins of turtles whose evolution fascinates scientists. The fossil of an extinct reptile, named Eunotosaurus africanus, is the earliest known branch of the turtle tree of life. "Eunotosaurus is a critical link connecting modern turtles to their evolutionary past," says Dr Gaberiel Bever an Honorary Research Associate at Wits University's Evolutionary Studies Institute (ESI) and scientist at the New York Institute of Technology. Previous studies ...

Historical data hold secrets of 1 of UK's favorite fish

2015-09-03
UK fisheries survey logbooks from the 1930s to 1950s have been digitised for the first time, revealing how cod responded to changing temperatures in the last century. Scientists at the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas) and the University of Exeter found that at the time, the warm seas experienced around Norway benefitted the cod, similar to the conditions there today. Most cod eaten by the UK comes from northern seas including the Barents Sea around Norway, because the stocks there at the moment are at record highs. Cod stocks were also ...

Pollution dispersion in cities improved by trees, research shows

Pollution dispersion in cities improved by trees, research shows
2015-09-03
Study examines trees in Leicester City Pollution levels for pedestrians reduced by seven per cent in city environment Highlights importance of trees in urban planning decisions Trees in cities throughout the UK could be significantly improving the quality of the air we breathe by decreasing pollution levels for pedestrians, researchers from the University of Leicester have revealed. The team from the University of Leicester's Department of Physics and Astronomy found that trees have a regionally beneficial impact by increasing turbulence and reducing ambient ...

UNH research: Crop rotation boosts soil microbes, benefits plant growth

UNH research: Crop rotation boosts soil microbes, benefits plant growth
2015-09-03
In the first study of its kind, new research from the University of New Hampshire shows that crop rotations, in isolation from other management factors, can increase the functions performed by soil microbial communities that benefit plant growth. The study was conducted by researchers with the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station. The study was conducted by Lisa Tiemann, former postdoctoral student, Stuart Grandy, who was Tiemann's postdoctoral advisor, and Marshall McDaniel, former postdoctoral student of Grandy, all of the UNH Department of Natural Resources ...

Do antipsychotic medications affect cortical thinning?

2015-09-03
Philadelphia, PA, September 3, 2015 - People diagnosed with schizophrenia critically rely upon treatment with antipsychotic medications to manage their symptoms and help them function at home and in the workplace. But despite their benefits, antipsychotic medications might also have some negative effects on brain structure or function when taken for long periods of time. In fact, "the role played by antipsychotic treatment on the pathophysiologic trajectory of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia is currently a matter of lively debate," explains Dr. Antonio Vita, Professor ...

Metallic gels produce tunable light emission

2015-09-03
CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--Researchers at MIT have developed a family of materials that can emit light of precisely controlled colors -- even pure white light -- and whose output can be tuned to respond to a wide variety of external conditions. The materials could find a variety of uses in detecting chemical and biological compounds, or mechanical and thermal conditions. The material, a metallic polymer gel made using rare-earth elements, is described in a paper in the Journal of the American Chemical Society by assistant professor of materials science and engineering Niels Holten-Andersen, ...

X-rays reveal fossil secrets

2015-09-03
A sophisticated imaging technique has allowed scientists to virtually peer inside a 10-million-year-old sea urchin, uncovering a treasure trove of hidden fossils. The international team of researchers from the United Kingdom, Spain and Germany, including Dr Imran Rahman from the University of Bristol, studied the exceptional specimen with the aid of state-of-the-art X-ray computed tomography (CT). Their results show that the sea urchin fossil was riddled with borings made by shelled invertebrates called bivalves. These fossilized boring bivalves were preserved inside ...

DC needle exchange program prevented 120 new cases of HIV in 2 years

2015-09-03
WASHINGTON, DC (September 3, 2015)-- The District of Columbia's needle exchange program prevented 120 new cases of HIV infection and saved an estimated $44 million over just a two-year period, according to a first-of-a-kind study published today by researchers at the Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH) at the George Washington University. "Our study adds to the evidence that needle exchange programs not only work but are cost-effective investments in the battle against HIV," says Monica S. Ruiz, PhD, MPH, an assistant research professor in ...

Drug for fungal infections in lung transplant recipients increases risk for cancer, death

2015-09-03
Voriconazole, a prescription drug commonly used to treat fungal infections in lung transplant recipients, significantly increases the risk for skin cancer and even death, according to a new study by UC San Francisco researchers. The team recommends physicians consider patient-specific factors that could modify the drug's risks and benefits, when providing care. Their study appears online Sept. 3, 2015, in the American Journal of Transplantation. "It is important for physicians to be aware of the impact of voriconazole on these outcomes," said senior author Sarah Arron, ...

Arabs or Jews, children who need pain relief in the ER get it

2015-09-03
WASHINGTON -- Children with broken bones or joint dislocations in northern Israel emergency departments received equal pain treatment, regardless of their ethnicity or the ethnicity of the nurses who treated them, even during a period of armed conflict between the two ethnic groups. An investigation of potential disparities in pediatric emergency department pain relief in northern Israel was published online today in Annals of Emergency Medicine (""Emergency Department Pain Management in Pediatric Patients with Fracture or Dislocation in a Bi-Ethnic Population"). "The ...

Hiring more minority teachers in schools gives fairer perception of discipline

2015-09-03
SAN FRANCISCO -- Black students in schools with more black teachers have more positive attitudes and higher perceptions of fairness in school discipline, according to a new study that includes a University of Kansas researcher. The study also found white students who attend schools with a higher number of minority teachers are more likely to believe discipline from school officials is fair as well. "Increasing the proportion of minority teachers in a school enhances all students' perceptions of school discipline fairness," said Don Haider-Markel, professor and chair ...

Who gets a transplant organ

2015-09-02
Imagine 12 patients who need new kidneys, and six kidneys available. How would you allocate them? New research by Rutgers social psychologists suggests your answer would depend on how the patients and their situations are presented to you. In research recently published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, Gretchen Chapman and Jeff DeWitt of Rutgers and Helen Colby of the University of California-Los Angeles found that people make dramatically different decisions about who should receive a transplant depending on whether the ...

Taking apart termite mounds

2015-09-02
As animal architects go, the average termite doesn't have many tools at their disposal - just their bodies, soil and saliva. And as guidance, variations in wind speed and direction and daily fluctuations in temperature as the sun rises and sets. Despite such limitations, the tiny insects have managed build structures that are efficiently ventilated - a challenge that human architects still struggle with. Led by L. Mahadevan, Lola England de Valpine Professor of Applied Mathematics, of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and of Physics, a team of researchers that ...
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