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Suicide-by-firearm rates shift in 2 states after changes in state gun laws

2015-09-01
A new study examining changes in gun policy in two states finds that handgun purchaser licensing requirements influence suicide rates. Researchers estimate that Connecticut's 1995 law requiring individuals to obtain a permit or license to purchase a handgun after passing a background check was associated with a 15.4 percent reduction in firearm suicide rates, while Missouri's repeal of its handgun purchaser licensing law in 2007 was associated with a 16.1 percent increase in firearm suicide rates. The study, from researchers with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy ...

Saving oysters by digging up their past

2015-09-01
ITHACA, N.Y. - Restoring oyster reefs is not an easy task, but by digging deep and examining centuries-old reefs, marine restoration professionals may stand a better chance at bringing oysters back, said a new Cornell University and Paleontological Research Institution (PRI) study published in the August issue of the Journal of Shellfish Research. Stephen R. Durham, a Cornell doctoral student in the field of earth and atmospheric sciences, with Gregory P. Dietl, curator of Cenozoic invertebrates at the Cornell-affiliated PRI and a Cornell adjunct assistant professor of ...

Simplified handwashing steps help reduce sickness-related absenteeism for kids: Study

2015-09-01
Washington, DC, September 1, 2015 - A simplified handwashing routine, with five steps instead of seven, helps to reduce sickness-related absenteeism for students with mild intellectual disability (MID), according to a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). The study was conducted in two special education schools in Hong Kong. Researchers from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University developed a 12-week handwashing intervention ...

Hysterectomy can be safely combined with cosmetic surgery for 'hanging abdomen'

2015-09-01
September 1, 2015 - For women undergoing hysterectomy, removal of "hanging" abdominal fat and skin--a cosmetic procedure called panniculectomy--can be performed at the same surgery without increasing the risk of complications, reports a study in the September issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). "This is among the best evidence to date regarding 30-day risk profiles, and the data suggests that the complication rates are comparable for patients undergoing combined hysterectomy ...

Gene may predict severity of post-traumatic stress disorder

2015-09-01
(Boston)--A gene linked in previous research, appears to predict more severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as well as a thinner cortex in regions of the brain critical for regulating strong emotions and coping with stressful experiences. This study is believed to be the first to show that the spindle and kinetochore-associated complex subunit 2 (SKA2) gene may play a role in the development of PTSD. Led by researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), the National Center for PTSD and the Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress ...

First global antineutrino emission map highlights Earth's energy budget

2015-09-01
The neutrino and its antimatter cousin, the antineutrino, are the tiniest subatomic particles known to science. These particles are byproducts of nuclear reactions within stars (including our sun), supernovae, black holes and human-made nuclear reactors. They also result from radioactive decay processes deep within the Earth, where radioactive heat and the heat left over from the planet's formation fuels plate tectonics, volcanoes and Earth's magnetic field. Now, a team of geologists and physicists has generated the world's first global map of antineutrino emissions. ...

Diabetic retinopathy screening for children with type 1 diabetes should start later

Diabetic retinopathy screening for children with type 1 diabetes should start later
2015-09-01
A new study has found that the occurrence of advanced forms of a diabetic eye disease remains low among children living with diabetes, regardless of how long they have had the disease or their ability to keep blood sugar levels controlled. Researchers are therefore recommending that most children with type 1 diabetes delay annual diabetic retinopathy screenings until age 15, or 5 years after their diabetes diagnosis, whichever occurs later. Their findings were published online today in Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. It is well established ...

'Bacterial litmus test' provides inexpensive measurement of micronutrients

Bacterial litmus test provides inexpensive measurement of micronutrients
2015-09-01
A bacterium engineered to produce different pigments in response to varying levels of a micronutrient in blood samples could give health officials an inexpensive way to detect nutritional deficiencies in resource-limited areas of the world. This "bacterial litmus test," which currently measures levels of zinc, would require no electrical equipment and make results visible as simple color changes. More than a billion people worldwide may be at risk for adequate zinc intake, but measuring zinc levels in blood samples currently requires sophisticated testing equipment not ...

Reading emotions in a second language

2015-09-01
In the "NeverEnding Story", Bastian feels so involved in the narration that he experiences the same emotions as the characters (and in the end he really enters the book). What happens to the main character of Micheal Ende's book is exactly what happens to each of us when we read a novel or a short story: we literally replicate the physiological processes and emotions of the characters described in the text. Francesco Foroni, research scientist at the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) of Trieste, already demonstrated this phenomenon a few years ago in a study ...

The timing of sleep just as important as quantity

2015-09-01
PULLMAN, Wash.--Washington State University researchers have found that the timing of an animal's sleep can be just as important as how much sleeps it gets. Ilia Karatsoreos, an assistant professor in WSU's Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, shifted mice from their usual cycle of sleeping and waking and saw that, while they got enough sleep, it was of poorer quality. The animals also had a disrupted immune response, leaving them more open to illness. Most sleep research focuses on the effects of sleep deprivation or the overall amount of sleep an animal ...

Understanding the deep sea is key to a sustainable blue economy

2015-09-01
A multi-disciplinary group of European researchers spanning natural science, socio-economics and law have joined forces to assess the current landscape of deep-sea research and investment in Europe. Once considered remote and inaccessible, commercial interest to exploit the deep sea (1) is rising due to economic drivers and technology developments. However, exploitation activities in the deep sea remain highly contentious, particularly regarding the potential risks and environmental impacts associated with such activities. A consultation of deep-sea stakeholders spanning ...

How does an insecticide treated bed net actually work?

2015-09-01
New research from LSTM has revealed precisely how insecticide-treated bed nets are so effective against malaria mosquitoes. Communities in the poorest countries are the most vulnerable to malaria and 90% of all malaria deaths occur in Africa. Safe, simple and affordable, long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are very effective in preventing malaria and have played a major part in reducing malaria deaths in Africa by over 50% since 2000 (WHO). However, as very little is known about how mosquitoes interact with nets or how LLINs do their job so effectively, how they ...

How to get rid of a satellite after its retirement

How to get rid of a satellite after its retirement
2015-09-01
Researchers at University of La Rioja (Spain) have developed a new method to eliminate artificial satellites in Highly Elliptical Orbits when they finish their mission. The methodology, which allows for a reduction of both cost and risk, has been tested with the European Space Agency INTEGRAL mission, which will re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere in order to disintegrate in 2029. The problem of space debris is one of the main challenges that aerospace engineers have to face, due to the danger it poses to satellites. In this context, members of the Scientific Computing ...

New peer-reviewed study rewrites genetic history of sheep

2015-09-01
BEIJING, CHINA (1 September 2015)--At a time when the price of mutton is climbing and wool crashing, a groundbreaking new study has used advanced genetic sequencing technology to rewrite the history of sheep breeding and trading along the ancient Silk Road--insights that can help contemporary herders in developing countries preserve or recover valuable traits crucial to their food and economic security. The new findings regarding one of the first animals ever domesticated will be published in the October print edition of the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. They ...

CU Denver study shows smaller cities in developing world often unprepared for disaster

2015-09-01
DENVER (Sept. 1, 2015) - While many planners focus on the threat of natural disasters to major metropolises around the world, a new study from the University of Colorado Denver shows smaller cities are often even less equipped to handle such catastrophes. "Small cities are often far away from where decisions get made and struggle to insert themselves into the agenda of decision-making bodies," said study author Andrew Rumbach, PhD, an assistant professor at the CU Denver College of Architecture and Planning, a major center of timely, topical and relevant research. "When ...

Butterfly wings help break the status quo in gas sensing

2015-09-01
The unique properties found in the stunning iridescent wings of a tropical blue butterfly could hold the key to developing new highly selective gas detection sensors. Pioneering new research by a team of international scientists, including researchers from the University of Exeter, has replicated the surface chemistry found in the iridescent scales of the Morpho butterfly to create an innovative gas sensor. The ground-breaking findings could help inspire new designs for sensors that could be used in a range of sectors, including medical diagnostics, industry, and the ...

New NGA global map advances R&D in geophysics and nonproliferation

2015-09-01
A team of researchers led by scientists at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency published a new map Sept. 1 that characterizes the Earth's radioactivity and offers new and potential future applications for basic science research and nonproliferation efforts. The Antineutrino Global Map 2015, or AGM2015, is an unprecedented experimentally-informed model of the Earth's natural and manmade antineutrino flux. The map uses open-source geophysical data sets and publicly available international antineutrino detection observational data to depict varying levels of radioactivity ...

Most CRT-P patients would not benefit from addition of defibrillator

2015-09-01
London, UK - 1 Sept 2015: Most patients with a cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) pacemaker would not benefit from the addition of a defibrillator, according to results from the CeRtiTuDe cohort study presented for the first time today at ESC Congress1 and published in European Heart Journal.2 "The choice between CRT with (CRT-D) or without (CRT-P) a defibrillator remains a contentious issue," said Professor Jean-Yves Le Heuzey, cardiologist at Georges Pompidou Hospital, René Descartes University in Paris, France. "No randomised clinical trial has been conducted ...

Which blood thinner works better during stent placement? It's still a toss-up

2015-09-01
GREAT NECK, NY - A large, ambitious contrast of blood-thinning medications used during cardiac stent placement suggests that a very expensive drug offers no clear safety benefits over a much more affordable option, according to a prominent North Shore-LIJ researcher and cardiologist. An insightful editorial in the Online First New England Journal of Medicine on Sept. 1 by Peter Berger, M.D., Senior Vice President for Clinical Research at the North Shore-LIJ Health System, addresses the controversial comparison of the blood thinners heparin and bivalirudin (known commercially ...

Full-time professional to full-time mother: A choice laden with cost

2015-09-01
London, UK (September 1, 2015) - Women leaving work to raise children have to redefine who they are, a study from the SAGE journal Human Relations finds. After exiting professional and managerial occupations, mothers are engaged in an ongoing mother/professional identity struggle, argue the researchers Shireen Kanji and Emma Cahusac. The process through which the mothers' choice is constructed as 'right' does not occur before their exit from work but manifests itself afterwards and intensifies over time, the study reveals. "Analysis of mothers' sense making reveals how ...

Carbonated drinks linked with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin

2015-09-01
London, UK - 1 Sept 2015: Carbonated beverages are associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of cardiac origin, according to results from the All-Japan Utstein Registry presented for the first time today at ESC Congress.1 The study in nearly 800 000 patients suggests that limiting consumption of carbonated beverages may be beneficial for health. "Some epidemiologic studies have shown a positive correlation between the consumption of soft drinks and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke, while other reports have demonstrated that the intake of ...

Large parks key to city success

2015-09-01
More than half the world's population now lives in cities. As numbers continue to swell, decision-makers across the globe grapple with how best to accommodate growing resident numbers while maintaining healthy urban ecosystems. Previous research has demonstrated that urban green spaces and trees yield far-reaching benefits to humans, from increased happiness and health to absorbing surface water run-off and storing carbon. Researchers have long debated whether it is better to build compact developments with large parks or nature reserves, as often found in Europe and Japan, ...

Newly engineered CAR T cells can better discriminate between cancer and normal cells

2015-09-01
A new development in engineering chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, called affinity tuning, can make the CAR T cells spare normal cells and better recognize and attack cancer cells, which may help lower the toxicity associated with this type of immunotherapy when used against solid tumors, according to a preclinical study. Many solid cancers have high levels of certain proteins such as ErbB2 and EGFR, which make them suitable targets for anticancer therapies. However, such proteins are also present at low levels in normal cells. Because of this, CAR T cells ...

Modified CAR T cells can preferentially target cancer cells and spare normal cells

2015-09-01
Engineering chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to lower their affinity for the protein epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) made the cells preferentially recognize and eliminate tumor cells that have high amounts of EGFR while sparing normal cells that have lower amounts of the protein, according to a preclinical study. CAR T cells that are currently being tested to treat B-cell malignancies target a specific protein present on leukemia and lymphoma, but these immune cells cannot distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, explained Cooper. Even though such ...

Redefining pediatric malnutrition to improve treatment

2015-09-01
In recent years, an effort has been underway to redefine malnutrition in pediatric patients to include both the acute clinical population and the more traditional ambulatory populations. Identifying and treating malnutrition in pediatric patients is important from an acute standpoint and to ensure that children have enough nutrition to reach optimal final height and development. Pediatric malnutrition in the clinical setting was recently defined by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and A.S.P.E.N. as "an imbalance between nutrient requirements and intake that results ...
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