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Delay in administration of adrenaline and survival for children with cardiac arrest

2015-08-25
Among children with in-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial nonshockable heart rhythm who received epinephrine (adrenaline), delay in administration of epinephrine was associated with a decreased chance of 24-hour survival and survival to hospital discharge, according to a study in the August 25 issue of JAMA. Approximately 16,000 children in the United States have a cardiac arrest each year, predominantly in a hospital setting. Epinephrine is recommended by both the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council in pediatric cardiac arrest. Delay ...

Genetic mutations may help predict risk of relapse, survival for leukemia patients

2015-08-25
In preliminary research, the detection of persistent leukemia-associated genetic mutations in at least 5 percent of bone marrow cells in day 30 remission samples among adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia was associated with an increased risk of relapse and reduced overall survival, according to a study in the August 25 issue of JAMA. Approximately 20 percent of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) fail to achieve remission with initial induction chemotherapy, and approximately 50 percent ultimately experience relapse after achieving complete remission. ...

Relapse, poor survival in leukemia linked to genetic mutations that persist in remission

Relapse, poor survival in leukemia linked to genetic mutations that persist in remission
2015-08-25
For patients with an often-deadly form of leukemia, new research suggests that lingering cancer-related mutations - detected after initial treatment with chemotherapy - are associated with an increased risk of relapse and poor survival. Using genetic profiling to study bone marrow samples from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), researchers found that those whose cells still carried mutations 30 days after the initiation of chemotherapy were about three times more likely to relapse and die than patients whose bone marrow was cleared of these mutations. The study, ...

415-million-year-old malformed fossil plankton reveal that heavy metal pollution might have contributed to some of the world's largest extinction events

2015-08-25
Several Palaeozoic mass extinction events during the Ordovician and Silurian periods (ca. 485 to 420 to million years ago) shaped the evolution of life on our planet. Although some of these short-lived, periodic events were responsible for eradication of up to 85% of marine species, the exact kill-mechanism responsible for these crises remains poorly understood. An international team led by Thijs Vandenbroucke (researcher at the French CNRS and invited professor at UGent) and Poul Emsbo (US Geological Survey) initiated a study to investigate a little known association ...

Pitt, Drexel, and NIH team up to study persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater

2015-08-25
PITTSBURGH--The historic outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa that began in March 2014 and has killed more than 11,000 people since, has raised new questions about the resilience of the virus and tested scientists' understanding of how to contain it. The latest discovery by a group of microbial risk-assessment and virology researchers suggests that the procedures for disposal of Ebola-contaminated liquid waste might underestimate the virus' ability to survive in wastewater. Current epidemic response procedures from both the World Health Organization and the ...

NASA sees Hurricane Loke moving north

NASA sees Hurricane Loke moving north
2015-08-25
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Hurricane Loke as it continued moving north in the Central Pacific early on August 25. At 01:10 UTC on August 25, 2015 (9:10 p.m. EDT/Aug. 24) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of Hurricane Loke. The image showed the thunderstorms wrapping around the northern quadrant of the storm from east to west of the storm's center. Despite attaining hurricane status, however, there was no visible eye although microwave data taken earlier indicated an eye. ...

Mimic woodpecker fools competing birds, but genetics expose its true identity

Mimic woodpecker fools competing birds, but genetics expose its true identity
2015-08-25
LAWRENCE -- To look tougher, a weakling might shave their head and don a black leather jacket, combat boots and a scowl that tells the world, "don't mess with me." But this kind of masquerade isn't limited to people. Researchers recently have revealed a timid South American woodpecker that evolved to assume the appearance of larger, tougher birds. Visual mimicry lets the Helmeted Woodpecker (Dryocopus galeatus) live on the threatened Atlantic forest turf of two bigger birds -- the Lineated Dryocopus lineatus and Robust (Campephilus robustus) woodpeckers -- reducing ...

Researchers study tall larkspur toxicity in cattle

2015-08-25
August 24, 2015 - In the western foothills and mountain rangelands of the U.S., wild larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are a major cause of cattle losses. For the most part, grazing cattle can self-regulate consumption of larkspurs and avoid toxicity problems. However, when cattle eat too much, too quickly, or they eat low amounts continuously, toxicity can occur. Symptoms of toxicity include muscle weakness. Cattle also can become non-ambulatory and die. In a recent study published in the Journal of Animal Science, researchers with the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research ...

Female guppies become better swimmers to escape male sexual harassment

Female guppies become better swimmers to escape male sexual harassment
2015-08-25
In the animal world, sexual reproduction can involve males attempting to entice or force females to mate with them, even if they are not initially interested. This male behaviour is driven by conflicts of interest over reproduction and exerts selective pressures on both sexes. A new study on guppies led by the universities of Glasgow and Exeter has given scientists insight into how this behaviour can lead to physiological changes, much like those in athletes who train to perform better. Dr Shaun Killen, of the University of Glasgow, said: "Sexual coercion of females ...

Catastrophic landslides post-earthquake

Catastrophic landslides post-earthquake
2015-08-25
Boulder, Colo., USA - In the last few months, it has once more become clear that large earthquakes can solicit catastrophic landsliding. In the wake of the Nepal earthquake, the landslide community has been warning of persistent and damaging mass wasting due to monsoon rainfall in the epicentral area. However, very little is actually known about the legacy of earthquakes on steep, unstable hillslopes. Using a dense time series of satellite images and air photos, Odin Marc and colleague reconstructed the history of landsliding in four mountain areas hit by large, shallow ...

Hepatitis A-like virus identified in seals

2015-08-25
Washington, DC - August 25, 2015 - Scientists in the Center for Infection and Immunity at the Mailman School of Public Health have discovered a new virus in seals that is the closest known relative of the human hepatitis A virus. The finding provides new clues on the emergence of hepatitis A. The research appears in the July/August issue of mBio, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. "Until now, we didn't know that hepatitis A had any close relatives and we thought that only humans and other primates could be infected by such viruses," ...

New Moffitt study finds black women have higher frequency of BRCA mutations than previously reported

2015-08-25
TAMPA, Fla. - Women who have inherited mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are more likely to develop breast cancer or ovarian cancer, especially at a younger age. Approximately 5 percent of women with breast cancer in the United States have mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 based on estimates in non-Hispanic white women. Moffitt Cancer Center researchers recently conducted the largest U.S. based study of BRCA mutation frequency in young black women diagnosed with breast cancer at or below age 50 and discovered they have a much higher BRCA mutation frequency than that previously ...

Is incense bad for your health?

2015-08-25
The burning of incense might need to come with a health warning. This follows the first study evaluating the health risks associated with its indoor use. The effects of incense and cigarette smoke were also compared, and made for some surprising results. The research was led by Rong Zhou of the South China University of Technology and the China Tobacco Guangdong Industrial Company in China, and is published in Springer's journal Environmental Chemistry Letters. Incense burning is a traditional and common practice in many families and in most temples in Asia. It is not ...

Smart phone not a smart choice when facing depression

2015-08-25
Depressed people who turn to their smart phones for relief may only be making things worse. A team of researchers, that included the dean of Michigan State University's College of Communication Arts and Sciences, found that people who substitute electronic interaction for the real-life human kind find little if any satisfaction. In a paper published in the journal Computers in Human Behavior, the researchers argue that relying on a mobile phone to ease one's woes just doesn't work. Using a mobile phone for temporary relief from negative emotions could worsen psychological ...

'Lazy eye' may bully the brain into altering its wiring

Lazy eye may bully the brain into altering its wiring
2015-08-25
MADISON -- Colorful and expressive, the eyes are central to the way people interact with each other, as well as take in their surroundings. That makes amblyopia -- more commonly known as "lazy eye" -- all the more obvious, but the physical manifestation of the most common cause of vision problems among children the world over is actually a brain disorder. "Most often in amblyopia patients, one eye is better at focusing," says Bas Rokers, a University of Wisconsin-Madison psychology professor. "The brain prefers the information from that eye, and pushes down the signal ...

Pregnancy is a missed opportunity for HIV-infected women to gain control over condition

Pregnancy is a missed opportunity for HIV-infected women to gain control over condition
2015-08-25
Pregnancy could be a turning point for HIV-infected women, when they have the opportunity to manage their infection, prevent transmission to their new baby and enter a long-term pattern of maintenance of HIV care after giving birth--but most HIV-infected women aren't getting that chance. That is the major message from a pair of new studies in Philadelphia, one published early online this month in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases, and the other published in July in PLOS ONE. The studies, led by a team of researchers from Drexel University and the Philadelphia Department ...

Researchers combine disciplines, computational programs to determine atomic structure

Researchers combine disciplines, computational programs to determine atomic structure
2015-08-25
A team from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Indiana University combined two techniques to determine the structure of cyanostar, a new abiological molecule that captures unwanted negative ions in solutions. When Semin Lee, a chemist and Beckman Institute postdoctoral fellow at Illinois, first created cyanostar at Indiana University, he knew the chemical properties, but couldn't determine the precise atomical structure. Lee synthesized cyanostar for its unique ability to bind with large, negatively charged ions, which could have applications such as ...

Making a mistake can be rewarding, study finds

2015-08-25
Many political leaders, scientists, educators and parents believe that failure is the best teacher. Scientists have long understood that the brain has two ways of learning. One is avoidance learning, which is a punishing, negative experience that trains the brain to avoid repeating mistakes. The other is reward-based learning, a positive, reinforcing experience in which the brain feels rewarded for reaching the right answer. A new MRI study by USC and a group of international researchers has found that having the opportunity to learn from failure can turn it into ...

Women undergoing fertility treatment can succeed with fewer hormones

2015-08-25
Since the early days of fertility treatment, women undergoing IVF treatment have had to place a hormonal gel in their vagina on a daily basis for at least 14 days after embryo transfer. The hormone is necessary to increase the chances of pregnancy, but it may also cause some side effects in the form of irritation and leaky discharge. However, the results of a new scientific study suggest that women will be able to avoid this kind of discomfort in the future. "Fertility treatment is a physical and mental challenge for childless couples. The daily treatment with hormonal ...

Drones used to track wildlife

Drones used to track wildlife
2015-08-25
Researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) and The University of Sydney have developed a world-first radio-tracking drone to locate radio-tagged wildlife. Lead researcher Dr Debbie Saunders from the ANU Fenner School of Environment and Society said the drones have successfully detected tiny radio transmitters weighing as little as one gram. The system has been tested by tracking bettongs at the Mulligan's Flat woodland sanctuary in Canberra. "The small aerial robot will allow researchers to more rapidly and accurately find tagged wildlife, gain insights into ...

Record-high pressure reveals secrets of matter

2015-08-25
A research team at Linköping University, together with colleagues in Europe and the United States, has shown that at extremely high pressure even the innermost electrons in the atomic nuclei of the metal osmium begin to interact with each other, a phenomenon never witnessed before. The findings have been published in Nature. "If we know more about how a matter works, we will be in a better position to develop materials that withstand extreme conditions. In research we're constantly making advances, but in this case we've taken a giant leap", says Igor Abrikosov, ...

EPSRC funding boost to aid discovery of new advanced materials

2015-08-25
A new £6.65 million grant for research aimed at accelerating the discovery and application of new advanced materials for the energy sector was announced today by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). The grant, awarded to a team led by Professor Matthew Rosseinsky of the University of Liverpool, will support a programme, Integration of Computation and Experiment for Accelerated Materials Discovery. Professor Rosseinsky will head up an expert team at Liverpool and University College London that will work to tackle the challenge of designing ...

Lemon juice and human norovirus

2015-08-25
Noroviruses are the predominant cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in community settings such as hospitals, cruise ships, and schools. The virus is extremely contagious and is mostly transmitted via "fecal-oral-route", i.e., through contaminated hands or contaminated food. Symptoms include violent and sudden onset of diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea. "It is therefore important to provide a safe and harmless disinfectant against human norovirus," explains Grant Hansman, head of CHS junior research group at the German Cancer Research Center noroviruses and the University ...

Patients with abnormally fast heart rhythms to benefit from modification of treatment

Patients with abnormally fast heart rhythms to benefit from modification of treatment
2015-08-25
A simple, safe and cost-free modification to a physical technique used to treat patients in the emergency department with an abnormally fast heart rhythm could improve its effectiveness by more than a quarter, according to a study published in The Lancet today (25 August 2015). An abnormally fast heart rhythm, also called supraventricular tachycardia, can be distressing for patients and many come to emergency departments for treatment. Symptoms can include chest pain, light-headedness, dizziness and breathlessness. Episodes can last from a few seconds or, in extreme cases, ...

Flu remedies help combat E. coli bacteria

2015-08-25
This news release is available in German. Trillions of bacteria populate the human gut - which makes them more common than any other cells in our body. The composition of this bacterial population is very variable and influenced by our diet. Diseases, but also antibiotic treatments can induce significant shifts in this equilibrium. If entire bacterial groups suddenly multiply heavily, critical situations occur. They damage the intestinal tissue and cause inflammations. How such shifts are triggered largely remained a mystery. Physiologists from the University of Zurich ...
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