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A community of soil bacteria saves plants from root rot

A community of soil bacteria saves plants from root rot
2015-08-25
This news release is available in German. Root bacteria are known to form symbiotic relationships with plants by improving the plants' supply of nutrients. Yet as scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, found recently, the bacteria actually play a much more profound role. During field experiments in Utah, in the western USA, researchers discovered that the right mixture of soil microbiota directly influences the survival of Nicotiana attenuata, a species of wild tobacco. Plants that had been unable to establish a protective ...

Gut feeling restored by growth outside the body

Gut feeling restored by growth outside the body
2015-08-25
University of Manchester scientists have bridged a gap between two separate pieces of small intestine kept alive outside the body, in an advance which could have implications for surgery in human adults and babies. It is not currently possible to study the intestine in embryos when inside the body, which holds back advances in treatment for conditions causing damage in infants. However, new techniques used by the researchers in this study have allowed organs to be kept alive and grown on supports which allow the absorption of nutrients. A video is available here or ...

How TV's subliminal influence can affect women's perception of pregnancy, birth

2015-08-25
In an era where popular culture is increasingly recognized for its impact on lay understanding of health and medicine, few scholars have looked at television's powerful role in the creation of patient expectations, especially regarding pregnancy and birth. As part of a larger research project funded by a National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant, Danielle Bessett, University of Cincinnati assistant professor of sociology in the McMicken College of Arts and Sciences examined how women understand their television viewing practices regarding pregnancy and ...

Another milestone in hybrid artificial photosynthesis

Another milestone in hybrid artificial photosynthesis
2015-08-25
A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) developing a bioinorganic hybrid approach to artificial photosynthesis have achieved another milestone. Having generated quite a buzz with their hybrid system of semiconducting nanowires and bacteria that used electrons to synthesize carbon dioxide into acetate, the team has now developed a hybrid system that produces renewable molecular hydrogen and uses it to synthesize carbon dioxide into methane, the primary constituent of natural gas. "This study represents ...

Waterford AD research suggests measuring macular pigment potential biomarker of cognitive health

2015-08-25
Waterford, Ireland, August 24, 2015 - Ongoing European Research Council-funded research at Waterford Institute of Technology's (WIT) Macular Pigment Research Group (MPRG) is investigating the potential link between cognitive function and levels of a vital eye pigment linked to diet. The study suggests that measuring macular pigment offers potential as a biomarker of cognitive health. The results of this study are highlighted to a global audience through the prestigious international medical journal, the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. The Waterford clinical trial research, ...

Brown widow spider reported for the first time in Tahiti

2015-08-25
Tahiti is a popular tourist destination, but one unwanted visitor has decided to make its home there: the brown widow spider (Latrodectus geometricus). A paper published in the Journal of Medical Entomology has reported the discovery of the spider for the first time on Tahiti and also on four of the Cook Islands. The brown widow is a known invasive species. It has been found in South America, Central America, North America, the Caribbean islands, and a host of Pacific islands. It was first found in French Polynesia in 2006, when it was discovered on the island of Moorea. ...

Researchers identify signature of microbiomes associated with schizophrenia

2015-08-25
WASHINGTON (Aug. 25, 2015)--In the most comprehensive study to date, researchers at the George Washington University have identified a potential link between microbes (viruses, bacteria and fungi) in the throat and schizophrenia. This link may offer a way to identify causes and develop treatments of the disease and lead to new diagnostic tests. "The oropharynx of schizophrenics seems to harbor different proportions of oral bacteria than healthy individuals," said Eduardo Castro-Nallar, a Ph.D. candidate at GW's Computational Biology Institute (CBI) and lead author of ...

Water covers 70 percent of the Earth's surface, but only a fraction is fresh

2015-08-25
Tampa, Fla. (Aug. 25, 2015) - Fresh water--connecting and sustaining all aspects of life on Earth, including food and energy--is in great danger. Moreover, scientists are worried not only about fresh water; they worry that we are not worried enough about fresh water, especially in light of growing concern over recent events, such as the prolonged California drought. The current Special Issue Section of Technology and Innovation - Journal of the National Academy of Inventors has a special section devoted to fresh water and the challenges it faces from us and from the changing ...

Is too much fresh water used to water Florida lawns?

2015-08-25
Tampa, Fla. (Aug. 25, 2015) - Wasting fresh water is a real concern. A recent study conducted with homeowners in central Florida found that, on average, 64 percent of the drinking water used by homes went to irrigation. In the summer months, this percentage increased to 88 percent. As the population increases, conservation of fresh water becomes increasingly important. The Special Issue Section of the current Technology and Innovation - Journal of the National Academy of Inventors focuses on challenges to fresh water from environmental changes and from the human population. Florida ...

UT Dallas criminologist tackles perception of NFL players

UT Dallas criminologist tackles perception of NFL players
2015-08-25
A 24-hour news cycle, viral videos and tweets about football players' run-ins with the law can make it seem like criminal activity is an epidemic in the National Football League. But a new UT Dallas study refutes that impression. The research found that the overall arrest rate for the general population was nearly twice as high as the rate for NFL players from 2000 to 2013. "There's a perception that the NFL has this huge crime problem and that it's longstanding. That's what everybody believes," said one of the study's authors, Dr. Alex Piquero,Ashbel Smith Professor ...

Study investigates whether blind people characterize others by race

2015-08-25
CHICAGO -- Most people who meet a new acquaintance, or merely pass someone on the street, need only a glance to categorize that person as a particular race. But, sociologist Asia Friedman wondered, what can we learn about that automatic visual processing from people who are unable to see? Friedman, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Delaware, set out to explore that question by interviewing 25 individuals who are blind. She will present her findings in a study at the 110th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association (ASA). "The visual ...

Romantic opportunities appear to influence women's sexual identities, but not men's

2015-08-25
CHICAGO -- Romantic opportunities appear to influence women's sexual identities -- but not men's, suggests a new study that will be presented at the 110th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association (ASA). "This indicates that women's sexuality may be more flexible and adaptive than men's," said study author Elizabeth Aura McClintock, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Notre Dame. McClintock's study relies on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) and considers its first (1994-1995), ...

Chimpanzees found to survive in degraded and human-dominated habitats

Chimpanzees found to survive in degraded and human-dominated habitats
2015-08-25
This news release is available in German. A chimpanzee population in Uganda has been found to be three times larger than previously estimated, according to research published in the open access journal BMC Ecology. The study suggests that chimpanzees may adapt to degraded habitats better than expected, but also highlights the importance of new and more focused conservation strategies. The protected Budongo and Bugoma Forest Reserves together compose approximately one quarter of the estimated total chimpanzee population in Uganda. The unprotected area between ...

Men who feel they fall short of 'masculine' gender norms may be prone to violence

2015-08-25
Men whose image of themselves falls short of the traditional masculine gender norms, and who feel that others think this about them too, may be more prone to violence than men who feel comfortable in their own skin, suggests research published online in the journal Injury Prevention. How men perceive traditional male gender norms and masculinity can affect their behaviour. In general, 'macho,' highly masculine men are more likely to engage in stereotypical male behaviours, such as risk taking, substance misuse, and acts of aggression, say the researchers. But they wanted ...

Better maternal diet linked to lower risk of heart abnormalities in babies at birth

2015-08-25
A relatively healthy diet before pregnancy is linked to a lower rate of certain heart abnormalities in babies at birth, finds research published in the Archives of Disease in Childhood (Fetal & Neonatal Edition). Congenital heart defects are common, costly, and affect around 1% of newborns in the USA. Around one in four affected children will die infancy as a result. So far, doctors have few preventive options at their fingertips. Some studies suggest that multivitamin supplements might lower the risk while others suggest that better diet quality might make a difference ...

Long-term NSAID use may reduce CRC risk

2015-08-25
1. Long-term NSAID use associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk Free abstract: http://www.annals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.7326/M15-0039 URLs go live when embargo lifts Long-term, continuous use of low-dose aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk. The findings of a population-based, case-control study are published in Annals of Internal Medicine. Colorectal cancer is the third most common non-skin cancer in the world. Colorectal neoplasms have a long progression, making colorectal ...

Use of tamoxifen by young women is influenced by fertility concerns

2015-08-24
The risk of breast cancer recurrence and mortality is decreased by endocrine therapy (ET) such as tamoxifen, but younger patients may decline it or discontinue treatment early if they are concerned about fertility, according to a study published August 24 in the JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. To explore the reasons for lower initiation and continuation with tamoxifen treatment by younger women with breast cancer, Jacqueline S. Jeruss M.D., Ph.D. of The University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI and colleagues conducted a study of 515 premenopausal ...

Young adults, women experience only slight declines in heart disease deaths

2015-08-24
DALLAS, Aug. 24, 2015 -- Deaths from heart disease have declined dramatically over the last few decades but young people, particularly women, are not sharing equally in that improvement, according to new research in the American Heart Association's journal Circulation. Using data on adults age 25 and older, researchers tracked annual percentage changes in heart disease death rates between three time periods: 1979-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2011. Death rates in adults 65 and over declined consistently over the decades, with accelerating improvements since 2000. In contrast, ...

Fertility concerns impact breast cancer treatment decisions

2015-08-24
ANN ARBOR, Mich. -- Concerns about fertility kept a third of young women with breast cancer from taking tamoxifen, despite its known benefit in reducing the risk of breast cancer coming back. In addition, the study found fertility concerns led a quarter of women who started tamoxifen to stop taking it before the recommended treatment period ended. "Our study points toward the importance of fertility to young breast cancer patients. We need to find a way to bridge the gap between this patient survivorship goal and our concerns as physicians to facilitate the best treatment ...

Electronic trigger reduces delays in evaluation for cancer diagnosis

2015-08-24
HOUSTON - (Aug. 24, 2015) - Electronic triggers designed to search for key data, developed by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, were able to identify and reduce follow-up delays for patients being evaluated for a diagnosis of colon or prostate cancer. The full study can be found in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. "Our computerized triggers scanned huge amounts of patient data in the electronic health record and flagged individuals at risk for delays in follow-up of cancer-related abnormal clinical findings," ...

Danny the 'degenerate' followed by 2 lows

Danny the degenerate followed by 2 lows
2015-08-24
Danny has become a degenerate, that is, the tropical depression weakened. Satellite and Hurricane Hunter aircraft data showed that Danny degenerated into an elongated area of low pressure near the Windward Islands during the afternoon (local time) on August 24. Meanwhile two other developing low pressure areas lie to the east of Danny. Satellite data from NOAA's GOES-East satellite at 14:45 UTC (10:45 a.m. EDT) on August 24, showed Danny had become stretched out into a trough of low pressure. At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the remnants of Danny were located near latitude ...

FSU researcher identifies protein with promise for cancer therapy

2015-08-24
TALLAHASSEE, Fla. -- In the second part of his lab's recent one-two punch, Florida State University researcher Daniel Kaplan said he has solved a cell division mystery in a way that will intrigue the makers of cancer-fighting drugs. The key, said Kaplan, a College of Medicine Department of Biomedical Sciences researcher, is a protein called Treslin. "It can target cancer cells," he said. "Most chemotherapy also targets rapidly dividing normal cells, but this seems to have promise for not doing that. Drug companies are going to be excited." Before cells can divide, ...

Low awareness of services, perceptions of support continue in UO campus sex climate

2015-08-24
SAN DIEGO, Calif. -- (Aug. 24, 2015) -- A new survey on sexual victimization issues at the University of Oregon reaffirms previous findings that there is a need to increase awareness about available services, while decreasing negative perceptions of institutional support. Psychology professor Jennifer Freyd provided preliminary findings of the UO survey at the 20th International Summit & Training on Violence, Abuse & Trauma during a keynote session on "Campus Sexual Assault: Current Research and Prevention Approaches." New issues also surfaced among the key findings ...

Tiny antibodies point to vulnerability in disease-causing parasites

2015-08-24
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (August 24, 2015) - By teasing apart the structure of an enzyme vital to the infectious behavior of the parasites that cause toxoplasmosis and malaria, Whitehead Institute scientists have identified a potentially 'drugable' target that could prevent parasites from entering and exiting host cells. Although toxoplasmosis causes disease only in certain individuals-including immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, and their infants, the T. gondii parasite is closely related to Plasmodium, which causes malaria. Research on T. gondii can provide insights ...

Antidepressants fine-tune brain reward pathway to lessen neuropathic pain

2015-08-24
Commonly used antidepressant drugs change levels of a key signaling protein in the brain region that processes both pain and mood, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published August 24 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The newly understood mechanism could yield insights into more precise future treatments for nerve pain and depression. The study was conducted in mice suffering from chronic neuropathic pain, a condition which is caused in mice and humans by nerve damage. Chronic neuropathic ...
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