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Study compares heparin to warfarin for treatment of blood clots in patients with cancer

2015-08-18
Among patients with active cancer and acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE; blood clots in the deep veins), the use of the low molecular-weight heparin tinzaparin daily for 6 months compared with warfarin did not significantly reduce recurrent VTE and was not associated with reductions in overall death or major bleeding, but was associated with a lower rate of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, according to a study in the August 18 issue of JAMA. Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of illness and death in patients with cancer. Treatment with low-molecular-weight ...

MRI scanners can steer tumor busting viruses to specific target sites within the body

2015-08-18
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have discovered MRI scanners, normally used to produce images, can steer cell-based, tumour busting therapies to specific target sites in the body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners have been used since the 1980s to take detailed images inside the body - helping doctors to make a medical diagnosis and investigate the staging of a disease. An international team of researchers, led by Dr Munitta Muthana from the University of Sheffield's Department of Oncology, have now found MRI scanners can non-invasively steer cells, ...

Increased risk of depression for mothers undergoing fertility treatment

2015-08-18
Women giving birth after undergoing fertility treatment face an increased risk of depression compared to women ending up not having a child following fertility treatment, according to new research from the University of Copenhagen. According to the researchers, this has key implications for fertility treatment in future. Danish researchers are among the first worldwide to study the risk of developing a clinical depression for women undergoing fertility treatment. The new study shows that women who give birth after receiving fertility treatment are five times more likely ...

Satellite sees the end of Tropical Depression 11E

Satellite sees the end of Tropical Depression 11E
2015-08-18
Tropical Depression 11E came to an end early today, Tuesday, August 18 when the National Hurricane Center noted that the storm degenerated into a remnant low pressure area. NOAA's GOES-West satellite caught an infrared image of the fizzling system. At 5 a.m. EDT (2 a.m. PDT/0900 UTC) the National Hurricane Center (NHC) issued the final bulletin on Post-Tropical depression 11E. At that time, the center of Post-Tropical cyclone 11E was located near latitude 24.9 North and longitude 125.6 West. It had fizzled about 1,000 miles (1,610 km) west of the southern tip of Baja ...

Chengjiang biota: Bringing fossils into focus

2015-08-18
Researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have used computed microtomography (micro-CT) to identify to the species level an exceptionally wellpreserved fossil arthropod from the famous Chengjiang Lagerstätte in China. Modern imaging methods make it possible to perform detailed, non-invasive studies on the internal structures of irreplaceable fossil specimens. Researchers led by Dr. Yu Liu of LMU's Department of Biology II now demonstrate the power of this approach by using computed microtomography (micro-CT) to investigate a specimen recovered ...

Researchers produce first demonstration of matter wave technique that could cool molecules

Researchers produce first demonstration of matter wave technique that could cool molecules
2015-08-18
Researchers from the University of Southampton have demonstrated for the first time a new laser cooling method, based upon the interference of matter waves, that could be used to cool molecules. Our ability to produce samples of ultra-cold atoms has revolutionised experimental atomic physics, giving us devices from atomic clocks (the core of GPS) and enabling a range of quantum devices, including the possibility of a quantum computer. However, the current technique of cooling atoms down from room temperature to the ultra-cold regime using optical molasses (the preferential ...

The dynamics of mercury toxins in the oceans' food web

2015-08-18
Methylmercury, a toxic form of mercury that is readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract and can cause in a variety of health issues, poses a significant threat to marine animals at the top of the food web. A new study confirms that Artic species of these animals have higher concentrations of methylmercury in their tissues compared with animals lower in the food web; however, it also shows similar trends in selenium, which could help play a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury. "Methylmercury concentrations increased through the food web at greater ...

Patients with immediate medical needs tend to perceive doctors as emotionless, study finds

2015-08-18
When a patient is in urgent need of a doctor for illness or injury, expecting that doctor to help is natural. But a new study , published in Social Psychological and Personality Science, finds that the greater patients' need for medical care, the more likely patients will view their doctors as "empty vessels," devoid of emotions or personal lives of their own; at the same time, those patients expect their physicians to be able to contain the patients' emotions and experiences. The study is unusual in that most research focuses on the reverse--how physicians view patients. In ...

Teens using e-cigarettes may be more likely to start smoking tobacco

Teens using e-cigarettes may be more likely to start smoking tobacco
2015-08-18
Students who have used electronic cigarettes by the time they start ninth grade are more likely than others to start smoking traditional cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products within the next year, according to a new study funded by the National Institutes of Health. E-cigarettes deliver nicotine to the lungs by heating a liquid solution that contains nicotine and other chemicals to produce an aerosol that the user inhales, a process often called "vaping." The study compared tobacco use initiation among 222 students who had used e-cigarettes, but not combustible ...

Anxious? Depressed? Blame it on your middle-management position

2015-08-18
August 18, 2015--Individuals near the middle of the social hierarchy suffer higher rates of depression and anxiety than those at the top or bottom, according to researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. Nearly twice the number of supervisors and managers reported they suffered from anxiety compared to workers. Symptoms of depression were reported by 18 percent of supervisors and managers compared to 12 percent for workers. Findings are online in the journal Sociology of Health & Illness. While social disadvantage related to income and educational ...

Weight levels dropped in Greek children during the economic crisis

2015-08-18
A new study indicates that for a 2.5 year period shortly before and during the early years of the Greek economic crisis, the prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased in Greek schoolchildren. This was accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of normal weight children and a slight increase in the prevalence of underweight children. Because this study coincided with the eruption of the Greek economic crisis, it suggests that the changes may be related to the suboptimal conditions that a significant percentage of the Greek population lived in during that period. Additional ...

Diabetes drug metformin's primary effect is in the gut, not the bloodstream

2015-08-18
CHAPEL HILL NC - Although metformin was introduced as a treatment for type 2 diabetes nearly 60 years ago and is now the recommended first-line treatment for newly diagnosed patients, researchers still debate precisely how the drug works. Now, a study published online today in Diabetes Care by researchers at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Elcelyx Therapeutics, and other leading endocrinologists provides strong evidence that metformin's primary effect occurs in the gut, not the bloodstream. The paper outlines results from phase 1 and phase 2 studies ...

Accuracy of sexual assault testimonies not affected by alcohol intoxication, study finds

2015-08-18
Research suggests intoxicated victims of sexual assault could accurately retain information from events Findings are being applied to develop National Guidelines for how the police could interview sexual assault victims who were intoxicated during the crime Challenges misconception that intoxicated victims and witnesses are unreliable People are often concerned about the accuracy of testimony given by victims who were intoxicated during a sexual assault- but a new study by University of Leicester researchers has found that while alcohol intoxicated participants ...

Foresight food security: From hunger and poverty to food system approach

2015-08-18
Long considered in relation to malnutrition and humanitarian aid, food security policy should be moving towards a much broader landscape and focusing on regular access to food for a population nearing nine billion towards 2030-2050, while addressing food insecurity for a fraction of communities, according to a JRC foresight report. Due to a growing population, climate change, limiting expansion of agricultural land and increasing demand of high-energy food input, achieving global food security will be one of the most critical challenges in the coming years. Traditionally ...

Linking molecules to microbes

Linking molecules to microbes
2015-08-18
This news release is available in German. Microbes are the oldest and most successful organisms on the planet, and they communicate and interact using chemistry as their language. While research of the past decades has uncovered fascinating insights into the chemical interactions of microorganisms in the laboratory, it remains extremely challenging to understand what happens in the natural environment. One of the key issues is the difficulty to tie the production of particular molecules to individual bacterial cells or at least populations of cells in complex environmental ...

High-precision control of nanoparticles for digital applications

High-precision control of nanoparticles for digital applications
2015-08-18
For the first time ever, researchers have succeeded in creating arrangements of colloids - tiny particles suspended in a solution - and, importantly, they have managed to control their motion with high precision and speed. Thanks to this new technique developed by scientists at the University of Zurich, colloidal nanoparticles may play a role in digital technologies of the future. Nanoparticles can be rapidly displaced, require little energy and their small footprint offers large storage capacity - all these attributes make them well suited to new data storage applications ...

Johns Hopkins researchers sound off on the dangers of hospital consolidation

2015-08-18
In a commentary published in the Aug. 13 issue of JAMA, Johns Hopkins experts say consolidation of hospitals into massive chains threatens healthy competition, reduces patient choice and could drive up medical expenses. The authors call on the Federal Trade Commission -- the regulatory body overseeing business practices and consumer protection -- to be more vigilant and cautious when hospital systems seek approval to consolidate and to pay particular attention to geographic regions where proposed mergers could create a single dominant hospital system. "It's really Economics ...

Mothers give more than they receive when family struck by major illness

Mothers give more than they receive when family struck by major illness
2015-08-18
AMES, Iowa - Mothers are often the caregiver when a child is sick, and that motherly instinct doesn't go away when the child is an adult. In fact, mothers provide more support to adult children with a serious health condition than to their other children, according to new research that will be presented at the American Sociological Association 2015 Annual Meeting. It's a situation that can put older mothers in a vulnerable position, said Megan Gilligan, lead author and assistant professor of human development and family studies at Iowa State University. Gilligan and ...

Proof-of-concept study shows potential for ultrasound to detect signs of preterm labor

2015-08-18
Researchers from North Carolina State University, Institut Langevin and Paris-Descartes University have conducted a proof-of-concept study that raises the possibility of using ultrasound techniques to detect cervical stiffness changes that indicate an increased risk of preterm labor in pregnant women. While additional work needs to be done, it may ultimately give doctors a new tool for determining when to provide treatment that can prevent preterm birth. Premature births can mean low birthweights and other medical problems for newborns, but there are steps that doctors ...

Examining the fate of Fukushima contaminants

Examining the fate of Fukushima contaminants
2015-08-18
An international research team reports results of a three-year study of sediment samples collected offshore from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in a new paper published August 18, 2015, in the American Chemical Society's journal, Environmental Science and Technology. The research aids in understanding what happens to Fukushima contaminants after they are buried on the seafloor off coastal Japan. Led by Ken Buesseler, a senior scientist and marine chemist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the team found that a small fraction of contaminated ...

Just 1 in 10 are referred for cardiac rehab after treatment for heart failure

2015-08-18
Only 1 in 10 heart failure patients is referred to a cardiac rehabilitation program after being hospitalized, despite strong evidence that such exercise programs improve quality of life and reduce the likelihood of future hospitalizations. The findings, from a UCLA-led study, appear in the August 25 Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Researchers drew the data from a national database of more than 100,000 people with heart failure who were discharged from hospitals between 2005 and 2014 and were eligible for cardiac rehabilitation programs. "Although we expected ...

Breakthrough optics pave way for new class of intriguing technologies

2015-08-18
A new class of fascinating technologies -- including optics in computing, telecommunications links and switches, and virtually any other optical component -- could be created simply by configuring a mesh of light-controlling devices known as interferometers. This is similar to the way electronic semiconductors can fashion the wide array of digital technologies we have at our disposal today. Optical technologies have the potential to greatly reduce the power consumption of computers, speed telecommunications, and enhance the sensitivity of chemical and biological sensors. ...

Pediatric training essential to improving out-of-hospital emergency care for children

2015-08-18
A national survey of more than 750 emergency medical services providers conducted by researchers at Oregon Health & Science University identified airway management skills, personal anxiety and limited pediatric care proficiency among key factors that may contribute to pediatric safety events for children in out-of-hospital emergent care situations. The study, published online today in The Journal of Pediatrics, supports the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for pediatric physician involvement in EMS training, medical oversight and policy development. "Pediatric ...

Massacres, torture and mutilation: Extreme violence in neolithic conflicts

Massacres, torture and mutilation: Extreme violence in neolithic conflicts
2015-08-18
Violent conflicts in Neolithic Europe were held more brutally than has been known so far. This emerges from a recent anthropological analysis of the roughly 7000-year-old mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten by researcher of the Universities of Basel and Mainz. The findings, published in the journal PNAS, show that victims were murdered and deliberately mutilated. It was during the time when Europeans first began to farm. To what degree conflicts and wars featured in the early Neolithic (5600 to 4900 B.C.), and especially in the so-called Linear Pottery culture ...

Key genetic event underlying fin-to-limb evolution

Key genetic event underlying fin-to-limb evolution
2015-08-18
A study of catsharks reveals how alterations in the expression and function of certain genes in limb buds underlie the evolution of fish fins to limbs. The findings are reported by researchers from Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG, Barcelona) and their collaborators in the journal eLife and give new insight into how fish evolved to live on land in the form of early tetrapods. The first four-legged, land-living creatures - known as early tetrapods - evolved from fish, following the transformation of fins into limbs. This ...
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