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Solo grandparents raising grandchildren at greater risk than parents for serious health problems

2015-09-14
Single grandparents raising grandchildren are more vulnerable to poor physical and mental health than are single parents, according to a study recently published in Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research. These caregivers may be at greater risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression, researchers found. Researchers at Georgia State University and the University of Toronto found that solo grandparents caring for grandchildren fare worse than single parents across four critical health areas: physical health, mental health, functional ...

Seismic signature of small underground chemical blasts linked to gas released in explosion

Seismic signature of small underground chemical blasts linked to gas released in explosion
2015-09-14
SAN FRANCISCO--After analyzing the seismic waves produced by small underground chemical explosions at a test site in Vermont, scientists say that some features of seismic waves could be affected by the amount of gas produced in the explosion. This unexpected finding may have implications for how scientists use these types of chemical explosions to indirectly study the seismic signal of nuclear detonations. Researchers use chemical blasts to learn more about the specific seismic signatures produced by explosions--which differ from those produced by earthquakes--to help ...

New guideline aims to reduce fractures in seniors in long-term care facilities

2015-09-14
A new guideline that aims to prevent fractures in residents of long-term care facilities is targeted at frail seniors and their families as well as health care workers. The guideline, published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal), was developed with input from residents of long-term care facilities and their families, as well as researchers and health care professionals. Seniors living in long-term care homes have a two- to four-fold risk of sustaining a fracture such as a hip or spinal fracture, compared with adults of similar age living in the community. ...

New leukemia gene stops blood cells 'growing up'

2015-09-14
Scientists have identified a gene - FOXC1 - that, if switched on, causes more aggressive cancer in a fifth of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients, according to a Cancer Research UK study* published in the journal Cancer Cell, today. The FOXC1 gene is normally switched on during embryonic development and is needed to turn cells into specialised tissues, like the eyes, kidney, brain and bone. But this new research found that in certain patients with AML - a type of blood cancer that affects white blood cells and the bone marrow - this gene was wrongly switched on inside ...

Filling a void in stem cell therapy

2015-09-14
(BOSTON) - Stem cell therapies are often limited by low survival of transplanted stem cells and the lack of precise control over their differentiation into the terminal cell types needed to repair or replace injured tissues. Now, a team led by Wyss Institute Core Faculty member David Mooney, Ph.D., has developed a new strategy - embedding stem cells into porous, transplantable hydrogels - that has experimentally improved bone repair by boosting the survival rate of transplanted stem cells and influencing their cell differentiation. Mooney - who is also the Robert P. Pinkas ...

New classification system developed for gout

2015-09-14
(Boston)--A panel of experts and researchers have developed a new classification system for gout, the most common form of inflammatory arthritis. This new system standardizes the classification of this condition using a variety of evidence-based criteria. Led by a researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and institutions from around the world, the study is a joint publication appearing in two journals simultaneously, Annals of Rheumatologic Disease and Arthritis & Rheumatology. Gout is characterized by the deposition of a specific type of crystal in ...

Larger and private colleges and universities more likely to attract hookah establishments

2015-09-14
GAINESVILLE, Fla. -- Larger and private colleges and universities seem to attract hookah cafes and lounges, but smoke-free policies decrease these odds, according to findings published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine this month. That may bode well for the long-term health of college-age students. Waterpipe smoking, more commonly known as hookah, boasts enticing flavors and a healthier reputation, increasing its popularity among college students. It is estimated that more than 10 percent of U.S. college students are current users. However, recent evidence ...

Discovery of a highly efficient catalyst eases way to hydrogen economy

Discovery of a highly efficient catalyst eases way to hydrogen economy
2015-09-14
MADISON, Wis. -- Hydrogen could be the ideal fuel: Whether used to make electricity in a fuel cell or burned to make heat, the only byproduct is water; there is no climate-altering carbon dioxide. Like gasoline, hydrogen could also be used to store energy. Hydrogen is usually produced by separating water with electrical power. And although the water supply is essentially limitless, a major roadblock to a future "hydrogen economy" is the need for platinum or other expensive noble metals in the water-splitting devices. Noble metals resist oxidation and include many ...

Act now to improve the health of women, children and adolescents worldwide, say experts

2015-09-14
Societies are failing women, children and adolescents, particularly in the poorest communities around the world, and urgent action is needed to save lives and improve health, say global health experts. In a special supplement published today by The BMJ, public health experts from around the globe highlight the critical actions and investments that will have the greatest impact on the health and well-being of women, children and adolescents. The 15 papers in this special supplement outline the current evidence, identify successes as well as critical gaps in progress, ...

Whole genome-sequencing uncovers new genetic cause for osteoporosis

Whole genome-sequencing uncovers new genetic cause for osteoporosis
2015-09-14
Montreal, September 14, 2015 - Using extensive genetic data compiled by the UK10K project, an international team of researchers led by Dr. Brent Richards of the Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital has identified a genetic variant near the gene EN1 as having the strongest effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture identified to date. The findings are published in the forthcoming issue of the prestigious journal Nature. "EN1 has never before been linked to osteoporosis in humans, so this opens up a brand new pathway to pursue in developing drugs to ...

IU scientist and collaborators chart a lost highway in the brain

IU scientist and collaborators chart a lost highway in the brain
2015-09-14
BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- A study three years ago sparked a medical mystery when it revealed a part of the brain not found in any present-day anatomy textbooks. Recently, Indiana University computational neuroscientist Franco Pestilli and an international research team published an article in the journal Cerebral Cortex that suggests this missing part of the brain may play an important role in how we understand the world -- despite getting "lost" for more than a century. A long flat bundle of nerves called the vertical occipital fasciculus, or VOF, the structure appeared ...

Biodiesel made easier and cleaner with waste-recycling catalyst

2015-09-14
Researchers at Cardiff University have devised a way of increasing the yield of biodiesel by using the waste left over from its production process. Using simple catalysis, the researchers have been able to recycle a non-desired by-product produced when biodiesel is formed from vegetable oil, and convert this into an ingredient to produce even more biodiesel. It is believed this new process will have significant environmental benefits by improving the yield of biodiesel in a sustainable way that doesn't require the use of additional fossil fuels, and could potentially ...

Researchers develop key component for terahertz wireless

Researchers develop key component for terahertz wireless
2015-09-14
PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- Terahertz radiation could one day provide the backbone for wireless systems that can deliver data up to one hundred times faster than today's cellular or Wi-Fi networks. But there remain many technical challenges to be solved before terahertz wireless is ready for prime time. Researchers from Brown University have taken a major step toward addressing one of those challenges. They've developed what they believe to be the first system for multiplexing terahertz waves. Multiplexers are devices that enable separate streams of data to ...

Low vitamin D among the elderly is associated with decline in cognition, dementia

2015-09-14
(SACRAMENTO, Calif.) -- Vitamin D insufficiency among the elderly is highly correlated with accelerated cognitive decline and impaired performance, particularly in domains such as memory loss that are associated with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, researchers with the UC Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center and Rutgers University have found. The effect is "substantial," with individuals with low vitamin D declining at a rate three times faster than those with adequate vitamin D levels. The researchers said their findings amplify the importance of identifying vitamin D ...

Low vitamin D associated with faster decline in cognitive function

2015-09-14
Vitamin D insufficiency was associated with faster decline in cognitive functions among a group of ethnically diverse older adults, according to an article published online by JAMA Neurology. In addition to promoting calcium absorption and bone health, vitamin D may influence all organ systems. Both the vitamin D receptor and the enzyme that converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) to the active form of the vitamin are expressed in all human organs, including the brain. Thus, research has increasingly examined the association between vitamin D status and a variety of health ...

Rating hospital readmissions

2015-09-14
To encourage hospitals to improve quality of care, Medicare penalizes those with higher than expected rates of readmission within 30 days of discharge. The logic behind the penalties is that if patients receive high quality care, including proper discharge planning, they should be less likely to end up back in the hospital. This seems straightforward, but it turns out that the social and clinical characteristics of a hospital's patient population that are not included in Medicare's calculation explain nearly half of the difference in readmission rates between the best- ...

Racial disparities in pain children of children with appendicitis in EDs

2015-09-14
Black children were less likely to receive any pain medication for moderate pain and less likely to receive opioids for severe pain than white children in a study of racial disparities in the pain management of children with appendicitis in emergency departments, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics. Racial and ethnic differences in the emergency department (ED) management of pain have been described, with lower rates of opioid prescription for black and Hispanic patients than for white patients. However, there are fewer studies in children. Appendicitis ...

10K genomes project explores contribution of rare variants to human disease and risk factors

2015-09-14
The largest population genome sequencing effort to date is published today in Nature. A series of papers describing resources and application of the data is published at the same time in Nature, Nature Genetics, Bioinformatics and Nature Communications. Rare genetic variants are changes in DNA that are carried only by relatively few people in a population. The UK10K study was designed to explore the contribution of these rare genetic variants to human disease and its risk factors. "The project has made important new contributions towards describing the role of rare ...

PharmaMar shows new data for YONDELIS and PM1183 in soft tissue sarcoma and solid tumors at ECC 2015

PharmaMar shows new data for YONDELIS and PM1183 in soft tissue sarcoma and solid tumors at ECC 2015
2015-09-14
This news release is available in Spanish. Final OS and subgroup analysis of the pivotal study SAR-3007 First interim results of the Y-IMAGE prospective study showing real-world data for trabectedin in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) Clinical data of trabectedin in translocated-related sarcomas, and in advanced leiomyosarcomas and liposarcomas Early clinical studies of PM1183 in combination with paclitaxel or cisplatin show a synergistic activity Madrid, September 14, 2015: PharmaMar announces that it will show new data from clinical pivotal ...

Modulation of brain cholesterol: A new line of research in Alzheimer's disease treatment?

2015-09-14
This news release is available in French. We have known for some years that Alzheimer's disease is characterised by two types of lesions, amyloid plaques and degenerated tau protein. Cholesterol plays an important role in the physiopathology of this disease. Two French research teams (Inserm/CEA/University of Lille/University of Paris-Sud ) have just shown, in a rodent model, that overexpressing an enzyme that can eliminate excess cholesterol from the brain may have a beneficial action on the tau component of the disease, and completely correct it. This is the first ...

The chemistry of addiction (video)

The chemistry of addiction (video)
2015-09-14
WASHINGTON, Sept. 14, 2015 -- It's a condition that turns the lives of millions of Americans upside-down: addiction. Whether it's alcohol, drugs, food or gambling, it can ruin lives. In support of National Recovery Month, which calls attention to substance abuse issues and treatment services, Reactions takes a look at the chemistry behind addiction. Check it out here: https://youtu.be/C6I3CHhBGeQ. Subscribe to the series at http://bit.ly/ACSReactions, and follow us on Twitter @ACSreactions to be the first to see our latest videos. INFORMATION:The American Chemical ...

Protected areas save mangroves, reduce carbon emissions

2015-09-14
DURHAM, N.C. -- Protected areas not only keep significant swaths of Indonesia's shrinking mangrove habitats intact, but also prevent emissions of carbon dioxide that would have been released had these mangroves been cleared, according to a study in the journal Ecological Economics. Published online, the analysis examined the success of protected areas between 2000 and 2010, finding that their use has avoided the loss of 14,000 hectares of mangrove habitat. "This is not a small number," said Daniela Miteva, a postdoctoral researcher at The Nature Conservancy and a Duke ...

It's time to stop thinking in terms of food versus fuel

Its time to stop thinking in terms of food versus fuel
2015-09-14
Whether you have taken a side or a backseat in the discussion, the "food versus fuel" debate affects us all. Some say growing more biofuel crops today will decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but will make it harder to produce food tomorrow, which has prevented the U.S. from maximizing the potential of environmentally beneficial biofuels. In a recent article, published by the National Academy of Engineering, University of Illinois' Gutgsell Endowed Chair of Plant Biology and Crop Sciences Steve Long and University of California's Philomathia Professor of Alternative Energy ...

Tall and slim: They go together, genetic study shows

2015-09-14
University of Queensland scientists have found a genetic basis for height and body mass differences between European populations. Queensland Brain Institute researcher Dr Matthew Robinson said the findings could explain why people from northern European countries tended on average to be taller and slimmer than other Europeans. He said the genes that resulted in greater height correlated strongly with genes that reduced body mass index. "Our findings give a genetic basis to the stereotype of Scandinavians as being tall and lean," Dr Robinson said. The study paves ...

Findings could shed light on cancer, aging

2015-09-14
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University have found molecular evidence of how a biochemical process controls the lengths of protective chromosome tips, a potentially significant step in ultimately understanding cancer growth and aging. In a paper recently published as the cover story in the online journal eLife, biologist David C. Zappulla and graduate student Evan P. Hass show how in baker's yeast cells, two proteins work together to usher a key enzyme to the chromosome tip, the telomere, to restore its length, which diminishes with each round of cell division. That ...
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