Contact Information:

Media Contact

Liza Lester
llester@esa.org
202-833-8773 x211

Twitter: ESA_org

http://www.esa.org




Kredyty mieszkaniowe Kredyty mieszkaniowe

Sprawdź aktualny ranking najlepszych kredytów mieszkaniowych w Polsce - atrakcyjne kredytowanie nieruchomości.

PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION
RSS - Press News Release
Add Press Release

Reviving extinct Mediterranean forests, urban land-sparing, ocean noise pollution

Highlights from the September 2015 issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment


2015-09-08
(Press-News.org) Extinct Mediterranean forests of biblical times could return and thrive in warmer, drier future.

The Mediterranean has cradled humanity and our cities, farms, domesticated animals, and logging habits for many thousands of years. During the last 5 to 8 millennia, as people developed farming and settled in cities, the landscape has gradually changed from a thick canopy of trees to open grass and shrubs. The ghosts of Sicily's extinct evergreen forests of holm oak (Quercus ilex) and olive trees (Olea europaea) remain in the record of pollen left in the lakebed sediments. On the slightly cooler and wetter coast of Italy's Tuscany region, European silver fir (Abies alba) once mixed with holm oak and deciduous oaks (Quercus cerris and Quercus pubescens).

Many researchers believe that progressively drier conditions in the Mediterranean brought about these changes in vegetation over the past 5-8,000 years. With the accelerating warming and drying brought to the region by anthropogenic climate change, the native trees might be expected to be pushed beyond the edge of their drought and heat tolerance, never to return. Some researchers have even suggested restoring forests with non-native Eucalyptus species from Australia or Douglas fir from North America.

In the September 2015 issue of ESA Frontiers, Paul Henne and colleagues dispute the idea that a drying climate was responsible for the disappearance of Mediterranean forests. They think that frequent wildfires, logging, agriculture, and the browsing of cattle, sheep, goats and unchecked deer over the long history of human occupation have wrought the changes to the landscape.

As a postdoc at the University of Bern, Switzerland, Henne, now research ecologist for the US Geological Survey's Geosciences and Environmental Change Science Center in Denver, Colo., and his coauthors simulated current climate conditions in Sicily and coastal Tuscany, but with minimum human disturbance. Their models found that forests of oak and olive, much like the extinct, "pristine" forests that persisted until about 2,000 years ago, could prosper at present on the warm, dry coast of Sicily if fire is suppressed in the highly flammable shrublands until evergreen trees can mature. Silver fir (Abies alba) could be seen again at low elevation in Tuscany if protected from grazing animals and fire while the trees are young and vulnerable. Restoration of native vegetation, the authors argue, could slow erosion, improve water quality, sequester carbon, harbor wildlife, reduce fire risk, and build resilience for a hotter, drier future.

Reviving extinct Mediterranean forest communities may improve ecosystem potential in a warmer future. (2015) Paul D Henne, Ché Elkin, Jörg Franke, Daniele Colombaroli, Camilla Calò, Tommaso La Mantia, Salvatore Pasta, Marco Conedera, Orla Dermody, and Willy Tinner. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment13(7): 356-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/150027

Getting a handle on ocean noise

Oceans are noisy in the modern era. Ships propellers generate a pervasive clamor, but the seismic airgun arrays used to map the seafloor have the largest acoustic footprint. The cumulative effect is confusing and stressful to undersea animals like whales, which use sound to communicate. But we lack the data to understand just how adverse are the effects and take steps to mitigate them, reports a group ecologists specializing in the role of sound in ecological processes in the September 2015 issue of ESA Frontiers . The group, drawn from the university, advocacy, and commercial realms, has reviewed the available data on ecological impacts of marine seismic surveys, concluding that existing environmental reviews are inadequate to meaningfully assess the impacts of noise on marine animals and the ecosystems they live in. They suggest the creation of legally binding international commitments to monitor and limit noise pollution in the sea.

Marine seismic surveys and ocean noise: time for coordinated and prudent planning (2015) DP Nowacek, CW Clark, D Mann, PJO Miller, HC Rosenbaum, JS Golden, M Jasny, J Kraska, and BL Southall. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(7): 378-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/130286.

Large parks key to city success

More than half the world's population now lives in cities. Previous research has demonstrated that urban green spaces and trees yield far-reaching benefits to people, from increased happiness and health to absorbing surface water run-off and storing carbon. Researchers have long debated whether it is better to build compact developments with large parks or nature reserves, as often found in Europe and Japan, or whether it is preferable to build sprawling suburbs with many small parks and gardens, as found in many North American and Australian cities. Iain Stott and colleagues at the University of Exeter, Penryn, UK and Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan analyzed nine case studies of cities worldwide, concluding that cities should feature compact development alongside large, contiguous green spaces to maximize benefits of urban ecosystems to humans. They report their results in the September 2015 issue of ESA Frontiers. Read the full press release from the University of Exeter.

Land sparing is crucial for urban ecosystem services. (2015) Iain Stott, Masashi Soga, Richard Inger, and Kevin J Gaston. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2015 13(7): 387-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/140286.

INFORMATION:

The Ecological Society of America (ESA), founded in 1915, is the world's largest community of professional ecologists and a trusted source of ecological knowledge, committed to advancing the understanding of life on Earth. The 10,000 member Society publishes six journals and a membership bulletin and broadly shares ecological information through policy, media outreach, and education initiatives. The Society's Annual Meeting attracts 4,000 attendees and features the most recent advances in ecological science. Visit the ESA website at http://www.esa.org.

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, issued 10 times per year, consists of peer-reviewed, synthetic review articles on all aspects of ecology, the environment, and related disciplines, as well as short, high-impact research communications of broad interdisciplinary appeal.


ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Brain damage during stroke may point to source of addiction

2015-09-08
A pair of studies suggests that a region of the brain - called the insular cortex - may hold the key to treating addiction. Scientists have come to this conclusion after finding that smokers who suffered a stroke in the insular cortex were far more likely to quit smoking and experience fewer and less severe withdrawal symptoms than those with strokes in other parts of the brain. "These findings indicate that the insular cortex may play a central role in addiction," said Amir Abdolahi Ph.D., M.P.H., lead author of the studies. "When this part of the brain is damaged during ...

Biomarker helps predict survival time in gastric cancer patients

2015-09-08
Philadelphia, PA, September 8, 2015 - Gastric cancer poses a significant health problem in developing countries and is typically associated with late-stage diagnosis and high mortality. A new study in The American Journal of Pathology points to a pivotal role played by the biomarker microRNA (miR)-506 in gastric cancer. Patients whose primary gastric cancer lesions express high levels of miR-506 have significantly longer survival times compared to patients with low miR-506 expression. In addition, miR-506 suppresses tumor growth, blood vessel formation, and metastasis. "Epithelial-to-mesenchymal ...

Policy recommendations for use of telemedicine in primary care

2015-09-08
1. ACP recommends policies for practicing telemedicine in primary care Free: http://www.annals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.7326/M15-0498 Editorial: http://www.annals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.7326/M15-1416 URLs go live when embargo lifts In a new position paper, the American College of Physicians (ACP) says that telemedicine can improve access to care, but policies are needed to balance the benefits and risks for both patients and physicians. The authors note that conscious scrutiny is especially important as policymakers and stakeholders shape the landscape for ...

Ancient genomes link early farmers to Basques

Ancient genomes link early farmers to Basques
2015-09-07
An international team led by researchers at Uppsala University reports a surprising discovery from the genomes of eight Iberian Stone-Age farmer remains. The analyses revealed that early Iberian farmers are the closest ancestors to modern-day Basques, in contrast previous hypotheses that linked Basques to earlier pre-farming groups. The team could also demonstrate that farming was brought to Iberia by the same/similar groups that migrated to northern and central Europe and that the incoming farmers admixed with local, Iberian hunter-gather groups, a process that continued ...

'Clever adaptation' allows yeast infection fungus to evade immune system attack

2015-09-07
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers say they have discovered a new way that the most prevalent disease-causing fungus can thwart immune system attacks. The findings, published Sept. 7 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offer new clues about how Candida albicans, the fungus responsible for vaginal yeast infections and the mouth infection thrush, is able to cause a deadly infection once it enters the bloodstream. When the body is faced with an infection, cells give a burst of free radicals to kill the germs. C. albicans ...

Mobile phone records may predict epidemics of mosquito-borne dengue virus

2015-09-07
Boston, MA -- A new study led by researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health finds that mobile phone records can be used to predict the geographical spread and timing of dengue epidemics. More people around the world are becoming vulnerable to this deadly virus as climate change expands the range of the mosquito that transmits dengue and infected travelers spread the disease across borders. Utilizing the largest data set of mobile phone records ever analyzed to estimate human mobility, the researchers developed an innovative model that can predict epidemics ...

Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution

2015-09-07
Researchers at LSTM have shown that under certain circumstances evolution can be highly predictable, especially in terms of how creatures become resistant to dangerous toxins. Biologists looking at the control of malaria have known for some time that mosquito populations often become resistant to insecticides designed to kill them, but in a paper published today in the journal PNAS, researchers examine the response of a variety of insects, reptiles, amphibians and mammals to a natural selection pressure in the form of cardiac glycosides - toxins produced by certain plants ...

Poison in the Arctic and the human cost of 'clean' energy

Poison in the Arctic and the human cost of clean energy
2015-09-07
Methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin, is especially high in Arctic marine life but until recently, scientists haven't been able to explain why. Now, research from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS) and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health suggests that high levels of methylmercury in Arctic life are a byproduct of global warming and the melting of sea-ice in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. To mitigate global warming, many governments are turning to hydroelectric power but the research also suggests that flooding for hydroelectric ...

Study shows common molecular tool kit shared by organisms across the tree of life

2015-09-07
In one of the largest and most detailed studies of animal molecular biology ever undertaken, researchers at The University of Texas at Austin and the University of Toronto discovered the assembly instructions for nearly 1,000 protein complexes shared by most kinds of animals, revealing their deep evolutionary relationships. Those instructions offer a powerful new tool for studying the causes of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and cancer. Proteins come together to form protein complexes, or molecular machines, to carry out many specific biological functions in ...

Dually noted: New CRISPR-Cas9 strategy edits genes 2 ways

2015-09-07
(BOSTON) -The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been in the limelight mainly as a revolutionary genome engineering tool used to modify specific gene sequences within the vast sea of an organism's DNA. Cas9, a naturally occurring protein in the immune system of certain bacteria, acts like a pair of molecular scissors to precisely cut or edit specific sections of DNA. More recently, however, scientists have also begun to use CRISPR-Cas9 variants as gene regulation tools to reversibly turn genes on or off at whim. Both of these tasks, genome engineering and gene regulation, are initiated ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

How your brain decides blame and punishment -- and how it can be changed

Uniquely human brain region enables punishment decisions

Pinpointing punishment

Chapman University publishes research on attractiveness and mating

E-cigarettes: Special issue from Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Placental problems in early pregnancy associated with 5-fold increased risk of OB & fetal disorders

UT study: Invasive brood parasites a threat to native bird species

Criminals acquire guns through social connections

Restoring ocean health

Report: Cancer remains leading cause of death in US Hispanics

Twin study suggests genetic factors contribute to insomnia in adults

To be fragrant or not: Why do some male hairstreak butterflies lack scent organs?

International team discovers natural defense against HIV

Bolivian biodiversity observatory takes its first steps

Choice of college major influences lifetime earnings more than simply getting a degree

Dominant strain of drug-resistant MRSA decreases in hospitals, but persists in community

Synthetic biology needs robust safety mechanisms before real world application

US defense agencies increase investment in federal synthetic biology research

Robots help to map England's only deep-water Marine Conservation Zone

Mayo researchers identify protein -- may predict who will respond to PD-1 immunotherapy for melanoma

How much water do US fracking operations really use?

New approach to mammograms could improve reliability

The influence of citizen science grows despite some resistance

Unlocking secrets of how fossils form

What happens on the molecular level when smog gets into the lungs?

Using ultrasound to clean medical instruments

Platinum and iron oxide working together get the job done

Tiny silica particles could be used to repair damaged teeth, research shows

A quantum lab for everyone

No way? Charity's logo may influence perception of food in package

[Press-News.org] Reviving extinct Mediterranean forests, urban land-sparing, ocean noise pollution
Highlights from the September 2015 issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Press-News.org is a service of DragonFly Company. All Rights Reserved.
Issuers of news releases are solely responsible for the accuracy of their content.