PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Deforestation favors an increase in the diversity of antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria

Study analyzed some 800 million DNA sequences extracted from 48 soil samples collected in Pará State and northern Mato Grosso State, both of which are part of the Amazon biome

Deforestation favors an increase in the diversity of antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria
2021-03-11
(Press-News.org) In Brazil, a study conducted by researchers affiliated with the University of São Paulo (USP) and collaborators showed that deforestation in the Amazon causes an increase in the diversity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. An article on the study, published in Soil Biology and Biochemistry, compares the microorganisms that live in the soil of native forest with those found in pasture and croplands. The researchers found a far larger number of genes considered markers of antibiotic resistance in deforested than forested areas.

“Bacteria produce substances with which to attack each other in a competition for resources that’s usual in any environment. When an area is deforested, however, several factors intensify this competition, favoring the bacteria that can resist these substances. If they reach humans, these microorganisms can become a major problem,” said Lucas William Mendes, a researcher supported by FAPESP at USP’s Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA) in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, and last author of the article.

The study was part of a project linked to the FAPESP Research Program on Biodiversity Characterization, Conservation, Restoration and Sustainable Use (BIOTA-FAPESP) and led by Tsai Siu Mui, a professor at CENA-USP.

Antibiotic resistance is a global public health emergency, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), which says drug-resistant diseases cause some 700,000 deaths per year worldwide.

In the study, the researchers at CENA-USP, collaborating with colleagues at the Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (ESALQ-USP) and scientists at the National Laboratory for Scientific Computing in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, analyzed some 800 million DNA sequences extracted from 48 soil samples collected in Pará State and northern Mato Grosso State, both of which are part of the Amazon biome.

Using bioinformatics tools, the researchers ran the DNA sequences from the samples against a genetic database and found 145 antibiotic-resistant genes that trigger 21 different molecular mechanisms. Although antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present in forest soil, these microorganisms and their resistance mechanisms are much more abundant in the soil of pasture, deforested areas, and croplands.

Deforestation microorganisms

“The process of occupation in the Amazon consists of first logging the most valuable trees and then clearing and burning all the rest to make way for crops or forage grass for cattle,” Mendes said. “Besides ash from the burned vegetation, the soil is limed to reduce the acidity and other agrochemicals are applied. The abundance of nutrients fuels bacterial proliferation and fierce competition for resources.”

Previous studies by the CENA-USP group showed that despite the reduction in forest soil microorganism diversity, the abundance of bacteria benefited plants by nutrient cycling and augmented photosynthesis, and also had positive effects on the atmosphere, including carbon fixation and consumption of methane, the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide.

In the latest study, the researchers were struck by the large quantity of bacteria that were resistant to two specific classes of antibiotics, tetracyclines and beta-lactamases. Medications with these active ingredients are widely used to treat cattle diseases and can reach the soil via feces and urine since absorption of antibiotics in cattle is low. Furthermore, the use of livestock manure as fertilizer can contribute to the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, according to the researchers.

Scientists cannot be sure that microorganisms immune to antibiotics are capable of migrating from the soil of the Amazon to food produced there, such as grain, sugarcane, and beef. “Some research assumes the transfer can occur, but to date, no studies have demonstrated it,” Mendes said. “It needs to be watched carefully because if these drug-resistant bacteria reach humans, they’ll cause a serious public health problem.”

Nor are there any immediate solutions to prevent bacteria from multiplying in cultivated soil. Management techniques that take into account other functions of microorganisms besides boosting crop yield, such as nutrient cycling and reducing species that produce methane, for example, could help mitigate the problem.

This can be done by transplanting natural soil to a cultivated area or using inoculants, microorganism-based products that perform important functions in the soil and also reduce the need for fertilizer and agrochemicals. Indeed, the market for microbiome-based agricultural products is expected to be worth more than 10 billion US dollars by 2025 (read more at: agencia.fapesp.br/34195).

In the Amazon, solutions and opportunities may be very near a pasture or plantation, in the soil of the native forest.

INFORMATION:

About São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)

The São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) is a public institution with the mission of supporting scientific research in all fields of knowledge by awarding scholarships, fellowships and grants to investigators linked with higher education and research institutions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. FAPESP is aware that the very best research can only be done by working with the best researchers internationally. Therefore, it has established partnerships with funding agencies, higher education, private companies, and research organizations in other countries known for the quality of their research and has been encouraging scientists funded by its grants to further develop their international collaboration. You can learn more about FAPESP at http://www.fapesp.br/en and visit FAPESP news agency at http://www.agencia.fapesp.br/en to keep updated with the latest scientific breakthroughs FAPESP helps achieve through its many programs, awards and research centers. You may also subscribe to FAPESP news agency at http://agencia.fapesp.br/subscribe.


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Deforestation favors an increase in the diversity of antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

How India's rice production can adapt to climate change challenges

How Indias rice production can adapt to climate change challenges
2021-03-11
URBANA, Ill. ¬- As the global population grows, the demand for food increases while arable land shrinks. A new University of Illinois study investigates how rice production in India can meet future needs by adapting to changing climate conditions and water availability. "Rice is the primary crop in India, China, and other countries in Southeast Asia. Rice consumption is also growing in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world," says Prasanta Kalita, professor in the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at U of I and lead author on the study. "If you look at where they traditionally grow rice, it is countries that have ...

Climate change damaging North America's largest temperate rainforest, harming salmon

2021-03-11
New research released in Bioscience found that a remote region of North America's largest temperate rainforest is experiencing changes to its ecosystem due to climate change. Brian Buma, a researcher and professor of integrated biology at University of Colorado Denver, co-leads the research network that outlined the changes in a new paper. North America's largest remaining temperate rainforest, located in Southeast Alaska, is one of the most pristine and intact ecosystems. The entire ecosystem stretches well over 2,000 km from north to south and stores more carbon ...

Preterm birth, prolonged labor influenced by progesterone balance

2021-03-11
New research by the National Institutes of Health found that unbalanced progesterone signals may cause some pregnant women to experience preterm labor or prolonged labor. The study in mice -- published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences -- provides novel insights for developing treatments. During pregnancy, the hormone progesterone helps to prevent the uterus from contracting and going into labor prematurely. This occurs through molecular signaling involving progesterone receptor types A and B, referred to as PGR-A and PGR-B. In this ...

HAWC Gamma Ray Observatory discovers origin of highest-energy cosmic rays in the galaxy

HAWC Gamma Ray Observatory discovers origin of highest-energy cosmic rays in the galaxy
2021-03-11
LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 11, 2021--A long-time question in astrophysics appears to finally be answered, thanks to a collection of large, high-tech water tanks on a mountainside in Mexico. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) data shows that the highest-energy cosmic rays come not from supernovae, but from star clusters. "The origin of the highest-energy cosmic rays in the galaxy has been an open question in astrophysics for more than 60 years," said Patrick Harding, a Los Alamos National Laboratory astrophysicist doing research using HAWC. "Very few regions of the galaxy have both the power to produce high-energy ...

Fatal police violence nearby increases risk of preterm birth

2021-03-11
Black women have 80% higher risk of preterm birth between 32 and 33 weeks of pregnancy if a Black person who lives in their neighborhood is killed by police during the pregnancy, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco and UC Berkeley. The study by scientists at the UCSF California Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBI-CA) and UC Berkeley School of Public Health, studied the records of 3.8 million pregnant women to assess whether fatal police violence occurring in their neighborhood during pregnancy was associated with extremely early, early, moderate or late preterm delivery. "Our findings suggest that deaths due to police violence, which already differentially affect Black and Brown communities, adversely affect the health of mothers and babies ...

With masks on, three feet is just as safe as six feet apart in Massachusetts schools

2021-03-11
BOSTON - As COVID-19 infection rates continue to fall, Massachusetts officials are signaling it's almost time to end remote learning and send all school-aged children back to the classroom. While emerging data suggest young children and schools have not been primary drivers of the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence to guide best practices to prevent the spread of the virus in the school setting has been limited and, as a result, national and international recommendations are inconsistent. A study led by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) physician-researchers provides new, much-needed data about the optimal physical ...

Climate change influences river flow

2021-03-11
Climate change is affecting the water balance of our planet: depending on the region and the time of year, this can influence the amount of water in rivers potentially resulting in more flooding or drought. River flow is an important indicator of water resources available to humans and the environment. The amount of available water also depends on further factors, such as direct interventions in the water cycle or land use change: if, for example, water is diverted for irrigation or regulated via reservoirs, or forests are cleared and monocultures grown in their place, this can have an impact on river flow. However, how river flow ...

Polarization: From better sunglasses to a better way of looking at asteroid surfaces

Polarization: From better sunglasses to a better way of looking at asteroid surfaces
2021-03-11
Using the same principles that make polarized sunglasses possible, a team of researchers at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico have developed a technique that will help better defend against asteroids on a collision course with Earth. A new study recently published in The Planetary Science Journal found a better way to interpret radar signals bounced off asteroids' surfaces. The data can better tell us if an asteroid is porous, fluffy or rocky, which matters because there are hundreds of near-Earth asteroids that could potentially hit the planet. "Learning more about the physical properties of asteroids is crucial in Planetary Defense," says Dylan Hickson the lead author and a research scientist at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. "A porous, fluffy asteroid does ...

Hubble sees new atmosphere forming on a rocky exoplanet

Hubble sees new atmosphere forming on a rocky exoplanet
2021-03-11
The planet GJ 1132 b appears to have begun life as a gaseous world with a thick blanket of atmosphere. Starting out at several times the radius of Earth, this so-called "sub-Neptune" quickly lost its primordial hydrogen and helium atmosphere, which was stripped away by the intense radiation from its hot, young star. In a short period of time, it was reduced to a bare core about the size of Earth. To the surprise of astronomers, new observations from Hubble [1] have uncovered a secondary atmosphere that has replaced the planet's first atmosphere. It is rich in hydrogen, hydrogen cyanide, methane and ammonia, and also has a hydrocarbon haze. Astronomers theorise that hydrogen from the original atmosphere was absorbed into the planet's molten magma mantle and is now being slowly released ...

New insight into how cancer spreads

New insight into how cancer spreads
2021-03-11
Breast cancer is harmful enough on its own, but when cancer cells start to metastasize -- or spread into the body from their original location -- the disease becomes even more fatal and difficult to treat. Thanks to new research published in Oncogene from the lab of University of Colorado Cancer Center associate director of basic research Heide Ford, PhD, in collaboration with Michael Lewis, PhD, from Baylor College of Medicine, doctors may soon have a better understanding of one mechanism by which metastasis happens, and of potential ways to slow it down. "Metastasis is a huge problem nobody's tackled very well," says Ford, who ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

12.5, the 1st Impact Factor of COMMTR released!

Circadian clock impact on cluster headaches funded by $2.4M NIH grant for UTHealth Houston research

Study identifies first drug therapy for sleep apnea

How old is your bone marrow?

Boosting biodiversity without hurting local economies

ChatGPT is biased against resumes with credentials that imply a disability — but it can improve

Simple test for flu could improve diagnosis and surveillance

UT Health San Antonio researcher awarded five-year, $2.53 million NIH grant to study alcohol-assisted liver disease

Giving pre-med students hands-on clinical training

CAMH research suggests potential targets for prevention and early identification of psychotic disorders

Mapping the heart to prevent damage caused by a heart attack

Study challenges popular idea that Easter islanders committed ‘ecocide’

Chilling discovery: Study reveals evolution of human cold and menthol sensing protein, offering hope for future non-addictive pain therapies.

Elena Beccalli, new rector of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, takes office on 1st July

Pacific Northwest Research Institute uncovers hidden DNA mechanisms of rare genetic diseases

Empowering older adults: Wearable tech made easier with personalized support

Pennington Biomedical researchers partner on award-winning Long Covid study

Cooling ‘blood oranges’ could make them even healthier – a bonus for consumers

Body image and overall health found important to the sexual health of older gay men, according to new studies

Lab-grown muscles reveal mysteries of rare muscle diseases

Primary hepatic angiosarcoma: Treatment options for a rare tumor

Research finds causal evidence tying cerebral small-vessel disease to Alzheimer’s, dementia

Navigating the Pyrocene: Recent Cell Press papers on managing fire risk

Restoring the Great Salt Lake would have environmental justice as well as ecological benefits

Cannabis, tobacco use, and COVID-19 outcomes

A 5:2 intermittent fasting meal replacement diet and glycemic control for adults with diabetes

Scientists document self-propelling oxygen decline in the oceans

Activating molecular target reverses multiple hallmarks of aging

Cannabis use tied to increased risk of severe COVID-19

How to make ageing a ‘fairer game’ for all wormkind

[Press-News.org] Deforestation favors an increase in the diversity of antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria
Study analyzed some 800 million DNA sequences extracted from 48 soil samples collected in Pará State and northern Mato Grosso State, both of which are part of the Amazon biome