(Press-News.org) ITHACA, N.Y. – Metropolitan areas with multiple city centers and dispersed green spaces mitigate extreme heat more effectively than those with one dominant city, an analysis by Cornell University city planning scholars finds.
Compared to “monocentric” development, “polycentric” spatial patterns better distribute the density of urban cores and curb the sprawl of impervious, heat-absorbing surfaces, according to the analysis of 50 city regions in Germany. Particularly in larger urban areas, polycentric development can moderate the urban heat island effect, when built-up areas can be several degrees hotter than surrounding rural areas – a potentially dangerous phenomenon during heat waves that are expected to grow more common due to climate change.
While urban tree canopies and green spaces are known to provide cooling benefits, the researchers also found that smaller, decentralized open spaces across a metropolitan area are more effective at reducing urban heat compared with a larger, more centralized green space pattern.
The findings suggest cooling strategies that merely address the role of urban density may be insufficient, and point to the need for regional-level planning to coordinate land-use patterns across metropolitan areas.
Stephan Schmidt, associate professor of city and regional planning, and Wenzheng Li, a doctoral student in the field of city and regional planning are co-authors of “Can Spatial Patterns Mitigate the Urban Heat Island Effect? Evidence from German Metropolitan Regions,” published in the journal Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science.
Schmidt and Li said the findings have implications for regional-level planning that are already institutionalized in German and European systems that promote polycentric development as a goal. But they said the study can also inform planners and policymakers more broadly to coordinate regional green spaces patterns and to increase the density of suburban nodes.
“There are many other benefits to doing that – limiting sprawl, concentrating population and economic activity, promoting public transit use and increasing affordable housing,” Schmidt said. “And in addition, you’ll have this positive impact on the metropolitan-scale heat island effect.”
The research was supported by the Cornell Sage Fellowship for doctoral students.
For additional information, see this Cornell Chronicle story.
Cornell University has dedicated television and audio studios available for media interviews.
Multiple city hubs, dispersed parks keep metro areas cooler
ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:
Innovation to overcome deficiencies in 3D printing
The University of Houston is collaborating with Texas A&M University to tackle the challenge hindering the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM), commonly known as 3D printing, for a variety of commercial applications – the need for real-time monitoring and analysis to ensure consistent quality and reproducibility throughout the production process. At present, quality control and qualification of metal AM parts is mostly carried out through offline inspection and characterization, but ideally, a broad range of sub-surface and bulk microstructural ...
Novel bispecific design improves CAR T–cell immunotherapy for childhood leukemia
(MEMPHIS, Tenn. – February 12, 2024) St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists improved chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T–cell immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), demonstrating better efficacy in the lab. To overcome common problems with CAR T cells, the researchers created an additional means for the therapy to find and eliminate cancer cells, using a small peptide. The study also showed how a computational approach incorporating AlphaFold predicted protein models could help ...
Including socioeconomic status of patients in calculation of Medicare readmission penalties would reduce stress on safety-net hospitals
INDIANAPOLIS -- The Affordable Care Act requires Medicare to issue penalties that reduce payment to hospitals if post-operative readmission rates within 30 days exceed the national average. A new study led by Regenstrief Institute Research Scientist Andrew Gonzalez, M.D., J.D., MPH, reports that including socioeconomic status in the penalty calculation would reduce the amount of readmission penalties for safety-net hospitals, which typically care for the sickest patients. Other factors, including age and sex are ...
Are ammonia engines the way of the future? (video)
WASHINGTON, Feb. 12, 2024 — Could ammonia engines power the cars of the future? Carmakers like Toyota are working to make this a reality. Ammonia is combustible and holds promise as a relatively low-effort way to decarbonize the internal combustion engine — but the devil’s in the details. Join George as he discovers at least one of those details by burning stuff in his basement. https://youtu.be/KZ_NlnmPQYk?si=BleQF9-aReuttCU4 Reactions is a video series produced by the American Chemical Society and PBS Digital Studios. Subscribe to Reactions at http://bit.ly/ACSReactions ...
Prevalence of young children fed only breast milk in low- and middle-income countries
About The Study: In this study of 276,000 children ages 6 to 23 months in 92 low- and middle-income countries, 10.4% were zero-food children (i.e., children who did not consume any animal milk, formula, or solid or semisolid food during the last 24 hours). The prevalence of zero-food children underscores the need for targeted interventions to improve infant and young child feeding practices and ensure optimal nutrition during this critical period of development. The issue is particularly urgent in West and Central ...
Emergency department use disparities among transgender and cisgender Medicare beneficiaries
About The Study: The results of this study suggested that transgender and gender-diverse Medicare beneficiaries use significantly more emergency department services than cisgender beneficiaries, particularly for psychological care, and these visits were more likely to be followed by an admission. This study quantifies this excess use of emergent services and highlights upstream implications of delays in seeking timely health care. Authors: Gray Babbs, M.P.H., of the Brown University School of Public Health in Providence, Rhode Island, is the corresponding author. To access the embargoed study: Visit our ...
Foster care involvement among youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities
About The Study: This study found that among youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities, Black youth and females faced higher risk for foster care involvement, and the likelihood of foster care involvement increased with age. There is an urgent need for research that focuses on addressing system-level factors that drive increased risk. Understanding the specific health needs of Black and female youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities is critical to ensure the formation, ...
Groundbreaking study on decomposing microbes could help transform forensic science
EMBARGO: THIS CONTENT IS UNDER EMBARGO UNTIL 11 A.M. U.S. EASTERN STANDARD TIME ON FEBRUARY 12. INTERESTED MEDIA MAY RECIVE A PREVIEW COPY OF THE JOURNAL ARTICLE IN ADVANCE OF THAT DATE OR CONDUCT INTERVIEWS, BUT THE INFORMATION MAY NOT BE PUBLISHED, BROADCAST, OR POSTED ONLINE UNTIL AFTER THE RELEASE WINDOW. For the first time, researchers have identified what appears to be a network of approximately 20 microbes that universally drive the decomposition of animal flesh. The findings have significant implications for the future of forensic science, including ...
Under embargo: Risk of death 12% higher for non-White children in England
Peer reviewed: Yes Type of evidence: Observational study Subject: People UNDER STRICT EMBARGO 16.00 hours [UK GMT] Monday 12 February 2024 / 11.00 hours [US EST] Monday 12 February 2024 Risk of death 12% higher for non-White children in England Twelve percent of infant deaths in England could be avoided if all infants in England had the same risk of death as White infants, a new University of Bristol-led study shows. Such a change, which equates to more than 200 deaths per year, would bring England – which currently has one ...
Newly discovered brain cells play a key role in right and left turns
Have you ever wondered what happens in the brain when we move to the right or left? Most people don’t; they just do it without thinking about it. But this simple movement is actually controlled by a complex process. In a new study, researchers have discovered the missing piece in the complex nerve-network needed for left-right turns. The discovery was made by a research team consisting of Assistant Professor Jared Cregg, Professor Ole Kiehn, and their colleagues from the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Copenhagen. In 2020, Ole Kiehn, Jared Cregg and their colleagues identified the ‘brain’s steering wheel’ – a network ...