PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

New Jurassic fossil findings provide insights into the development of the middle ear in mammals

2024-04-03
(Press-News.org) New Jurassic fossil findings provide insights into the development of the middle ear in mammals

An international team of palaeontologists has made a significant discovery in fossils that offer key information about the evolutionary shift from the jaw joint bones to those of the middle ear in early mammals.

The findings published today in the prestigious journal Nature provide a clearer insight into the evolution of hearing in mammaliaforms.

The fossils, from the Jurassic Period, are of two different species: a novel morganucodontan-like species and a pseudotribosphenic shuotheriid species. The specimens show noticeable physical characteristics, suggesting a gradual change in the jaw joint's function towards specialising in hearing.

“The significance of this discovery is that both species have mandibular middle ears (MdME), and the morganucodontan-like species have new postdentary bone structures,” said author Professor Patricia Vickers-Rich from the Monash University School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment.

“This species is losing the load-bearing function of its articular-quadrate joint, whereas the shuotheriid species is showing characteristics suited for purely auditory function,” she said.

The fossils offer important evidence of the transitional phases in the evolution of the mammalian middle ear. A progressive decline in the load-bearing capacity of the main jaw joint is leading to the separation of postdentary bones from the dentary.

The findings revise prior ideas of the original state of the mammalian middle ear. The research enhances the understanding of mammaliaform development by resolving questions related to middle ear evolution in close mammal relatives.

“Studying transitional stages in evolutionary history is crucial,” said Professor Vickers-Rich.

“The fossils show incremental modifications that demonstrate the complex process of adaptation that resulted in the advanced hearing systems found in modern animals.”

The results also provide insight into how tissues such as the ossified Meckel's cartilage helped in the shift from jaw movement to hearing ability.

Researchers can track the steady evolution of the middle ear ossicles by studying traits like the medial displacement of the quadrate in reference to the articular.

Co-author Dr Thomas Rich of Museums Victoria Research Institute said, “Newly recognised well-preserved fossils from the Jurassic of China significantly clarify how one of the most remarkable transitions in the history of the vertebrates occurred; namely, the transformation of many of the multiple bones in the lower jaws of reptiles became tiny bones in the middle ears of mammals.”

The research team highlights that these findings are important advancements in our comprehension of mammalian evolution. Researchers aim to acquire greater insights into the intricate processes that influenced the development of hearing in early animals when more fossil evidence is uncovered through ongoing field work and investigative research.

- ENDS -

Full list of authors and their affiliations:

Jin Meng: American Museum of Natural History, Fangyuan Mao: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chi Zhang: Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Jicheng Ren: Key Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates, Institute of Vertebrate, Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tao Wang: Bureau of Land and Resources of Lufeng County, Yunnan Province, Guofu Wang: Fossil Research Center of Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan Province Chuxiong, Yunnan, Fakui Zhang: Key Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tom Rich: Museums Victoria, Melbourne, Patricia Vickers-Rich: Monash University

END



ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

JAMA paper: In people with opioid use disorder, telemedicine treatment for HCV was more than twice as successful as off-site referral

JAMA paper: In people with opioid use disorder, telemedicine treatment for HCV was more than twice as successful as off-site referral
2024-04-03
BUFFALO, N.Y. – People with opioid use disorder who have hepatitis C virus (HCV) were twice as likely to be successfully treated and cured from HCV if they received facilitated telemedicine treatment at their opioid treatment program (OTPs) than if they were referred off-site to another provider. Those are the findings published today by a University at Buffalo team of researchers in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). The study is one of only a few randomized controlled ...

Genetic analysis reveals true origin of chronic kidney disease in undiagnosed patients

Genetic analysis reveals true origin of chronic kidney disease in undiagnosed patients
2024-04-03
Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers discover that known genetic variants might account for a large portion of chronic kidney diseases of unclear origin Tokyo, Japan – Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is extremely prevalent among adults, affecting over 800 million individuals worldwide. Many of these patients eventually require therapy to supplement or replace kidney functions, such as dialysis or kidney transplant. While most CKD cases originate from lifestyle-related factors or diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, the underlying ...

Jurassic shuotheriids reveal earliest dental diversification of mammaliaforms

2024-04-03
Palaeontologists have presented a new insight into the initial dental variations across mammaliaforms, providing a fresh perspective on the evolutionary past of these ancient beasts. The discovery, involving a team of international researchers including Professor Patricia Vickers-Rich from the Monash University School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, is published today in the renowned journal Nature. The research, conducted by a group of palaeontologists from prestigious institutions in New York, China and Australia, examines the tooth structure of the Jurassic ...

Novel high entropy alloy nanoparticle catalysts for growing high-density carbon nanotubes

Novel high entropy alloy nanoparticle catalysts for growing high-density carbon nanotubes
2024-04-03
High entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted significant attention in various fields due to their unique properties such as high strength and hardness, and high thermal and chemical stabilities. Unlike conventional alloys, which typically incorporate small quantities of one or two additional metals, HEAs constitute a solid solution of five or more metals in equal atomic ratio. This unique composition results in unique and complex surface structures that contain many different active sites suitable for catalytic reactions. As a result, in recent years, HEA nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively studied for their catalytic potential.   However, despite their ...

COVID-19 vaccination as effective for adults with common mental disorders as for those without

2024-04-03
INDIANAPOLIS – A large multi-state electronic health record-based study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) VISION Network has found that COVID-19 vaccines are as effective for adults with anxiety or depression or mood disorders as for individuals without these common diagnoses. This is one of the first studies to evaluate COVID-19 mRNA vaccine effectiveness for those living with mental illness. While vaccination provided similar protection regardless of psychiatric diagnosis (none, one or multiple ...

Columbia University begins construction on New York City’s first all-electric biomedical research building

Columbia University begins construction on New York City’s first all-electric biomedical research building
2024-04-03
NEW YORK, NY (April 3, 2024) – Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons (VP&S) will begin construction on New York City’s first all-electric university research building in May. The new biomedical research building in Washington Heights is designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF) and will house eight stories of laboratories and research facilities, collaboration corners, living walls, and community engagement spaces. The new biomedical research building will become the center of Columbia’s efforts to gain new understanding of diseases and develop next-generation ...

Tree of life for modern birds revealed

Tree of life for modern birds revealed
2024-04-03
2 April, 2024, Sydney; In a world first, a team of international scientists including three Australians, Al-Aabid Chowdhury and Professor Simon Ho from University of Sydney, and Dr Jacqueline Nguyen from Australian Museum and Flinders University, have determined the family tree of modern birds and pinpointed the timing of their evolution. Their findings have been published today in Nature. The largest study ever undertaken of modern bird genomes, the scientists combined genomic data of more than 360 bird species with data from nearly 200 bird fossils to reconstruct the most well-supported Tree of ...

Study finds gunshots in American cities twice as likely at night, potentially disrupting sleep for those in earshot

2024-04-03
  KEY TAKEAWAYS Researchers from Mass General Brigham analyzed timing and location of gunshots in six of the most populated U.S. cities (Baltimore, Boston, Washington, D.C., New York, Philadelphia, and Portland, Ore.) from 2015-2021. The team estimates that annually, approximately 12.5 million person-nights—the number of nights of gunshots multiplied by the number of people in earshot—are impacted by nighttime gunshots, and that those were more common in low-income areas in each city. The noise of nighttime gunshots may have underrecognized and underappreciated effects on ...

A real life Eye of Sauron? New project to spot possible chemical threats in the air

2024-04-03
Picture this disaster scenario in the making: At an industrial plant, a pipe cracks, spraying a cloud of tiny droplets into the air. Workers, however, are in luck. Within minutes, a laser-based device the size of a small suitcase spots the cloud and tells safety crews what’s in it so they know how to respond. That’s the vision behind a new project from a team of engineers and chemists at the University of Colorado Boulder, California Institute of Technology, University of California Santa Barbara, and three companies. It’s ...

Testing environmental water to monitor COVID-19 spread in unsheltered encampments

Testing environmental water to monitor COVID-19 spread in unsheltered encampments
2024-04-03
To better understand COVID-19’s spread during the pandemic, public health officials expanded wastewater surveillance. These efforts track SARS-CoV-2 levels and health risks among most people, but they miss people who live without shelter, a population particularly vulnerable to severe infection. To fill this information gap, researchers reporting in ACS’ Environmental Science & Technology Letters tested flood-control waterways near unsheltered encampments, finding similar transmission patterns as in the broader community and identifying previously unseen ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

UK/Portuguese study strongly suggests antibiotic-resistant “superbugs” are being passed from cats and dogs to their owners

Researchers study effects of solvation and ion valency on metallopolymers

Physicists solve puzzle about ancient galaxy found by Webb telescope

Clear guidelines needed for synthetic data to ensure transparency, accountability and fairness study says

Report finds significant gender and racial inequities in the educational measurement profession

University of Houston and Scotland’s Heriot-Watt University forge strategic energy alliance

Rice team demonstrates miniature brain stimulator in humans

Jennifer Stinson receives prestigious Barer-Flood Prize in health services research

First insights into the genetic bottleneck characterizing early sheep husbandry in the Neolithic period

Theories that explain the crisis in democracy are inadequate for Latin America, experts say

Starving cells hijack protein transport stations

Where have all the right whales gone?

Researchers find no link between COVID-19 virus and development of asthma in children

Cell’s ‘garbage disposal’ may have another role: helping neurons near skin sense the environment

Study reveals potential to reverse lung fibrosis using the body’s own healing technique

International team co-led by a BSC researcher discovers more than 50 new deep-sea species in one of the most unexplored areas of the planet

Cleveland Innovation District partners exceeding many targets set by state and JobsOhio

A third of women experience migraines associated with menstruation, most commonly when premenopausal

MD Anderson Research Highlights for April 12, 2024

Soft Robotics appoints new Deputy Editor-in-Chief, Barbara Mazzolai, PhD

Wiley releases Mass Spectra of Designer Drugs 2024 to accelerate forensics analysis of fentanyls, cannabinoids, and more

Freestanding emergency departments are popular, but do they function as intended?

University of Cincinnati experts present at national neurology conference

Bonobos are more aggressive than previously thought

How seaweed became multicellular

Melanomas resist drugs by ‘breaking’ genes

Africa’s iconic flamingos threatened by rising lake levels, study shows

Vaccination timeliness among US children ages 0-19 months

Changes in permanent contraception procedures among young adults following the Dobbs decision

Semaglutide vs endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty for weight loss

[Press-News.org] New Jurassic fossil findings provide insights into the development of the middle ear in mammals