PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

New beta-decay measurements in mirror nuclei pin down the weak nuclear force

Scientists develop a new method to characterize the properties of one of the four fundamental forces of nature

New beta-decay measurements in mirror nuclei pin down the weak nuclear force
2024-04-19
(Press-News.org) The Science The Standard Model of Particle Physics is scientists’ best understanding of the forces that describe how subatomic particles interact. The Standard Model encompasses four forces: the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, the electromagnetic force, and the gravitational force. All four forces govern the way our universe works. However, the weak nuclear force is exceptionally difficult to study as it is overshadowed by the much greater effects of the strong nuclear and electromagnetic forces. Scientists have gained new insights into the weak nuclear force from detailed studies of the beta decays of the “mirror” nuclei lithium-8 and boron-8. Mirror nuclei are atoms with reversed numbers of protons and neutrons. For example, lithium-8 has three protons and five neutrons, while boron-8 has five protons and three neutrons.

The Impact Scientists have performed a new, more sensitive measurement of beta decay properties to hunt for a theorized feature of the weak nuclear force not currently included in the Standard Model. The weak nuclear force drives the process of nuclear beta decay. In beta decay, a proton or neutron in a nucleus emits a beta particle (an electron or its anti-particle, a positron) and a neutrino. The properties of the beta decays of the radioactive mirror nuclei lithium-8 and boron-8 are in perfect agreement with the predictions of the Standard Model. This effort combines state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methods and paves the way for future advances in the study of the weak nuclear force.

Summary A team of nuclear scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Louisiana State University precisely measured the beta-decay properties of the “mirror” nuclei lithium-8 and boron-8 to better understand the weak nuclear force. Mirror nuclei have the same total number of protons and neutrons, but the numbers of each particle are reversed. Mirror nuclei provide an opportunity to study the weak nuclear force with increased sensitivity. The predicted signature of many of the sought-after new effects would give rise to opposite contributions in the two different nuclei. This would allow scientists to compare the lithium-8 and boron-8 results to isolate the contributions to the decay from each nucleus.

By studying both these nuclei with the Beta-decay Paul Trap, a device that holds clouds of ions in vacuum, the researchers determined the energies and directions of the emitted beta particle and two alpha particles with high precision. This approach allowed the researchers to reconstruct the full decay properties, including the contribution from the unseen neutrino. The Standard Model (SM) predicts the distribution of emission angles for the beta particle and neutrino, and any observed difference would reveal new aspects of the weak nuclear force. The team was looking for differences smaller than 1%, which required a thorough understanding of the apparatus and detection system, paired with a newly developed first-principle approach using “Symmetry-Adapted No-Core Shell Model theory” to account for a number of small effects that arise from the complicated environment of the nucleus. The results were the highest precision of their kind and confirmed the SM prediction with increased confidence.

 

Funding This work was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics and was carried out by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Individuals were supported by the National Science Foundation and a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. This research used resources of Argonne National Laboratory’s ATLAS facility, a DOE Office of Science user facility, and benefited from high performance computational resources provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science user facility, as well as by Frontera and Louisiana State University.

END

[Attachments] See images for this press release:
New beta-decay measurements in mirror nuclei pin down the weak nuclear force

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Study uncovers neural mechanisms underlying foraging behavior in freely moving animals

Study uncovers neural mechanisms underlying foraging behavior in freely moving animals
2024-04-19
HOUSTON – (April 19, 2024) – While foraging, animals including humans and monkeys are continuously making decisions about where to search for food and when to move among possible sources of sustenance. “Foraging behavior is something we perform daily when we go to the grocery store to pick up food, and we make choices based on the degree of reward each choice provides. It’s a classical problem common to every species on the planet,” said Valentin Dragoi, professor of electrical and computer engineering at Rice, professor of neuroscience at Weill Cornell Medical College and scientific director of the Methodist/Rice Center for Neural Systems Restoration. In ...

Gene therapy is halting cancer. Can it work against brain tumors?

2024-04-19
Grant of up to $11 million will fund a clinical trial at UCSF that uses a smarter new CAR-T guided by precision technology.   A type of gene therapy called CAR-T that has extended survival for thousands of patients with leukemia and other blood cancers is being adapted at UC San Francisco to treat people with glioblastoma, the most common and deadly adult brain tumor.    This new more powerful version of CAR-T employs a novel technology developed at UCSF called synthetic notch (synNotch) that both protects healthy tissue from damage and enables the treatment to work more effectively.     UCSF ...

New copper-catalyzed C-H activation strategy from Scripps Research

2024-04-19
LA JOLLA, CA—Inspired by what human liver enzymes can do, Scripps Research chemists have developed a new set of copper-catalyzed organic synthesis reactions for building and modifying pharmaceuticals and other molecules. The new reactions are expected to be widely used in drug discovery and optimization, as well as in other chemistry-based industries. In their study, which initially published in an unedited version on March 28, 2024, in Nature, the chemists showed that their new methods can be used to perform two modifications—called dehydrogenations and lactonizations—on ...

New compound from blessed thistle promotes functional nerve regeneration

New compound from blessed thistle promotes functional nerve regeneration
2024-04-19
Blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus) is a plant in the family Asteraceae and also grows in our climate. For centuries, it has been used as a medicinal herb as an extract or tea, e.g. to aid the digestive system. Researchers at the Center for Pharmacology of University Hospital Cologne and at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne have now found a completely novel use for Cnicin under the direction of Dr Philipp Gobrecht and Professor Dr Dietmar Fischer. Animal models as well as human cells have shown that Cnicin significantly accelerates axon (nerve fibres) growth. The study ...

Auburn’s McCrary Institute, ORNL to partner on first regional cybersecurity center to protect the nation’s electricity grid

Auburn’s McCrary Institute, ORNL to partner on first regional cybersecurity center to protect the nation’s electricity grid
2024-04-19
Auburn University’s McCrary Institute for Cyber and Critical Infrastructure Security was awarded a $10 million Department of Energy grant in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to create a pilot regional cybersecurity research and operations center to protect the electric power grid against cyberattacks.  The total value of the project is $12.5 million, with the additional $2.5 million coming from Auburn University and other strategic partners. The center, officially named the Southeast Region Cybersecurity Collaboration Center, or SERC3, will bring together experts from the private sector, academia and government to share information and generate innovative ...

New UNC-Chapel Hill study examines the increased adoption of they/them pronouns

2024-04-19
People are using “they/them” pronouns more often according to a new study by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  Led by UNC-Chapel Hill researcher Jennifer E. Arnold, Ph.D., the new research paper published on April 14 in Glossa Psycholinguistics provides the first evidence of how people use “they/them” when talking about a specific person in a spoken storytelling context.  “Within the last decade, people have started to use ‘they’ as a personal pronoun, often because they identify as nonbinary or gender nonconforming,” said Arnold, a professor ...

Groundbreaking study reveals potential diagnostic marker for multiple sclerosis years before symptom onset

2024-04-19
A new study published today in Nature Medicine unveils a significant breakthrough in the understanding and early detection of multiple sclerosis (MS). Researchers have identified a unique autoantibody signature present in approximately 10% of patients with MS years before the onset of clinical symptoms. Autoantibodies are basically antibodies that are supposed to fight off invaders but end up turning against one’s own body, causing problems like autoimmune diseases. Utilizing the U.S. Department ...

Annals of Internal Medicine presents breaking scientific news at ACP’s Internal Medicine Meeting 2024

2024-04-19
 Annals of Internal Medicine presents breaking scientific news at ACP’s Internal Medicine Meeting 2024   Authors discuss evidence-based research on obesity, antibiotic resistance, and type 2 diabetes   BOSTON April 19, 2024 – Today at ACP’s annual meeting, Internal Medicine Meeting 2024, Annals of Internal Medicine presented three breaking scientific research articles during a live scientific plenary session that featured the authors of those articles. The articles were published in ACP’s flagship journal concurrent with the live meeting presentation. During the session, New in Annals of Internal Medicine: Hear it First from the Authors, the authors ...

Scientists discover new way to extract cosmological information from galaxy surveys

Scientists discover new way to extract cosmological information from galaxy surveys
2024-04-19
Scientists at the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and their international collaborators have recently developed a new method for efficiently extracting information from galaxy surveys. Their research results were published online in the latest issue of Communications Physics. Massive galaxy redshift surveys are powerful tools for probing the Universe in this era of precision cosmology. By observing a great number of spectra from distant galaxies, astronomers are able to create density fields of galaxies ...

Shoe technology reduces risk of diabetic foot ulcers

Shoe technology reduces risk of diabetic foot ulcers
2024-04-19
Researchers have developed a new shoe insole technology that helps reduce the risk of diabetic foot ulcers, a dangerous open sore that can lead to hospitalization and leg, foot or toe amputations. “The goal of this innovative insole technology is to mitigate the risk of diabetic foot ulcers by addressing one of their most significant causes: skin and soft tissue breakdown due to repetitive stress on the foot during walking,” said Muthu B.J. Wijesundara, principal research scientist at The University of Texas at Arlington Research Institute (UTARI). Affecting about 39 million people in the U.S., diabetes can damage the small blood vessels that supply blood to the nerves, ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Grafted cucumbers get a boost: pumpkin's secret to withstanding salinity

Unlocking broccoli's genome: key to enhanced health benefits

New insights into methyl jasmonate-induced saponin biosynthesis in balloon flower

Unraveling the role of ADGRF5: Insights into kidney health and function

JMIR Dermatology accepted for MEDLINE indexing

Reduced infections seen in CLL and NHL patients undergoing immunoglobulin testing and replacement therapy

Human activity: A double-edged sword in the face of drought

Portfolio performance in financial management: apraize, analyze, act.

Landmark Nature Medicine study reports promising new treatment reduces suffering in Sanfilippo syndrome

Membrane protein analogues could accelerate drug discovery

Berkeley Lab researchers advance AI-driven plant root analysis

Cleveland Clinic study shows weight loss surgery cuts risk of heart complications and death in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and obesity

SQUID pries open AI black box

Resiliency shaped by activity in the gut microbiome and brain

Inspired by nature: synthetic nightshade molecule effective against leukemia cells

Promise green hydrogen may not always be fulfilled

Unifying behavioral analysis through animal foundation models

Up to 30 percent more time: Climate change makes it harder for women to collect water

Heart failure in space: scientists calculate potential health threats facing future space tourists in microgravity

Experts offer guidance on talking with children about racism at pediatrician's office

Drugs for HIV and AIDS trialed as brain tumor treatment for first time

Breakthrough in nanoscale force measurement opens doors to unprecedented biological insights

Scientists discover new behavior of membranes that could lead to unprecedented separations

When inflicting pain on others pays off T

The Lancet: Managing gestational diabetes much earlier in pregnancy can prevent complications and improve long-term health outcomes, experts say

New study finds dinosaur fossils did not inspire the mythological griffin

NASA astronaut Woody Hoburg to deliver keynote address at ISSRDC focused on developing a space workforce

Study: Fatigue-management training improved sleep, safety, well-being for Seattle police

Guiding humanity beyond the moon: OHIO’s Nate Szewczyk and students coauthor papers published in “Nature” journals that revolutionize human space biology

Grant supports research to identify barriers to health care for Black women

[Press-News.org] New beta-decay measurements in mirror nuclei pin down the weak nuclear force
Scientists develop a new method to characterize the properties of one of the four fundamental forces of nature