Contact Information:

Media Contact

Dr. Thomas Zoufal
presse@desy.de
49-408-998-1666

Twitter: desynews

http://www.desy.de




Kredyty mieszkaniowe Kredyty mieszkaniowe

Sprawdź aktualny ranking najlepszych kredytów mieszkaniowych w Polsce - atrakcyjne kredytowanie nieruchomości.

PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION
RSS - Press News Release
Add Press Release

Record high pressure squeezes secrets out of osmium

X-ray experiments reveal peculiar behaviour of the most incompressible metal on Earth


Record high pressure squeezes secrets out of osmium
2015-08-24
(Press-News.org) This news release is available in German.

An international team of scientists led by the University of Bayreuth and with participation of DESY has created the highest static pressure ever achieved in a lab: Using a special high pressure device, the researchers investigated the behaviour of the metal osmium at pressures of up to 770 Gigapascals (GPa) - more than twice the pressure in the inner core of the Earth, and about 130 Gigapascals higher than the previous world record set by members of the same team. Surprisingly, osmium does not change its crystal structure even at the highest pressures, but the core electrons of the atoms come so close to each other that they can interact - contrary to what is usually known in chemistry. This fundamental result published in the journal Nature has important implications for understanding physics and chemistry of highly compressed matter, for design of materials to be used at extreme conditions, and for modelling the interiors of giant planets and stars.

Metallic osmium (Os) is one of the most exceptional chemical elements, having at ambient pressure the highest known density of all elements, one of the highest cohesive energies, melting temperatures, and a very low compressibility - it is almost as incompressible as diamond. Due to its hardness, osmium finds applications in alloys used for instance as electrical contacts, wear-resistant machine parts and tips for high-quality ink pens.

"High pressure is known to radically affect properties of chemical elements: metals like sodium may become transparent insulators; gases like oxygen solidify and become electrical conductors - and even superconductors," explains Natalia Dubrovinskaia from the University of Bayreuth, together with Leonid Dubrovinsky the main author of the study. "as any other material subjected to very high compression, osmium is expected to change its crystal structure."

For their experiments, the scientists used a device for generating ultra-high static pressures developed by Dubrovinsky and Dubrovinskaia at Bayreuth. The device uses micro-anvils of only 10 to 20 micrometres (a micrometre is a thousandths of a millimetre) in diameter which are made of nanocrystalline diamond. These nanocrystals, which are diamond grains of a nano-size, are bound together forming a bulk micro-anvil. The many grain boundaries make the nanocrystalline anvils even harder than single crystal diamonds, extending the range of static pressure in experiments from about 400 GPa to 770 GPa at room temperature.

For probing the samples under these extreme conditions, the team used high-brilliance X-rays from the synchrotron sources PETRA III at DESY, ESRF in France and APS in the U.S. The team found out that Osmium shows unprecedented structural stability and keeps its crystal structure even at huge pressures of about 770 GPa.

While the volume of the osmium unit cell steadily shrinks with rising pressure, very accurate X-ray diffraction experiments revealed anomalies in the behaviour of the lattice parameters describing the unit cell. Usually, changes in materials properties under pressure are associated with modifications in the configurations of the outer (valence) electrons. But in case of highly compressed osmium the reason for the observed structural anomaly is an interaction between the inner (core) electrons, as suggested by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. "This work demonstrates that ultra-high static pressures can force the core electrons to interplay," explains Dubrovinsky. "The ability to affect the core electrons even in such incompressible metals as osmium in static high-pressure experiments opens up exciting opportunities in searching for new states of matter."

The experiments pave the way for investigating materials under conditions of the inner core of giant planets. "In the last 20 years, astronomers found more than thousand planets around other stars, nearly all of them bigger than our Earth," says co-author Hanns-Peter Liermann from DESY, responsible for the beamline P02 at PETRA III, where some of the experiments took place. "With the newly developed double-stage diamond anvil cell and with the very focused high intensity X-ray spot at PETRA III - or later at the X-ray laser European XFEL that is currently being constructed in the Hamburg area - we can probe a variety of rocky planet compositions under most extreme conditions and will learn a lot about the composition and evolution of such planets."

INFORMATION:

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY is the leading German accelerator centre and one of the leading in the world. DESY is a member of the Helmholtz Association and receives its funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) (90 per cent) and the German federal states of Hamburg and Brandenburg (10 per cent). At its locations in Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin, DESY develops, builds and operates large particle accelerators, and uses them to investigate the structure of matter. DESY's combination of photon science and particle physics is unique in Europe.

Reference The most incompressible metal osmium at static pressures above 750 GPa; L. Dubrovinsky, N. Dubrovinskaia, E. Bykova, M. Bykov, V. Prakapenka, C. Prescher, K. Glazyrin, H.-P. Liermann, M. Hanfland, M. Ekholm, Q. Feng, L. V. Pourovskii, M. I. Katsnelson, J. M. Wills, and I. A. Abrikosov; „Nature", 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nature14681


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Record high pressure squeezes secrets out of osmium

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Giving pharmacists the power to combat opioid overdoses

2015-08-24
BOSTON -- In response to the growing opioid crisis, several states, including Massachusetts and Rhode Island, have granted pharmacists the authority to provide naloxone rescue kits without a prescription to at-risk patients. This model of pharmacy-based naloxone (PBN) education and distribution is one of the public health strategies currently being evaluated at hundreds of pharmacies in both states to determine the impact on opioid overdose death rates. Led by researchers at Boston Medical Center (BMC), Rhode Island Hospital, and the University of Rhode Island College ...

Researchers tackle issues surrounding security tools for software developers

2015-08-24
For software programmers, security tools are analytic software that can scan or run their code to expose vulnerabilities long before the software goes to market. But these tools can have shortcomings, and programmers don't always use them. New research from National Science Foundation-funded computer science researcher Emerson Murphy-Hill and his colleagues tackles three different aspects of the issue. "Our work is focused on understanding the developers who are trying to identify security vulnerabilities in their code, and how they use (or don't use) tools that can help ...

Men, people over 65 sleep better when they have access to nature

2015-08-24
URBANA, Ill. - Men and persons age 65 and older who have access to natural surroundings, whether it's the green space of a nearby park or a sandy beach and an ocean view, report sleeping better, according to a new University of Illinois study published in Preventive Medicine. "It's hard to overestimate the importance of high-quality sleep," said Diana Grigsby-Toussaint, a U of I professor of kinesiology and community health and a faculty member in the U of I's Division of Nutritional Sciences. "Studies show that inadequate sleep is associated with declines in mental ...

Study backs flu vaccinations for elderly

2015-08-24
PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- A new study of the records of millions of nursing home residents affirms the value of influenza vaccination among the elderly. The Brown University analysis found that between 2000 and 2009, the better matched the vaccine was for the influenza strain going around, the fewer nursing home residents died or were hospitalized. Although flu vaccination is a standard of care and a measure of quality in nursing homes, some public health experts question the evidence of whether they do any good, said Vincent Mor, corresponding author of ...

GPM sees rainfall in Tropical Depression Kilo nearing Johnston Island

GPM sees rainfall in Tropical Depression Kilo nearing Johnston Island
2015-08-24
The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite gathered rainfall data on Tropical Depression Kilo as it heads toward Johnston Island in the Central Pacific Ocean. On August 24, a Tropical Storm Warning was posted for Johnston Island Kilo formed as depression and strengthened into a tropical storm to southeast of the Hawaiian Islands on August 20, 2015. By 5 a.m. EDT on Sunday, August 23, Kilo weakened to a tropical depression. Today, August 24, the tropical depression nearing Johnston Island. The National Hurricane Center noted that Johnston Island ...

Brains of abused teenagers show 'encouraging' ability to regulate emotions

2015-08-24
Washington D.C., August 24, 2015 - Children who have been abused typically experience more intense emotions than their peers who have not been abused. This is often considered a byproduct of living in volatile, dangerous environments. A recent study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) set to find out what happens when these children are taught how to regulate their emotions. Could that better help them cope with difficult situations? The team of researchers from the University of Washington studied what happens ...

How to stay awake without caffeine

2015-08-24
WASHINGTON, Aug. 24 2015 -- You're tired and you need an energy boost, but you don't want the jitters from caffeine. What to do? In this Reactions video, we give you some chemistry-backed tips -- one of which involves cats -- to boost your productivity and stay awake without refilling the coffee cup. Check it out here: https://youtu.be/SvEQBURrPow INFORMATION: Subscribe to our weekly series at http://bit.ly/ACSReactions and follow us on Twitter @ACSReactions. The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 158,000 ...

Ants do drugs

2015-08-24
We humans have been using self-medication to cure the illnesses since the dawn of our species. There is some evidence that also other animals can exhibit this type of behavior, but the evidence has been hard to come by. Scientists from the University of Helsinki, Finland, have now shown that black ant Formica fusca can change their taste for food once exposed to the fungal pathogens. In the compound of interest was hydrogen peroxide, which can be found in the damaged plants, other insects and cadavers. "When ants are feeding on the diet containing extra free radicals ...

Enjoyment motivates people to participate in the sharing economy

2015-08-24
People are motivated to participate in the sharing economy because of its ecological sustainability, the enjoyment derived from the activity, the sense of community, and saving money and time. Ecological sustainability is one of the basic principles of the sharing economy - not to purchase everything individually but rather consumer collaboratively by sharing goods and services. Another canonical principle of the sharing economy is 'paying it forward'. However, collaborative consumption may involve the same hurdles as any other type of green consumption, researcher from ...

Patient born with insensitivity to pain acquires neuropathic pain following childbirth

2015-08-24
The report, published on F1000Research and titled Neuropathic pain in a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain has just passed peer review. It concerns a unique case of a woman with Channelopathy-associated Insensitivity to Pain (CIP) Syndrome, who developed features of neuropathic pain after sustaining pelvic fractures and an epidural hematoma that impinged on the right fifth lumbar (L5) nerve root. These injuries were sustained during a painless labour, which culminated in a Caesarean section. The patient had been diagnosed with CIP as child. This was later ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

How your brain decides blame and punishment -- and how it can be changed

Uniquely human brain region enables punishment decisions

Pinpointing punishment

Chapman University publishes research on attractiveness and mating

E-cigarettes: Special issue from Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Placental problems in early pregnancy associated with 5-fold increased risk of OB & fetal disorders

UT study: Invasive brood parasites a threat to native bird species

Criminals acquire guns through social connections

Restoring ocean health

Report: Cancer remains leading cause of death in US Hispanics

Twin study suggests genetic factors contribute to insomnia in adults

To be fragrant or not: Why do some male hairstreak butterflies lack scent organs?

International team discovers natural defense against HIV

Bolivian biodiversity observatory takes its first steps

Choice of college major influences lifetime earnings more than simply getting a degree

Dominant strain of drug-resistant MRSA decreases in hospitals, but persists in community

Synthetic biology needs robust safety mechanisms before real world application

US defense agencies increase investment in federal synthetic biology research

Robots help to map England's only deep-water Marine Conservation Zone

Mayo researchers identify protein -- may predict who will respond to PD-1 immunotherapy for melanoma

How much water do US fracking operations really use?

New approach to mammograms could improve reliability

The influence of citizen science grows despite some resistance

Unlocking secrets of how fossils form

What happens on the molecular level when smog gets into the lungs?

Using ultrasound to clean medical instruments

Platinum and iron oxide working together get the job done

Tiny silica particles could be used to repair damaged teeth, research shows

A quantum lab for everyone

No way? Charity's logo may influence perception of food in package

[Press-News.org] Record high pressure squeezes secrets out of osmium
X-ray experiments reveal peculiar behaviour of the most incompressible metal on Earth
Press-News.org is a service of DragonFly Company. All Rights Reserved.
Issuers of news releases are solely responsible for the accuracy of their content.