Contact Information:

Media Contact

Jim Barlow
jebarlow@uoregon.edu
541-346-3481

Twitter: UOregonNews

http://uonews.uoregon.edu




Kredyty mieszkaniowe Kredyty mieszkaniowe

Sprawdź aktualny ranking najlepszych kredytów mieszkaniowych w Polsce - atrakcyjne kredytowanie nieruchomości.

PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION
RSS - Press News Release
Add Press Release

Could tiny jellyfish propulsion drive design of new underwater craft?

University of Oregon oceanographer and colleagues detail how multiple jets guide jellies speedily through the water in search of prey


Could tiny jellyfish propulsion drive design of new underwater craft?
2015-09-01
(Press-News.org) EUGENE, Ore. - Sept. 1, 2015 - The University of Oregon's Kelly Sutherland has seen the future of under-sea exploration by studying the swimming prowess of tiny jellyfish gathered from Puget Sound off Washington's San Juan Island.

In a paper with four colleagues in the Sept. 2 issue of the journal Nature Communications, Sutherland details how a tiny type of jellyfish - colonial siphonophores - swim rapidly by coordinating multiple water-shooting jets from separate but genetically identical units that make up the animal.

Information on the biomechanics of a living organism that uses such a coordinated system ought to inspire "a natural solution to multi-engine organization that may contribute to the expanding field of underwater-distributed propulsion vehicle design," the co-authors conclude in their paper.

"This is a very interesting system for studying propulsion, because these jellies have multiple swimming bells to use for propulsion," said Sutherland, a biologist with both the UO's Oregon Institute of Marine Biology in Charleston and the Robert D. Clark Honors College on the Eugene campus. "This is relatively rare in the animal kingdom. Most organisms that swim with propulsion do so with a single jet. These siphonophores can turn on a dime, and very rapidly."

The jellies studied are Nanomia bijuga. They are members of the phylum Cnidaria, whose members have specialized stinging cells that are used mainly for capturing prey.

N. bijuga rarely exceed two inches in length but with tentacles can extend to a foot long. Samples were collected -- most often at night when their translucent bodies are easily seen with light over the dark water -- with cups off the floating docks at the University of Washington's Friday Harbor Laboratories. Individual colonies contained from four to 12 jet-like structures known as nectophores.

A single animal, Sutherland said, looks a bit like a bunch of tiny jellyfish strung together. Jellyfish most recognized by ocean lovers are usually much larger and are propelled by a single jet. The tiny versions studied, however, include multiple units and have a clear division of labor.

"The younger swimming bells at the tip of the colony are responsible for turning," Sutherland said. "They generate a lot of torque. The older swimming bells toward the base of the colony are responsible for thrust." Their tentacles capture zooplankton, the tiny organisms that these jellyfish consume, she added.

To understand how these jellies pulse water to maneuver, researchers placed sample colonies in small custom-built tanks and added neutrally buoyant seeding particles as tracers. With the tanks lit with a thin, 2-D laser sheet, the jellies' movement was captured with high-speed digital photography -- at 1,000 frames per second. The data was analyzed with particle image velocimetry, a technique that provides instantaneous velocity measurements.

Most animals and human-engineered vehicles rely on jet thrusters that are turned to change directions, a practice that, Sutherland said, is complicated from a design or engineering standpoint.

"These jellies have a slight ability to turn their individual jets, but they don't need to do it," she said. "With multiple static jets they can achieve all the maneuverability they need. Designing a system like this would be simple yet elegant. And you have redundancies in the system. If one jet goes out, there would be little loss of propulsion."

The research gives insight on how animals can achieve complex levels of maneuverability and performance with relatively simple components, said John "Jack" H. Costello of Providence College in Rhode Island, the study's lead author.

"The nectophores of these jellies appear to be fairly simple jet-producing structures," he said. "When swimming forward, the jets are essentially stereotypic in direction -- they appear to jet in a consistent direction. The complexity of turning is achieved by alternating which units contract and how strongly they jet. Rather than maneuvering by making highly complex physical alterations in jet directions among multiple individuals, the colony has evolved to control relatively simple, stable components using a more complex control system."

The next step, Costello said, it to understand how animals maximize their control of very basic motion patterns to attain such complex results. "We believe the identification of those controlling patterns will permit us to understand the high-performance levels of animal swimmers and that perhaps some of this information will be applicable to human-engineered vehicles.

In her UO lab, Sutherland studies gelatinous organisms, mostly jellyfish, to try to understand how organisms interact with the fluid around them. The fundamental questions that drive her research are how they manipulate the water around them to swim and how they do so to feed.

"My first interaction with the animals used in this research was actually swimming with them in their natural environment," she said. "They are vertical migrators, coming to the surface at night and swimming back into the depths during the day. They can swim hundreds of meters each night."

INFORMATION:

Co-authors were: Sean P. Colin of Rhode Island's Roger Williams University; Brad J. Gemmell of the University of South Florida; and John O. Dabiri of Stanford University. Costello, Colin and Gemmell also are affiliated with the Eugene Bell Center, a marine biology facility in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

This research emerged from a National Science Foundation grant (OCE-1155084) to Sutherland as part of a much larger project involving the authors and others at Friday Harbor Laboratories. The overall project also includes NSF grants to Costello (OCE-1061353), Colin (OCE-1061182) and Dabiri (OCE-1061628).

Sources: Kelly Sutherland, assistant professor of biology, UO Robert D. Clark Honors College and Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, 541-346-8783, ksuth@uoregon.edu; and John Costello, professor of marine biology, Providence College, 401-865-2474, costello@providence.edu

Note: The UO is equipped with an on-campus television studio with a point-of-origin Vyvx connection, which provides broadcast-quality video to networks worldwide via fiber optic network. There also is video access to satellite uplink and audio access to an ISDN codec for broadcast-quality radio interviews.

Links:

Sutherland faculty page: http://oimb.uoregon.edu/?faculty=kelly-sutherland Sutherland lab: http://pages.uoregon.edu/ksuth/ OIMB: http://oimb.uoregon.edu/ Clark Honors College: https://honors.uoregon.edu/ Costello faculty page: http://www.providence.edu/biology/faculty/Pages/costello.aspx Eugene Bell Center: http://www.mbl.edu/bell/


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Could tiny jellyfish propulsion drive design of new underwater craft? Could tiny jellyfish propulsion drive design of new underwater craft? 2

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Marine animal colony is a multi-jet swimming machine, scientists report

Marine animal colony is a multi-jet swimming machine, scientists report
2015-09-01
WOODS HOLE, MASS.--Marine animals that swim by jet propulsion, such as squid and jellyfish, are not uncommon. But it's rare to find a colony of animals that coordinates multiple jets for whole-group locomotion. This week in Nature Communications, scientists report on a colonial jellyfish-like species, Nanomia bijuga, that uses a sophisticated, multi-jet propulsion system based on an elegant division of labor among young and old members of the colony. This locomotive solution, the team suggests, could illuminate the design of underwater distributed-propulsion vehicles. "This ...

Can marijuana help transplant patients? New research says maybe

2015-09-01
Here's another discovery to bolster the case for medical marijuana: New research in mice suggests that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, may delay the rejection of incompatible organs. Although more research is necessary to determine if there are benefits to humans, this suggests that THC, or a derivative, might prove to be a useful antirejection therapy, particularly in situations where transplanted organs may not be a perfect match. These findings were published in the September 2015 issue of The Journal of Leukocyte Biology. "We are excited to demonstrate for ...

Forgiving others protects women from depression, but not men

2015-09-01
COLUMBIA, Mo. - Forgiveness is a complex process, one often fraught with difficulty and angst. Now, researchers in the University of Missouri College of Human Environmental Sciences studied how different facets of forgiveness affected aging adults' feelings of depression. The researchers found older women who forgave others were less likely to report depressive symptoms regardless of whether they felt unforgiven by others. Older men, however, reported the highest levels of depression when they both forgave others and felt unforgiven by others. The researchers say their ...

Police at risk of traffic injuries in stopped cars, as well as when speeding, study finds

2015-09-01
Police officers face an elevated risk of being injured in a collision when they are sitting in a stationary car as compared to low-speed driving, as well as when they are responding to an emergency call with their siren blaring as compared to routine patrol, according to a new RAND Corporation study. In addition, officers face a higher risk of being injured in a crash when they are riding a motorcycle compared to a driving a car, driving solo compared to having a second officer in the car, or not wearing a seatbelt compared to wearing a seatbelt. The findings provide ...

Vitamin a implicated in the development of alcoholic liver disease

2015-09-01
With a name like "Alcoholic Liver Disease," you may not think about vitamin A as being part of the problem. That's exactly what scientists have shown, however, in a new research report appearing in the September 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal. In particular, they found that chronic alcohol consumption has a dramatic effect on the way the body handles vitamin A. Long-term drinking lowers vitamin A levels in the liver, which is the main site of alcohol breakdown and vitamin A storage, while raising vitamin A levels in many other tissues. This opens the doors for novel treatments ...

Inntags: new tools for innocuous protein tagging

2015-09-01
The study, published today at Nature Methods (the most prestigious journal for the presentation of results in methods development), proposes the use of two plant protein epitopes, named inntags, as the most innocuous and stable tagging tools in the study of physical and functional interactions of proteins. Proteins and peptides of various sizes and shapes have been used since the early 80s to tag proteins with many different purposes, ranging from affinity purification to fluorescence-based microscopic detection in whole organisms. However, tagging strategies used nowadays ...

Climate change will irreversibly force key ocean bacteria into overdrive

2015-09-01
Imagine being in a car with the gas pedal stuck to the floor, heading toward a cliff's edge. Metaphorically speaking, that's what climate change will do to the key group of ocean bacteria known as Trichodesmium, scientists have discovered. Trichodesmium (called "Tricho" for short by researchers) is one of the few organisms in the ocean that can "fix" atmospheric nitrogen gas, making it available to other organisms. It is crucial because all life -- from algae to whales -- needs nitrogen to grow. A new study from USC and the Massachusetts-based Woods Hole Oceanographic ...

New treatment strategy identified for tumors associated with diabetes

2015-09-01
If you have diabetes and cancer, here's some hope. In a new research report appearing in the September 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal, scientists reveal a newly discovered tissue- and organ-specific mechanism that regulates blood vessel growth, and when inhibited reduced the growth of tumors in diabetic mice. In addition to the treatment of the diabetes-related cancers, the approach may be also used to treat other diabetic complications that are associated with the increased blood vessel growth, like retinopathy or nephropathy for example. "Complications of diabetes ...

Big differences in US healthcare costs for fixing back pain

2015-09-01
Costs for spinal fusion vary substantially by region, with costs being lowest in the Midwest and highest in the Northeast, according to the new research by Dr. W. Ryan Spiker and colleagues of University of Utah, Salt Lake City. They write, "This data sheds light on the actual cost of common surgeries throughout the United States, and will allow further progress towards the development of cost effective, value driven care." New Data on 'Actual Costs' of Common Spine Surgeries The researchers analyzed 2012 Medicare data on the costs of two common types of spinal fusion ...

Preterm birth linked with lower math abilities and less wealth

2015-09-01
People who are born premature tend to accumulate less wealth as adults, and a new study suggests that this may be due to lower mathematics abilities. The findings, published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, show that preterm birth is associated with lower academic abilities in childhood, and lower educational attainment and less wealth in adulthood. "Our findings suggest that the economic costs of preterm birth are not limited to healthcare and educational support in childhood, but extend well into adulthood," says psychological ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

How your brain decides blame and punishment -- and how it can be changed

Uniquely human brain region enables punishment decisions

Pinpointing punishment

Chapman University publishes research on attractiveness and mating

E-cigarettes: Special issue from Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Placental problems in early pregnancy associated with 5-fold increased risk of OB & fetal disorders

UT study: Invasive brood parasites a threat to native bird species

Criminals acquire guns through social connections

Restoring ocean health

Report: Cancer remains leading cause of death in US Hispanics

Twin study suggests genetic factors contribute to insomnia in adults

To be fragrant or not: Why do some male hairstreak butterflies lack scent organs?

International team discovers natural defense against HIV

Bolivian biodiversity observatory takes its first steps

Choice of college major influences lifetime earnings more than simply getting a degree

Dominant strain of drug-resistant MRSA decreases in hospitals, but persists in community

Synthetic biology needs robust safety mechanisms before real world application

US defense agencies increase investment in federal synthetic biology research

Robots help to map England's only deep-water Marine Conservation Zone

Mayo researchers identify protein -- may predict who will respond to PD-1 immunotherapy for melanoma

How much water do US fracking operations really use?

New approach to mammograms could improve reliability

The influence of citizen science grows despite some resistance

Unlocking secrets of how fossils form

What happens on the molecular level when smog gets into the lungs?

Using ultrasound to clean medical instruments

Platinum and iron oxide working together get the job done

Tiny silica particles could be used to repair damaged teeth, research shows

A quantum lab for everyone

No way? Charity's logo may influence perception of food in package

[Press-News.org] Could tiny jellyfish propulsion drive design of new underwater craft?
University of Oregon oceanographer and colleagues detail how multiple jets guide jellies speedily through the water in search of prey
Press-News.org is a service of DragonFly Company. All Rights Reserved.
Issuers of news releases are solely responsible for the accuracy of their content.