PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Cesareans weaken gut microbiota and increase risk of allergies

2013-08-08
(Press-News.org) Children who came into the world by Caesarean section are more often affected by allergies than those born in the natural way. The reason for this may be that they have a less diverse gut microbiota, according to a study by universities in Sweden and Scotland.

The researchers have followed gut macrobiota development in 24 children up to the age of two in the Swedish provinces of Östergötland and Småland, nine delivered through Caesarean and 15 delivered naturally, through vaginal birth. They used a type of molecular biology analysis, which gives a broad overview of the varieties of bacteria present in the intestines.

The results are presented in the scientific journal Gut, with Anders Andersson of the KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Science for Life Laboratory as the senior author. Other researchers in the study come from Linköping University, Karolinska Institutet (KI), Örebro University and the University of Glasgow, Scotland.

Those that were delivered by Caesarean section had a less diverse gut microbiota during their first two years of life than those born vaginally. Particularly clear was the low diversity among the group Bacteroidetes that, according to earlier observations of the research groups, are particularly linked to protection against allergies. Thus, these children may run greater risk of developing allergies, but diabetes and irritable bowel syndrome are also more common among children born by Caesarean.

"Sometimes Caesarean sections are necessary. But it is important that both expectant mothers and doctors are aware that such a delivery may affect the child's health," says Maria Jenmalm, professor of Experimental Allergology at Linköping University and one of the authors of the article.

Everything indicates that right up until the moment of birth the child's gut is completely sterile. Colonisation by many different bacteria is believed to be necessary for the immune system to develop and mature over the first years of life. If this does not happen there is a risk that the system can overreact against innocuous antigens in its surroundings, for example foodstuffs. Children affected by such allergies run a six times greater risk of developing asthma in their school years.

With natural birth the child is exposed to bacteria in the mother's birth canal, a good start to the formation of the child's own gut microbiota.

For those who entered the world through an incision in their mother's belly, different measures need to be developed.

"It might not be so good to have six months of only breast feeding. Earlier exposure to ordinary solid food may stimulate a higher diversity of the gut microbiota," Jenmalm says.

A more radical idea is now being tested by researchers in Puerto Rico. In the study a number of pregnant women have their vaginal microbiota screened before their planned Caesarean. After the birth the midwife takes a compress with secretions from the mother's vagina and smears it over the baby's face. The theory is that in this way the important bacteria may be transferred to the child. A similar study in Sweden is being planned.

Besides a greater diversity in their intestinal flora, children delivered vaginally in the Linköping study also had higher blood plasma levels of substances linked to Th1 cells, a kind of "chief cells" in the immune system, which can inhibit allergic immune responses.

The gut microbiota may be regarded as the biggest organ in the body. In the small and large intestines of an adult, there are at least ten times more bacteria than there are cells in the body. The number of species in a human exceeds 100. They use the nutrients in what we eat and in return for the food they provide a range of services. For example, some of them produce antibiotic-like substances which can kill off other unpleasant bacteria.

"One condition for these new insights into this fascinating universe of bacteria is the recent advances in biotechnology. With modern DNA sequencing and computer analysis methods we can determine the species composition in hundreds of samples at the same time, and even get an idea of what characteristics the bacteria have," says Anders Andersson, researcher in metagenomics at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Science for Life Laboratory.

### Article: Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonization, and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by Caesarean section by H E Jakobsson, T R Abrahamsson, M C Jenmalm, K Harris, C Quince, C Jernberg, B Björkstén, L Engstrand and A F Andersson. Gut doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303249

Contacts: Maria Jenmalm
professor of Experimental Allergology at Linköping University
+46 (0)10-103 41 01
+46 (0)70-237 89 70
maria.jenmalm@liu.se Lars Engstrand
professor Science for Life Laboratory, KI
+46 (0)8-52 48 45 97
lars.engstrand@ki.se Anders F. Andersson
Assistant Professor of Biotechnology
Science for Life Laboratory
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
+46 (0)8-52 48 14 14
anders.andersson@scilifelab.se

The study was carried out with the support of the Ekhaga Foundation, the Ragnar Söderberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, FORSS, the Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association, the Olle Engkvist Foundation, the Vårdal Foundation, FORMAS and Unilever.


ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Chemists' work will aid drug design to target cancer and inflammatory disease

2013-08-08
BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- Chemists at Indiana University Bloomington have produced detailed descriptions of the structure and molecular properties of human folate receptor proteins, a key development for designing new drugs that can target cancer and inflammatory diseases without serious side effects. The researchers, from the lab of Charles Dann III, assistant professor of chemistry in the College of Arts and Sciences, published their findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Dann said the results should help chemists create more effective antifolate ...

Carnegie Mellon research shows cellphone use may not cause more car crashes

2013-08-08
PITTSBURGH—For almost 20 years, it has been a wide-held belief that talking on a cellphone while driving is dangerous and leads to more accidents. However, new research from Carnegie Mellon University and the London School of Economics and Political Science suggests that talking on a cellphone while driving does not increase crash risk. Published in the American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, the study uses data from a major cellphone provider and accident reports to contradict previous findings that connected cellphone use to increased crash risk. Such findings ...

Terahertz technology fights fashion fraud

2013-08-08
The UK fashion industry is famous all over the world and worth around £37 billion to the economy. However, it is estimated that counterfeit clothing and footwear costs designer brands and retailers around £3.5 billion each year. Recently, new powers were given to customs officers to seize and destroy fake goods but in order to act on these powers they need to be able to tell whether or not a particular item of clothing is the genuine article. Scientists from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) have published research in Applied Optics that demonstrates how a technique ...

TUM researchers investigate 59 tumor cell lines

2013-08-08
In what is the biggest study of its kind to date, researchers from Technische Universität München (TUM) have identified over 10,000 different proteins in cancer cells. "Nearly all anti-tumor drugs are targeted against cellular proteins," says Prof. Bernhard Küster, Head of the TUM Chair of Proteomics and Bioanalytics. "Identifying the proteome the protein portfolio of tumor cells increases our chances of finding new targets for drugs." The scientists investigated 59 tumor cell lines from the US National Cancer Institute. The "NCI-60" cell lines represent the most common ...

Fast detector for a wide wavelength range

2013-08-08
Free-electron lasers are extremely versatile research tools because their intense, super short light flashes permit a closer look at new materials and even biological molecules; thus, allowing effects to be observed that had not been known previously. For pulsed lasers in the far infrared range, the so-called terahertz range, scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have developed a robust and fast detector which can measure the arrival of a terahertz pulse with great accuracy. The results were published in the scientific journal Applied Physics Letters ...

Study shows who survives Burkitt lymphoma

2013-08-08
A new study in the journal Cancer that tracked survival of more than 2,200 adults over the last decade with a highly aggressive form of lymphoma finds that with notable exceptions, medicine has made substantial progress in treating them successfully. To help doctors and researchers better understand who responds well to treatment and who doesn't, the study authors used their findings to create a stratified risk score of patient prognosis. Burkitt Lymphoma is not a common lymphoma but it is especially aggressive. The apparent progress doctors have made over the last two ...

GMP monitoring must take into account important types of indicators

2013-08-08
The 8th issue of the open access Biorisk journal is devoted to the topic of development and standardization of monitoring of genetically modified plants (GMP). The new issue, compiled by professionals under the umbrella of the Association of German Engineers (VDI), provides up-to-date research on the issue of developing VDI guidelines for GMP monitoring; now also capturing new faunal species groups as indicators. Each application for approval of GM plants must contain a tailored monitoring plan. However, in Germany current experience with the cultivation of insect-resistant ...

Standardized methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: The whys and hows

2013-08-08
Butterflies and moths were the first biological indicators considered for the purpose of GMO monitoring within the VDI guidelines series. The European community stipulates a monitoring plan in order to trace and identify any harmful effects on human health or the environment of GMO after they have been placed on the market. Butterflies and moths are widely accepted as relevant protection goals and have often been suggested and applied as suitable indicators for the monitoring of environmental quality and changes as one of the major indicators to monitor and assess biodiversity ...

Molecules form 2-D patterns never before observed

2013-08-08
Tessellation patterns that have fascinated mathematicians since Johannes Kepler worked out their systematics 400 years ago – and that more recently have caught the eye of both artists and crystallographers – can now be seen in the laboratory. They first took shape on a surface more perfectly two-dimensional than any sheet of writing paper, a single layer of atoms and molecules atop an atomically smooth substrate. Physicists coaxed these so-called Kepler tilings "onto the page" through guided self-assembly of nanostructures. The experiments were carried out by postdoctoral ...

What do people expect from sexting?

2013-08-08
New Rochelle, NY, August 8, 2013—As many as 20% of adolescents and 44% of young adults have shared nude or semi-nude photos of themselves via cell phone or social networking sites, a behavior known as sexting. Some people do it in the hopes it will lead to a "hook-up" or sexual activity. Sexting behavior and what results people expect may differ depending on a person's gender, relationship status, and sexual identity, are explored in a study published in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Grafted cucumbers get a boost: pumpkin's secret to withstanding salinity

Unlocking broccoli's genome: key to enhanced health benefits

New insights into methyl jasmonate-induced saponin biosynthesis in balloon flower

Unraveling the role of ADGRF5: Insights into kidney health and function

JMIR Dermatology accepted for MEDLINE indexing

Reduced infections seen in CLL and NHL patients undergoing immunoglobulin testing and replacement therapy

Human activity: A double-edged sword in the face of drought

Portfolio performance in financial management: apraize, analyze, act.

Landmark Nature Medicine study reports promising new treatment reduces suffering in Sanfilippo syndrome

Membrane protein analogues could accelerate drug discovery

Berkeley Lab researchers advance AI-driven plant root analysis

Cleveland Clinic study shows weight loss surgery cuts risk of heart complications and death in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and obesity

SQUID pries open AI black box

Resiliency shaped by activity in the gut microbiome and brain

Inspired by nature: synthetic nightshade molecule effective against leukemia cells

Promise green hydrogen may not always be fulfilled

Unifying behavioral analysis through animal foundation models

Up to 30 percent more time: Climate change makes it harder for women to collect water

Heart failure in space: scientists calculate potential health threats facing future space tourists in microgravity

Experts offer guidance on talking with children about racism at pediatrician's office

Drugs for HIV and AIDS trialed as brain tumor treatment for first time

Breakthrough in nanoscale force measurement opens doors to unprecedented biological insights

Scientists discover new behavior of membranes that could lead to unprecedented separations

When inflicting pain on others pays off T

The Lancet: Managing gestational diabetes much earlier in pregnancy can prevent complications and improve long-term health outcomes, experts say

New study finds dinosaur fossils did not inspire the mythological griffin

NASA astronaut Woody Hoburg to deliver keynote address at ISSRDC focused on developing a space workforce

Study: Fatigue-management training improved sleep, safety, well-being for Seattle police

Guiding humanity beyond the moon: OHIO’s Nate Szewczyk and students coauthor papers published in “Nature” journals that revolutionize human space biology

Grant supports research to identify barriers to health care for Black women

[Press-News.org] Cesareans weaken gut microbiota and increase risk of allergies