Contact Information:

Media Contact

David Orenstein

Twitter: brownuniversity

Kredyty mieszkaniowe Kredyty mieszkaniowe

Sprawdź aktualny ranking najlepszych kredytów mieszkaniowych w Polsce - atrakcyjne kredytowanie nieruchomości. - Press Release Distribution
RSS - Press News Release
Add Press Release

Researchers find promising new biomarkers for concussion

( PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- By looking at the molecular aftermath of concussion in an unusual way, a team of researchers at Brown University and the Lifespan health system has developed a candidate panel of blood biomarkers that can accurately signal mild traumatic brain injury within hours using standard, widely available lab arrays. The results appear in a new study in the Journal of Neurotrauma.

Many researchers have reported recent progress in identifying possible blood biomarkers for concussion -- an advance sought because diagnosis is currently limited to cognitive measures that can be subjective. Most groups have focused on detecting proteins released from dying brain cells, but those proteins are not always abundant after injury and often require exotic or proprietary antibodies to measure, said study corresponding author Adam Chodobski, associate professor (research) of emergency medicine in the Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

"Our approach was very different," said Chodobski, also a Lifespan researcher who directs the Neurotrauma and Brain Barriers Research Laboratory. "We wanted to look at proteins that are produced in response to injury and then appear in the circulation."

With that approach, informed by prior research in animals, the research team ultimately identified four proteins (copeptin, galectin 3, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and occludin) that changed dramatically in the bloodstream of patients shortly after they had a concussion. The correlation of two of them -- galectin 3 and occludin -- distinguished patients who had concussion from subjects who suffered an orthopedic injury, such as a bone break.

Concussions and controls

Chodobski's team, including lead author and former Brown student Rongzi Shan and researcher Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, structured the study to ensure that any biomarkers they found would be sensitive and specific for diagnosing concussion. Donor Diane Weiss and the Department of Emergency Medicine at Brown funded the effort.

The team recruited three groups of patients, one experimental group and two controls. The experimental group comprised 55 emergency room patients who had concussions diagnosed by other means. One control group included 44 people who were uninjured, while the other control group contained 17 patients who had long-bone fractures. In all of the patients they measured 18 proinflammatory proteins.

An analysis of the results identified four of the proteins as potential biomarkers. Specifically, within eight hours of injury, they found around a four-fold increase in the concentration of galectin 3, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and occluding, and a three-times lower concentration of copeptin in concussed patients compared to the uninjured controls.

While uninjured individuals might have had a high level of one or the other of these proteins, none had high levels of two or more at a time, but 90 percent of the patients with concussion had significantly altered concentrations of two or more. When the researchers looked at a combination of three proteins in patients with concussion -- copeptin, galectin 3, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 -- they found significant changes in the levels that provided a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for injury compared to the controls.

While each of those three proteins was also significantly altered in patients with bone breaks, as was occludin, the researchers found that only in the concussed patients did elevated occludin correlate with elevated galectin 3. Thus the four proteins considered together not only can indicate concussions in people for whom a brain injury is the only suspected problem, but also they can distinguish the possibility of a concussion from that of an injury elsewhere in the body.

Szmydynger-Chodobska noted that the four proteins' significance in indicating concussion endured regardless of patient age, gender, body-mass index or other medical characteristics.

"This was a broad spectrum of the population with different genders, different ethnicities, different age, and different physical conditions, and on this background these four biomarkers were not influenced," she said.

Rapid test and maybe treatment

The study indicated that the proteins are readily measurable with standard assays, but the team hopes to develop a microfluidic chip that can derive reliable readings within just two hours (well within the duration of many emergency room visits). They said they have already filed for a patent of the idea.

"Our plan is to commercialize this," Chodobski said.

Szmydynger-Chodobska said the team is also interested in looking at the proteins as therapeutic targets. Although there is some debate, research suggests that some of these inflammatory proteins may affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. That might mean patients who suffer traumatic brain injury not only suffer from the physical damage of the blow to the head but also from the resulting inflammatory response, especially within the first 24 hours.

"If you have a patient who has very high levels of MMP9, we can think about a treatment that blocks MMP9," she said. "It degrades the tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier. If you open the blood brain barrier, unwanted things from the blood get to the brain and that just makes the situation worse and increases the inflammation."

The panel may therefore eventually help not only with diagnosis, the researchers said, but may also aid treatment during a critical window of time.


In addition to Chodobski, Szmydynger-Chodobska, and Shan, the paper's other authors are Dr. Otis Warren and Dr. Brian Zink of Brown and Lifespan and Dr. Farah Mohammad of Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit.


Singapore identifies mutations that may enable earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer recurrence

Singapore, 18 March 2015- A multi-disciplinary team of doctors and scientists from Singapore has characterised the genetic changes associated with the spread of colorectal cancer to the liver. This finding is significant in helping to develop personalised diagnostic tests for patients with colorectal cancer based on the genetic changes present in each individual's colon tumour. The research team comprises representatives from National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), Singapore General Hospital (SGH), Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Duke-NUS), A*STAR's Genome Institute ...

Perceived open-mindedness explains religion-based dating

Across a number of faiths and cultures, people tend to date and marry others who share their religious beliefs. Now, new psychology research from New Zealand's University of Otago suggests this phenomenon--known as 'religious homogamy'--is partially a result of inferences about religious people's personalities. The researchers measured how religious and non-religious individuals perceive the 'openness'--a primary dimension of personality associated with intellectual curiosity--of potential religious and non-religious mates. They found that non-religious participants in ...

Pregnant women not getting enough omega-3, critical for infant development

This news release is available in French. Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) is a birth cohort involving over two thousand women and their infants from Calgary and Edmonton that was funded by Alberta Innovates Health Solutions and includes researchers at the University of Alberta and the University of Calgary. The main objective of APrON is to understand the relationship between maternal nutrient status during pregnancy and maternal mental health and child health and development. As part of the project, the APrON team studied the first 600 women in the ...

Risk factors associated with overweight cluster already in children

Lifestyle-related cardiometabolic risk factors cluster already in children in the same way as in adults, according to research from the University of Eastern Finland. A cardiometabolic risk score was used to evaluate cardiometabolic risk in different age groups. The results show that risk factor levels even lower than those generally accepted as risk factor thresholds for type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease are harmful when several risk factors cluster. In addition, a common mutation on the PNPLA3 gene associated with fatty liver in adults was found to ...

MDC researchers greatly increase precision of new genome editing tool

CRISPR-Cas9 is a powerful new tool for editing the genome. For researchers around the world, the CRISPR-Cas9 technique is an exciting innovation because it is faster and cheaper than previous methods. Now, using a molecular trick, Dr. Van Trung Chu and Professor Klaus Rajewsky of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch and Dr. Ralf Kühn, MDC and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), have found a solution to considerably increase the efficiency of precise genetic modifications by up to eightfold (Nature Biotechnology: doi:10.1038/nbt.3198)**. "What ...

Business people prefer working in their cars instead of trains, planes and airports

Noisy and cramped conditions in trains, planes and airports are discouraging many commuters and business people from working while travelling, new research shows. Sociologist Dr Donald Hislop and psychologist Dr Carolyn Axtell found that the most popular place to work was in vehicles in the car park of a motorway service station. In a paper in the journal Work, Employment and Society, Dr Hislop, of Loughborough University, and Dr Axtell, of the University of Sheffield, say "significant variations" in noise and lack of space "inhibited people's ability to work" on ...

Research reveals high prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in adults with sickle cell

A new study in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine revealed that 44 percent of adults with sickle cell disease who report trouble sleeping actually have a clinical diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing, including sleep apnea, which lowers their oxygen levels at night. "Previous research identified pain and sleep disturbance as two common symptoms of adult sickle cell disorder," said Sunil Sharma, M.D., Associate Professor of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University and first author on the study. "We wanted ...

A difficult climate: New study examines the media's response to the IPCC

The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) periodically releases Assessment Reports in order to inform policymakers and the public about the latest scientific evidence on climate change. The publication of each report is a key event in the debate about climate change, but their reception and coverage in the media has varied widely. A study, published today in the journal Nature Climate Change, has for the first time analysed how Twitter, TV and newspapers reported the IPCC's climate evidence. Understanding how media coverage varies is important because people's ...

Study underscores complexity of geopolitics in the age of the Aztec empire

Study underscores complexity of geopolitics in the age of the Aztec empire
New findings from an international team of archaeological researchers highlight the complexity of geopolitics in Aztec era Mesoamerica and illustrate how the relationships among ancient states extended beyond warfare and diplomacy to issues concerning trade and the flow of goods. The work was done by researchers from North Carolina State University, the Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Unidad Mérida, El Colegio de Michoacán and Purdue University. The researchers focused on an independent republic ...

Food additive could serve as a safer, more environmentally friendly antifreeze

DENVER, March 25, 2015 -- The sweet taste and smell of antifreeze tempts children and animals to drink the poisonous substance, resulting in thousands of accidental poisonings in the United States every year. But today researchers will describe a new, nontoxic product based on a common food additive that could address this health issue and help the environment at the same time. The presentation will take place here at the 249th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), the world's largest scientific society. The meeting features nearly 11,000 ...


How your brain decides blame and punishment -- and how it can be changed

Uniquely human brain region enables punishment decisions

Pinpointing punishment

Chapman University publishes research on attractiveness and mating

E-cigarettes: Special issue from Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Placental problems in early pregnancy associated with 5-fold increased risk of OB & fetal disorders

UT study: Invasive brood parasites a threat to native bird species

Criminals acquire guns through social connections

Restoring ocean health

Report: Cancer remains leading cause of death in US Hispanics

Twin study suggests genetic factors contribute to insomnia in adults

To be fragrant or not: Why do some male hairstreak butterflies lack scent organs?

International team discovers natural defense against HIV

Bolivian biodiversity observatory takes its first steps

Choice of college major influences lifetime earnings more than simply getting a degree

Dominant strain of drug-resistant MRSA decreases in hospitals, but persists in community

Synthetic biology needs robust safety mechanisms before real world application

US defense agencies increase investment in federal synthetic biology research

Robots help to map England's only deep-water Marine Conservation Zone

Mayo researchers identify protein -- may predict who will respond to PD-1 immunotherapy for melanoma

How much water do US fracking operations really use?

New approach to mammograms could improve reliability

The influence of citizen science grows despite some resistance

Unlocking secrets of how fossils form

What happens on the molecular level when smog gets into the lungs?

Using ultrasound to clean medical instruments

Platinum and iron oxide working together get the job done

Tiny silica particles could be used to repair damaged teeth, research shows

A quantum lab for everyone

No way? Charity's logo may influence perception of food in package

[] Researchers find promising new biomarkers for concussion is a service of DragonFly Company. All Rights Reserved.
Issuers of news releases are solely responsible for the accuracy of their content.