Study finds why drug for type II diabetes makes people fat
(Press-News.org) ATLANTA--Medication used to treat patients with type II diabetes activates sensors on brain cells that increase hunger, causing people taking this drug to gain more body fat, according to researchers at Georgia State University, Oregon Health and Science University, Georgia Regents University and Charlie Norwood Veterans Administration Medical Center.
The study, published on March 18 in The Journal of Neuroscience, describes a new way to affect hunger in the brain and helps to explain why people taking a class of drugs for type II diabetes gain more body fat.
Type II diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, affects 95 percent of diabetes sufferers. People with type I or type II diabetes have too much glucose, or sugar, in their blood. Type II diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older adults and people who are overweight and inactive, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
The research team found that sensors in the brain that detect free circulating energy and help use sugars are located on brain cells that control eating behavior. This is important because many people with type II diabetes are taking antidiabetics, known as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which specifically activate these sensors, said Johnny Garretson, study author and doctoral student in the Neuroscience Institute and Center for Obesity Reversal at Georgia State.
The study found peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor &Upsih; (PPAR&Upsih;) sensors on hunger-stimulating cells, known as agouti-related protein (AgRP) cells, at the base of the brain in the hypothalamus. Activating these PPAR&Upsih; sensors triggers food hoarding, food intake and the production of more AgRP. When AgRP cells are activated, animals become immediately hungry. These cells are so potent they will wake a rodent up from slumber to go eat, Garretson said.
TZDs help to treat insulin resistance, in which the body doesn't use insulin the way that it should. They help the body's insulin work properly, making blood glucose levels stay on target and allowing cells to get the energy they need, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
"People taking these TZDs are hungrier, and they do gain more weight. This may be a reason why," Garretson said. "When they're taking these drugs, it's activating these receptors, which we believe are controlling feeding through this mechanism that we found. We discovered that activating these receptors makes our rodent animal model eat more and store more food for later, while blocking these receptors makes them eat less and store less food for later, even after they've been food deprived and they're at their hungriest."
The research team includes Dr. Timothy Bartness, director of the Center for Obesity Reversal at Georgia State; Johnny Garretson and Drs. Brett J. W. Teubner and Vitaly Ryu of Georgia State; Dr. Kevin L. Grove of Oregon Health and Science University; and Dr. Almira Vazdarjanova of Georgia Regents. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation.
ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered a control switch for the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular stress relief mechanism drawing major scientific interest because of its role in cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disorders and several neural degenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), otherwise known as Lou Gehrig's disease.
The normal function of the UPR pathway is to protect cells from stress but it can also trigger their death if the ...
An international team of researchers led by the University of Oklahoma has discovered a strong association between the lifestyles of indigenous communities and their gut microbial ecologies (gut microbiome), a study that may have implications for the health of all people.
Under the direction of Cecil Lewis, co-director of the Laboratories of Molecular Anthropology and Microbiome Research in the OU College of Arts and Sciences, the team presents an in-depth analysis of the gut microbiome of the Matses, an Amazonian hunter-gatherer community, which is compared with that ...
Results from the first phase 1 trial of an Ebola vaccine based on the current (2014) strain of the virus are today published in The Lancet. Until now, all tested Ebola virus vaccines have been based on the virus strain from the Zaire outbreak in 1976. The results suggest that the new vaccine is safe, and provokes an immune response in recipients, although further long-term testing will be needed to establish whether it can protect against the Ebola virus.
A team of researchers, led by Professor Fengcai Zhu, from the Jiangsu provincial center for disease prevention and ...
People who have suffered serious head injuries show changes in brain structure resembling those seen in older people, according to a new study.
Researchers at Imperial College London analysed brain scans from over 1,500 healthy people to develop a computer program that could predict a person's age from their brain scan. Then they used the program to estimate the "brain age" of 113 more healthy people and 99 patients who had suffered traumatic brain injuries.
The brain injury patients were estimated to be around five years older on average than their real age.
Boston, Mass. - March 25, 2015 - Nonprofit Global Oncology, Inc. (GO) today announced the launch of the Global Cancer Project Map, a first-of-its-kind online resource and virtual information exchange for connecting the global cancer community. Developed by GO in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Global Health, the Map enables worldwide access to cancer projects and expertise to improve cancer practices and patient outcomes, especially in low-resource settings. Find the Global Cancer Project Map here: http://gcpm.globalonc.org.
The Map was ...
25.03.2015: Natural wetlands usually emit methane and sequester carbon dioxide. Anthropogenic interventions, in particular the conversion of wetlands for agriculture, result in a significant increase in CO2 emissions, which overcompensate potential decreases in methane emission. A large international research team now calculated that the conversion of arctic and boreal wetlands into agricultural land would result in an additional cumulative radiative forcing of about 0,1 MilliJoule (mJ) per square meter for the next 100 years. The conversion of temperate wetlands into agricultural ...
AURORA, Colo. (March 25, 2015) - Coordinating patient care between hospital clinicians and primary-care physicians is a significant challenge due to poor communication and gaps in information-sharing strategies, according to a study led by physicians at the School of Medicine of the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
The inability to share timely information can increase the risk of missed test results and hospital readmissions, according to the study's corresponding author, Christine D. Jones, MD, assistant professor of medicine and director of the Hospital ...
PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- By looking at the molecular aftermath of concussion in an unusual way, a team of researchers at Brown University and the Lifespan health system has developed a candidate panel of blood biomarkers that can accurately signal mild traumatic brain injury within hours using standard, widely available lab arrays. The results appear in a new study in the Journal of Neurotrauma.
Many researchers have reported recent progress in identifying possible blood biomarkers for concussion -- an advance sought because diagnosis is currently limited ...
Singapore, 18 March 2015- A multi-disciplinary team of doctors and scientists from Singapore has characterised the genetic changes associated with the spread of colorectal cancer to the liver. This finding is significant in helping to develop personalised diagnostic tests for patients with colorectal cancer based on the genetic changes present in each individual's colon tumour. The research team comprises representatives from National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), Singapore General Hospital (SGH), Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Duke-NUS), A*STAR's Genome Institute ...
Across a number of faiths and cultures, people tend to date and marry others who share their religious beliefs. Now, new psychology research from New Zealand's University of Otago suggests this phenomenon--known as 'religious homogamy'--is partially a result of inferences about religious people's personalities.
The researchers measured how religious and non-religious individuals perceive the 'openness'--a primary dimension of personality associated with intellectual curiosity--of potential religious and non-religious mates. They found that non-religious participants in ...
LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES: