PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Stats on HIV among men who have sex with men could help resolve China's epidemic

In China's decades-long war against HIV, the time has come to explore infections among young men who have sex with men, new study shows

Stats on HIV among men who have sex with men could help resolve China's epidemic
2021-01-13
(Press-News.org) Since the dawn of the 21st century, there has been a rapid rise in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in China, and today, the epidemic continues to grow. Several populations are victims of this virus, including injection drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM). In the various decades since HIV has gripped China, these groups and others have variously been at the forefront or background of national efforts to tackle the epidemic.

In the recent past, the prevalence of HIV has been high among the MSM population, particularly, MSM students. According to China CDC's national data on newly reported HIV/AIDS cases, there was a 35% annual increase in cases among student MSM from 2011 to 2015. Between 2005 and 2007, the HIV prevalence among this population was 3%. This increased to 6% between 2008 and 2010.

Dr. Jing Zhang, researcher at the NHC Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology (China Medical University) and lead scientist on a recent study on HIV incidence among MSM youth in China, says, "This increasing HIV prevalence could be because of expanding HIV testing in China in the recent years, or it could be that the number of recent infected cases has truly been growing." Explaining her rationale for the study, she continues, "To clarify why this increase is happening and its proportions, we need data on the 'incidence'. The incidence is one of the most crucial indicators of the trend of the epidemic and is key to understanding the impact of prevention measures. Because unlike 'prevalence', which accounts both recent and established cases, 'incidence' more specifically records only the recent cases. Data on incidence is what is lacking among the MSM student population."

In their study, which has been published in Chinese Medical Journal, Dr. Zhang and her colleagues conducted a multi-center study, measuring not only the incidence but also the rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among MSM college students in seven cities across China during 2012 and 2013. The TDR negatively impacts the prognosis of HIV-infected individuals when receiving antiretroviral therapy, the main measure China has taken to combat the epidemic over the years.

"For an epidemiologist and public health provider, concrete data on these trends of recent incidence and TDR is valuable evidence for understanding the epidemic and evaluating the outcomes of the prevention measures employed thus far," Dr. Zhang says.

In the study, a total of 4496 candidates--565 MSM college students, 1094 non-student MSM youth < 25 years of age, and 2837 non-youth MSM ≥ 25 years of age--were enrolled from Shenyang, Nanjing, Shanghai, Ji'nan, Changsha, Zhengzhou, and Kunming. Blood samples of these participants were tested for antibodies against HIV (via the "BED-CEIA test") to confirm recent HIV infection (less than 168 days). In case of HIV strains with resistance associated sequences, TDR was recorded.

The scientists found 436 HIV-positive participants, 186 of whom were recent infections. Among MSM college students, the proportion of HIV recent infections was 70.3%, among non-student MSM youth it was 50.8%, and among non-youth MSM it was 35.1%. The TDR prevalence rates were ~7%, 2%, and ~5%, respectively, for these groups. In short, in the recent past, more MSM college students had become infected than the other groups, and they were more likely to be resistant to antiretroviral therapy.

Drawing on previous studies about behavioral changes among young MSM, Dr. Zhang explains, "The median age of first anal intercourse for these men in China has significantly decreased from 33 years for those born during 1940-1959 to 18 years for those born during 1990-1996. This could be indicative of the gap in current sexual health education in China. China has taken many actions to mitigate the HIV epidemic among students in higher education institutions, including comprehensive education on sexual health and more accessible HIV testing. According to our findings, and given these changing trends, this education should be provided as early as possible during college, or preferably in high school, as soon as youth become sexually active."

Further highlighting and underlining the importance of her team's study, Dr. Zhang remarks, "This study unravels the high proportion of recent HIV infections among college student MSM in 2012-2013. This is expected to facilitate an understanding of the growing HIV epidemic among MSM college students in China today. The study also addresses the importance of regular HIV testing among students and young MSM, emphasizing to this population the importance of early diagnoses. It further brings to the fore the need for TDR testing among this population before initiation of antiretroviral therapy for better response and prognosis."

With such meticulous data collection and proactive measures, perhaps the HIV epidemic in China will soon see an end.

INFORMATION:

Reference

Title of original paper: Disparity of human immunodeficiency virus incidence and drug resistance in college student, non-student youth and older men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study from seven major cities of China

Journal: Chinese Medical Journal

DOI: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000001161


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Stats on HIV among men who have sex with men could help resolve China's epidemic

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Wielding a laser beam deep inside the body

Wielding a laser beam deep inside the body
2021-01-13
(Boston) -- Minimally invasive surgeries in which surgeons gain access to internal tissues through natural orifices or small external excisions are common practice in medicine. They are performed for problems as diverse as delivering stents through catheters, treating abdominal complications, and performing transnasal operations at the skull base in patients with neurological conditions. The ends of devices for such surgeries are highly flexible (or "articulated") to enable the visualization and specific manipulation of the surgical site in the target tissue. In the case of energy-delivering devices that allow surgeons to cut or dry (desiccate) tissues, and stop internal bleeds (coagulate) deep inside the body, a heat-generating energy source is ...

Earth to reach temperature tipping point in next 20 to 30 years, new NAU study finds

Earth to reach temperature tipping point in next 20 to 30 years, new NAU study finds
2021-01-13
Earth's ability to absorb nearly a third of human-caused carbon emissions through plants could be halved within the next two decades at the current rate of warming, according to a new study in Science Advances by researchers at Northern Arizona University, the Woodwell Climate Research Center and the University of Waikato, New Zealand. Using more than two decades of data from measurement towers in every major biome across the globe, the team identified a critical temperature tipping point beyond which plants' ability to capture and store atmospheric carbon--a cumulative effect referred to as the "land carbon sink"--decreases as temperatures continue to rise. The terrestrial biosphere--the activity of land plants and soil microbes--does much of Earth's "breathing," exchanging ...

Taking the lab into the ocean: A fleet of robots tracks and monitors microbial communities

2021-01-13
Researchers from MBARI, the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UH Mānoa), and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, after years of development and testing, have successfully demonstrated that a fleet of autonomous robots can track and study a moving microbial community in an open-ocean eddy. The results of this research effort were recently published in Science Robotics. Autonomous robotic fleets enable researchers to observe complex systems in ways that are otherwise impossible with purely ship-based or remote sensing techniques. In a time when the COVID-19 ...

Earth's terrestrial ecosystems may transition from carbon sinks to carbon sources within decades

2021-01-13
Rising temperatures could trigger Earth's terrestrial ecosystems to transition from carbon sinks to carbon sources in the next 20 to 30 years, according to data from the world's largest continuous carbon monitoring network. The researchers suggest that up to half of land ecosystems could reach this tipping point - when plants begin to release carbon into the atmosphere faster than they sequester it - by 2100 under a business-as-usual emissions scenario. However, biomes that store the most carbon, including rainforests and Taiga forests, may lose more than 45% of their ...

How does your computer smell?

2021-01-13
A keen sense of smell is a powerful ability shared by many organisms. However, it has proven difficult to replicate by artificial means. Researchers combined biological and engineered elements to create what is known as a biohybrid component. Their volatile organic compound sensor can effectively detect odors in gaseous form. They hope to refine the concept for use in medical diagnosis and the detection of hazardous materials. Electronic devices such as cameras, microphones and pressure sensors enable machines to sense and quantify their environments optically, acoustically and physically. Our sense of smell however, despite being one of nature's most primal senses, has proven very difficult ...

Scientists modeled protein behavior of archaeal viruses to crack protein folding mystery

Scientists modeled protein behavior of archaeal viruses to crack protein folding mystery
2021-01-13
Scientists from the Pacific Quantum Center of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) figured out how the AFV3-109 protein with slipknot structure folds and unfolds depending on temperature. The protein is typical for the viruses of the oldest single-celled organisms that can survive in the extreme conditions of underwater volcanic sources - archaea. The research outcome appears in PLOS ONE. Using numerical methods and applying quantum field theory that is unique for the study of proteins, the FEFU scientists have probed into the folding topology (scheme) ...

'Ocean 100': Small group of companies dominates ocean economy

2021-01-13
DURHAM, N.C. - Most of the revenues extracted from use of the world's oceans is concentrated among 100 transnational corporations, which have been identified for the first time by researchers at Duke University and the Stockholm Resilience Centre at Stockholm University. Dubbed the "Ocean 100," these "ocean economy" companies collectively generated $1.1 trillion in revenues in 2018, according to research published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances. If the group were a country, it would have the world's 16th-largest economy, roughly equivalent to the gross domestic product (GDP) of Mexico. "Now that we know who some of the biggest beneficiaries from the ocean economy are, this can help improve transparency relating to sustainability and ocean ...

Robotic swarm swims like a school of fish

Robotic swarm swims like a school of fish
2021-01-13
Schools of fish exhibit complex, synchronized behaviors that help them find food, migrate and evade predators. No one fish or team of fish coordinates these movements nor do fish communicate with each other about what to do next. Rather, these collective behaviors emerge from so-called implicit coordination -- individual fish making decisions based on what they see their neighbors doing. This type of decentralized, autonomous self-organization and coordination has long fascinated scientists, especially in the field of robotics. Now, a team of researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and ...

Researchers identify nanoparticles that could deliver therapeutic mRNA before birth

Researchers identify nanoparticles that could deliver therapeutic mRNA before birth
2021-01-13
Philadelphia, January 13, 2021--Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Pennsylvania have identified ionizable lipid nanoparticles that could be used to deliver mRNA as part of fetal therapy. The proof-of-concept study, published today in Science Advances, engineered and screened a number of lipid nanoparticle formulations for targeting mouse fetal organs and has laid the groundwork for testing potential therapies to treat genetic diseases before birth. "This is an important first step in identifying nonviral mediated approaches for delivering cutting-edge therapies before birth," said co-senior author William H. Peranteau, MD, an attending surgeon in the Division of ...

New insights into the control of inflammation

New insights into the control of inflammation
2021-01-13
PHILADELPHIA -- (Jan. 13, 2021) -- Scientists at The Wistar Institute discovered that Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1), a protein that turns on and off specific genes during blood cell development, inhibits expression of pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. As part of their function to protect the body against pathogens, macrophages play a major role in initiation, maintenance, and resolution of inflammation. The discovery expands the understanding of how macrophages are set off and deactivated in the inflammatory process, which is critical in many normal and pathological conditions. These findings were published online in the journal Science Advances. "By deepening the understanding of the role of EGR1, we ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Dramatic changes to radiotherapy treatments due to COVID-19

UTMB team proves potential for reducing pre-term birth by treating fetus as patient

New technique builds super-hard metals from nanoparticles

Regulating the ribosomal RNA production line

ECMO/CRRT in the treatment of critically ill SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients

Risk factors for intraoperative pressure injury in aortic surgery

Predictive value of blood pressure, heart rate, and blood pressure/heart rate ratio in a Chinese subpopulation with vasovagal syncope

A method for calculating optimal parameters of liquid chrystal displays developed at RUDN University

No more needles for diagnostic tests?

A professor from RUDN University developed new liquid crystals

Wet and wild: There's lots of water in the world's most explosive volcano

Exercising muscle combats chronic inflammation on its own

From fins to limbs

UK public supports usage of tracking technology and immunity passports in global pandemic

Climate and carbon cycle trends of the past 50 million years reconciled

Crystal structures in super slow motion

University of Cincinnati research unveils possible new combo therapy for head and neck cancer

NSAIDs might exacerbate or suppress COVID-19 depending on timing, mouse study suggests

Tiny particles that seed clouds can form from trace gases over open sea

Experts call for more pragmatic approach to higher education teaching

A quarter of known bee species haven't appeared in public records since the 1990s

AI trained to read electric vehicle charging station reviews to find infrastructure gaps

Genetic sequence for parasitic flowering plant Sapria

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, their parents in southwest Germany

The seven rocky planets of TRAPPIST-1 seem to have very similar compositions

Proteins unspool DNA so cells can take on unique properties

Consenting for treatment in advance to reduce leaving the hospital against medical advice among patients with addiction - Experts debate pros and cons

Shift in caribou movements may be tied to human activity

Lack of sleep, stress can lead to symptoms resembling concussion

UMD researcher expands plant genome editing with newly engineered variant of CRISPR-Cas9

[Press-News.org] Stats on HIV among men who have sex with men could help resolve China's epidemic
In China's decades-long war against HIV, the time has come to explore infections among young men who have sex with men, new study shows