PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

New research sets stage for development of salmonella vaccine

2021-05-07
(Press-News.org) With the COVID-19 vaccines on many people's minds, some may be surprised to learn that we do not yet have vaccines for many common infectious diseases.

Take salmonella, for example, which can infect people through contaminated food, water and animals. According to the World Health Organization, non-typhoidal salmonella infection affects more than 95 million people globally each year, leading to an estimated 2 million deaths annually. There is no approved vaccine for salmonella in humans, and some strains are antibiotic-resistant.

But just as scientists spent decades doing the basic research that made the eventual development of the COVID-19 vaccines possible, University of Florida researchers led by Mariola Edelmann in the department of microbiology and cell science, UF/IFAS College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, are laying the groundwork for an effective vaccine for salmonella and other hard-to-treat bacterial infections. In their study supported by the National Institutes of Health and published in PLOS Pathogens, the UF/IFAS scientists demonstrate a novel approach to triggering immunity against salmonella.

This approach takes advantage of how cells communicate with each other, said Winnie Hui, first author of the study, which was conducted while she was a doctoral candidate in microbiology and cell science.

"Cells communicate with each other through particles called extracellular vesicles or EVs. Think of these like molecular telephones that let cells talk to each other. We wanted to know if some of those messages included information related to immune response," said Hui, who graduated from the UF/IFAS College of Agricultural and Life Sciences in 2019 and is now a postdoctoral researcher in the UF College of Medicine, division of rheumatology and clinical immunology.

"Host EVs have not been previously studied in the context of fighting enteric bacterial infections, so that is part of what makes our approach new and adds to the field," said Edelmann, senior author on the study, Hui's dissertation director and an assistant professor of microbiology and cell science.

Edelmann hypothesized that a specific type of EVs called exosomes were part of the immune response against salmonella and may one day hold the key to developing a vaccine.

To test their idea, the research team took exosomes from white blood cells infected with salmonella. Inside those exosomes, which measure just a few dozen nanometers across, they found salmonella antigens, which are bits of salmonella protein known to trigger an immune response.

Next, the researchers wanted to know if these exosomes might function as a vaccine, helping the body build up its defenses against salmonella, said Lisa Emerson, one of the study's co-authors and a doctoral student in Edelmann's laboratory.

"We put the exosomes in 'nanobubbles' that the mice inhaled. Later, we ran tests to see how their immune systems responded," said Emerson, who is in the UF/IFAS College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

The researchers found that after they introduced the exosomes containing salmonella antigens, the exosomes localized to tissues that produce mucous, activating specific cells at these sites. Weeks later, mice developed antibodies against salmonella and specific cellular immune responses, which typically target this bacterium for elimination. For the researchers, this is a promising result.

"There are two types of immune responses generated when our bodies encounter a pathogen. The first one is called innate immunity, which is an immediate response to an infection, but it is also less specific. The other response is called adaptive immunity, and this protective response is specifically tailored to a given pathogen, but it also takes longer to develop. Exosomes generated by infected white blood cells stimulated both of these responses in animals," said Hui.

While these results show promise, more research will be needed before we have a salmonella vaccine that works in humans, Hui said.

"Our study has identified a novel role of exosomes in the protective responses against salmonella, but we also think that exosomes can find broader applications for other intestinal infections and beyond," Edelmann said.

"Exosomes have this unique capability to encapsulate precious cargo while enabling its targeted delivery to tissue of interest. For many conditions and infections, this precise delivery of therapeutic payload is what makes a difference, and we are currently also evaluating exosomes in delivering cargo to other tissues of choice," said Edelmannn whose work is supported by several federal funds focused on the roles of extracellular vesicles in bacterial infections and disease and host-directed therapies against intestinal infections.

INFORMATION:



ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

New study examines social network's relation to binge drinking among adults

New study examines social networks relation to binge drinking among adults
2021-05-07
For some people, social gatherings can be a time to imbibe. And for some, that can turn into a time to overindulge. But how do your neighborhood and your social network affect binge drinking? Along with colleagues at the RAND corporation in Santa Monica, Indiana University researcher Hank Green examined how neighborhood and social network characteristics were related to adult binge drinking. He and his co-authors found that both factors play a role in how much someone drinks, information that can help us better understand binge drinking among adults. The study was published in the journal Health and Place, indexed in Science Direct and PubMed. "Adults living ...

Archaeologists pinpoint population for the Greater Angkor region

Archaeologists pinpoint population for the Greater Angkor region
2021-05-07
EUGENE, Ore. -- May 7, 2021 -- Long-running archaeological research, boosted by airborne lidar sensing and machine-learning algorithms, finds that Cambodia's Greater Angkor region was home to 700,000-900,000 people. The sprawling city, which thrived from the 9th to 15th centuries, has slowly revealed its forest-hidden past to archaeologists, but its total population has been a mystery. The new estimate, made possible by a study designed at the University of Oregon, is the first for the entire 3,000-square-kilometer mix of urban and rural landscape. The findings published May 7 in the journal ...

Stop the genetic presses!

Stop the genetic presses!
2021-05-07
The protein, known as NusG, pauses the transcription machinery at specific DNA sequences to facilitate what is called "intrinsic termination" and prevent unwanted transcription that could disrupt cellular function. A new study, led by Penn State researchers, shows that NusG and the related protein, NusA, together facilitate termination at about 88% of the intrinsic terminators in the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Understanding this process expands our basic knowledge of this key cellular function and could eventually aid in the development of antibiotics that target and disrupt gene regulation ...

Sleep disorders tally $94.9 billion in health care costs each year

2021-05-07
Boston, Mass. – Sleep disorders are associated with significantly higher rates of health care utilization, conservatively placing an additional $94.9 billion in costs each year to the United States health care system, according to a new study from researchers at Mass Eye and Ear, a member hospital of Mass General Brigham. In their new analysis, published in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, the researchers found the number of medical visits and prescriptions filled were nearly doubled in people with sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and insomnia, compared to similar people without. Affected patients were also more likely to visit the emergency department and have more comorbid medical ...

Turning a pancreatic cancer cell's addiction into a death sentence

Turning a pancreatic cancer cells addiction into a death sentence
2021-05-07
(Toronto, Friday, May 7, 2021) -- Probing the unique biology of human pancreatic cancer cells in a laboratory has yielded unexpected insights of a weakness that can be used against the cells to kill them. Led by Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PM) Scientist Dr. Marianne Koritzinsky, researchers showed that about half of patient-derived pancreatic cancer cell lines are highly dependent or "addicted" to the protein peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4), as a result of the altered metabolic state of the cancer cell. This addiction is vital for the cancer cell's survival, thereby also making it a precise, potential target against the cancer. Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease with an overall five-year survival of only eight per cent. Moreover, 36% to 46% of patients who undergo surgery with ...

How viruses and bacteria can reach drinking water wells

2021-05-07
Induced bank filtration is a key and well-established approach to provide drinking water supply to populated areas located along rivers or lakes and with limited access to groundwater resources. It is employed in several countries worldwide, with notable examples in Europe, the United States, and parts of Africa. Contamination of surface waters poses a serious threat to attaining drinking water standards. In this context, human pathogenic microorganisms such as some viruses and bacteria, originating from the discharge of wastewater treatment plants, form a major contaminant group. A detailed study at an induced bank filtration site along the Rhine river in Germany has now linked transport of bacteria to seasonal dynamics. Key results of the study show that floods should be ...

Latest peer-reviewed research: Immediate global ivermectin use will end COVID-19 pandemic

2021-05-07
WASHINGTON, D.C. - Peer reviewed by medical experts that included three U.S. government senior scientists and published in the American Journal of Therapeutics, the research is the most comprehensive review of the available data taken from clinical, in vitro, animal, and real-world studies. Led by the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance (FLCCC), a group of medical and scientific experts reviewed published peer-reviewed studies, manuscripts, expert meta-analyses, and epidemiological analyses of regions with ivermectin distribution efforts all showing that ...

The structure of DNA is found to be actively involved in genome regulation

2021-05-07
The two meters of -stretched- DNA contained in human cells are continuously twisting and untwisting to give access to genetic information: when a gene is expressed to generate a protein, the two strands of DNA are separated to give access to all the machinery necessary for this expression, resulting in an excessive accumulation of coiling that needs to be resolved later. The paper that has now been published by the team led by Felipe Cortés, head of the DNA Topology and Breaks Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), in collaboration with Silvia Jimeno González, professor at the University of Seville ...

New innovation successfully treats neonatal hypothermia

2021-05-07
Neonatal hypothermia -- which occurs when an infant's core body temperature falls below the normal range needed to maintain health -- contributes to approximately one million deaths each year, and countless cases of stunted growth, almost exclusively in low- and middle-income countries. To address this common but preventable condition, researchers from Boston Children's Hospital, engineers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and colleagues in Rwanda developed the Dream Warmer, a low cost, reusable non-electric infant warmer to prevent and treat hypothermia. A new study from the team shows that infants who received treatment with the warmer had only an 11 percent rate of ...

Why hotter clocks are more accurate

Why hotter clocks are more accurate
2021-05-07
A new experiment shows that the more energy consumed by a clock, the more accurate its timekeeping. Clocks pervade every aspect of life, from the atomic clocks that underlie satellite navigation to the cellular clocks inside our bodies. All of them consume energy and release heat. A kitchen clock, for example, does this by using up its battery. Generally the most accurate clocks require the most energy, which hints at a fundamental connection between energy consumption and accuracy. This is what an international team of scientists from Lancaster, Oxford, and Vienna set out to test. To do this, they built a particularly simple clock, consisting of a vibrating ultra-thin membrane, tens of nanometers ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Milk protein could help boost blueberries' healthfulness

Seeking a treatment for IBS pain in tarantula venom

Addressing inequity in air quality

Roughness of retinal layers, a new Alzheimer's biomarker

Study links sleep apnea in children to increased risk of high blood pressure in teen years

Black patients with cirrhosis more likely to die, less likely to get liver transplant

Researchers outline specific patterns in reading in Russian

These sea anemones have a diverse diet. And they eat ants

Viruses as communication molecules

Spirituality can promote the health of breast cancer survivors

Tiny ancient bird from China shares skull features with Tyrannosaurus rex

University of Minnesota Medical School report details the effects of COVID-19 on adolescent sexual health

Odd smell: flies sniff ammonia in a way new to science

Fracture setting method could replace metal plates, with fewer complications

Sneeze cam reveals best fabric combos for cloth masks (video)

'Lady luck' - Does anthropomorphized luck drive risky financial behavior?

People willing to pay more for coffee that's ethical and eco-friendly, meta-analysis finds

Low-cost imaging technique shows how smartphone batteries could charge in minutes

Pleistocene sediment DNA from Denisova Cave

Quantum birds

Antibody therapy rescues mice from lethal nerve-muscle disease

Life in these star-systems could have spotted Earth

Cutaneous reactions after mRNA COVID-19 vaccines

Skin reactions after COVID-19 vaccination: Rare, uncommonly recur after second dose

Mask mandates and COVID-19 case rates, hospitalizations, deaths in Kansas

Changes in physician work Hours, patterns during COVID-19

Voucher-based kidney donation, redemption for future transplant

Bird migration takes plants in wrong direction to cope with climate change

Scientists uncover new mechanism that enables development of cancer

Study reveals formation mechanism of first carbon-carbon bond in MTO process

[Press-News.org] New research sets stage for development of salmonella vaccine