PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

UAF scientist offers evidence that Venus is volcanically active

2023-03-15
(Press-News.org) Embargoed: Not for release until 2 p.m. U.S. Eastern time Wednesday, March 15, 2023

Venus appears to have volcanic activity, according to a new research paper that offers strong evidence to answer the lingering question about whether Earth’s sister planet currently has eruptions and lava flows.

Venus, although similar to Earth in size and mass, differs markedly in that it does not have plate tectonics. The boundaries of Earth’s moving surface plates are the primary locations of  volcanic activity.

New research by University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute research professor Robert Herrick revealed a nearly 1-square-mile volcanic vent that changed in shape and grew over eight months in 1991. Changes on such a scale on Earth are associated with volcanic activity, whether through an eruption at the vent or movement of magma beneath the vent that causes the vent walls to collapse and the vent to expand.

The research was published today in the journal Science.

Herrick studied images taken in the early 1990s during the first two imaging cycles of NASA’s Magellan space probe. Until recently, comparing digital images to find new lava flows took too much time, the paper notes. As a result, few scientists have searched Magellan data for feature formation.

“It is really only in the last decade or so that the Magellan data has been available at full resolution, mosaicked and easily manipulable by an investigator with a typical personal workstation,” Herrick said.

The new research focused on an area containing two of Venus’ largest volcanoes, Ozza and Maat Mons. 

“Ozza and Maat Mons are comparable in volume to Earth's largest volcanoes but have lower slopes and thus are more spread out,” Herrick said.

Maat Mons contains the expanded vent that indicates volcanic activity.

Herrick compared a Magellan image from mid-February 1991 with a mid-October 1991 image and noticed a change to a vent on the north side of a domed shield volcano that is part of the Maat Mons volcano.

The vent had grown from a circular formation of just under 1 square mile to an irregular shape of about 1.5 square miles.

The later image indicates that the vent’s walls became shorter, perhaps only a few hundred feet high, and that the vent was nearly filled to its rim. The researchers speculate that a lava lake formed in the vent during the eight months between the images, though whether the contents were liquid or cooled and solidified isn’t known.

The researchers offer one caveat: a nonvolcanic, earthquake-triggered collapse of the vent’s walls might have caused the expansion. They note, however, that vent collapses of this scale on Earth’s volcanoes have always been accompanied by nearby volcanic eruptions; magma withdraws from beneath the vent because it is going somewhere else.  

The surface of Venus is geologically young, especially compared to all the other rocky bodies except Earth and Jupiter's moon Io, Herrick said.

“However, the estimates of how often eruptions might occur on Venus have been speculative, ranging from several large eruptions per year to one such eruption every several or even tens of years,” he said.

Herrick contrasts the lack of information about Venusian volcanism with what is known about Jupiter’s moon Io and about Mars.

“Io is so active that multiple ongoing eruptions have been imaged every time we've observed it,” he said.

On a geological time scale, relatively young lava flows indicate Mars remains volcanically active, Herrick said.

 “However, nothing has occurred in the 45 years that we have been observing Mars, and most scientists would say that you'd probably need to watch the surface for a few million years to have a reasonable chance of seeing a new lava flow,” he said.

Herrick’s research adds Venus to the small pool of volcanically active bodies in our solar system.

“We can now say that Venus is presently volcanically active in the sense that there are at least a few eruptions per year,” he said. “We can expect that the upcoming Venus missions will observe new volcanic flows that have occurred since the Magellan mission ended three decades ago, and we should see some activity occurring while the two upcoming orbital missions are collecting images.”

Co-author Scott Hensley of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory performed the modeling for the research.

ADDITIONAL CONTACT: Robert Herrick, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, rrherrick@alaska.edu, 907-474-6445

 

END


ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

A nonnative tree species reclaims its prominence after extreme weather

A nonnative tree species reclaims its prominence after extreme weather
2023-03-15
The long-term effects on forests of more extreme climate events, plus other drivers of forest change, are highly uncertain. A new study of the tropical forests across Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), spanning 19 years, found that after Hurricane Maria in 2017, the total biomass of a fast-growing nonnative species, the African tulip Tree (Spathodea campanulata), may again be overtaking that of the most common group of native tree species, even though, at least for young and small trees, nonnatives ...

Antidepressant medication may be key to help people stop use of cocaine while in treatment for opioid use disorder

2023-03-15
For some people receiving methadone for treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), the co-use of opioids and stimulants such as cocaine is an issue. Now, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers found that bupropion, an antidepressant medication also used for smoking cessation, may help people stop using cocaine while in treatment for OUD. The results of the study were published March 15 in JAMA Network Open. For this double-blind randomized study, the researchers used an adaptive treatment design, meaning that it allowed ...

Zook joins The Gerontological Society of America’s Board of Directors

2023-03-15
The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) — the nation’s largest interdisciplinary organization devoted to the field of aging — has named David Zook of Faegre Drinker LLP as an at-large member of its Board of Directors. GSA’s Board of Directors provides governance oversight, establishes Society policy, sets the organization’s strategic plan, and oversees implementation thereof. It comprises 12 members representing the broad diversity of the Society’s membership. Zook’s three-year term became effective January 1. “GSA is very effective in applying knowledge to policymaking as the role of older individuals in our society continues to evolve,” ...

Breakthrough drug combination remains safe and effective in patients with cystic fibrosis after four years

Breakthrough drug combination remains safe and effective in patients with cystic fibrosis after four years
2023-03-15
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) face difficulty breathing and a decline in lung function and are at risk of early death. CF is an inherited condition that results in thick mucus build-up, persistent infection and inflammation in the lungs. Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) researcher Patrick Flume, M.D., was lead author of a recent Journal of Cystic Fibrosis article reporting the findings of a trial of a two-drug combination for treating CF. The study demonstrated long-term safety and clinical benefit of the combination therapy. Flume is director of the ...

Remains of a modern glacier found near mars’ equator implies water ice possibly present at low latitudes on Mars even today

Remains of a modern glacier found near mars’ equator implies water ice possibly present at low latitudes on Mars even today
2023-03-15
March 15, 2023, Mountain View, California – In a groundbreaking announcement at the 54th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held in The Woodlands, Texas, scientists revealed the discovery of a relict glacier near Mars' equator. Located in Eastern Noctis Labyrinthus at coordinates 7° 33' S, 93° 14' W, this finding is significant as it implies the presence of surface water ice on Mars in recent times, even near the equator. This discovery raises the possibility that ice may still exist at shallow depths in the ...

Associations between teacher and student mathematics, science, and literacy anxiety in fourth grade

2023-03-15
Educational Impact and Implications Statement We investigated associations among teachers’ and students’ anxiety in mathematics, science, and literacy. We found that teachers’ anxiety in mathematics and science was associated with the mathematics and science anxiety of their low-SES students. Results highlight STEM content areas as contexts in which transmission of negative emotions between teachers and students may take place, as well as highlight the particular impacts these processes might have on students from underserved socioeconomic backgrounds. The ...

Kerin Adelson, M.D., named MD Anderson Chief Quality and Value Officer

2023-03-15
HOUSTON ― The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center today announced Kerin Adelson, M.D., as the institution’s chief quality and value officer. An accomplished clinician and researcher with extensive leadership experience in delivering high-quality and value-based cancer care, Adelson will begin her role March 20. She also will hold a faculty appointment in Breast Medical Oncology. As chief quality and value officer, Adelson will partner with Chief Administrative Quality Officer José Rivera to lead MD Anderson’s medical practice quality improvement efforts and ...

For the first time, controlling the degree of twist in nanostructured particles

2023-03-15
Images Micron-sized "bow ties," self-assembled from nanoparticles, form a variety of different curling shapes that can be precisely controlled, a research team led by the University of Michigan has shown.    The development opens the way for easily producing materials that interact with twisted light, providing new tools for machine vision and producing medicines.    While biology is full of twisted structures like DNA, known as chiral structures, the degree of twist is locked in—trying to change it breaks the structure. Now, researchers can engineer the degree of twist.    Such materials ...

Study unravels a cause of resistance to novel drug in patients with acute leukemia

2023-03-15
BOSTON – A new targeted drug has not only sparked remissions in patients with a common form of leukemia but also induced the cancer cells to reveal one of their schemes for resisting the drug, investigators at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and other research centers report in a new pair of studies in the journal Nature. One of the papers presents results of a clinical trial in which approximately 40% of patients with acute leukemia subtypes had a complete response – a disappearance of all signs of cancer – to treatment with the drug revumenib. The other paper uncovers a molecular countermove by which leukemia cells come to sidestep the drug and reassert their growth. The ...

Making sense of scents: Deciphering our sense of smell

2023-03-15
Breaking a longstanding impasse in our understanding of olfaction, scientists at UC San Francisco (UCSF) have created the first molecular-level, 3D picture of how an odor molecule activates a human odorant receptor, a crucial step in deciphering the sense of smell. The findings, appearing online March 15, 2023, in Nature, are poised to reignite interest in the science of smell with implications for fragrances, food science, and beyond. Odorant receptors - proteins that bind odor molecules on the surface of olfactory cells - make up half of the largest, most diverse family of receptors in our bodies; A deeper understanding of them paves the way for ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Drug helps reprogram macrophage immune cells, suppress prostate and bladder tumor growth

Green infrastructure plans need to consider historical racial inequalities, say researchers

ENDO 2024 press conferences to highlight male birth control, anti-obesity medications

Highly sensitive fiber optic gyroscope senses rotational ground motion around active volcano

Research reveals endurance exercise training impacts biological molecules

Does managing oxidative stress hold the key to effectively treating Alzheimer’s disease

Warming climate intensifies flash droughts worldwide

US public health preparedness and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses

DRI to host AWE+ wildfire summit

MD Anderson Research Highlights for May 21, 2024

Polymer research aims to expand possibilities in sensor technology

New therapeutic avenues in bone repair

Socioeconomic status transition throughout life and risk of dementia

Climbing the social ladder slows dementia, Japanese study reveals

Researchers discover hidden step in dinosaur feather evolution

Studies reveal cell-by-cell changes caused when pig hearts and kidneys are transplanted into humans

SRI earns FDA Orphan Drug Designation for pancreatic cancer

A new gene-editing system tackles complex diseases

Tracking down toxic metals from tobacco smoke

Clarifying the cellular mechanisms underlying periodontitis with an improved animal model

Age, race impact AI performance on digital mammograms

SwRI leads courses at 2024 Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting

Hope for a cure for visceral leishmaniasis, an often fatal infectious disease

How AI helps programming a quantum computer

New research reveals that prehistoric seafloor pockmarks off the California coast are maintained by powerful sediment flows

AI can help improve ER admission decisions, Mount Sinai study finds

Matcha mouthwash inhibits bacteria that causes periodontitis

Oncology events in Poland solidify collaboration with NCCN

City of Hope awarded $5.4 million CIRM grant to create a stem cell laboratory and expand access to state-of-the-art disease models and technology among a diverse scientific community

Meeting preview: Hot topics at NUTRITION 2024

[Press-News.org] UAF scientist offers evidence that Venus is volcanically active