(Press-News.org) Scientists have made a significant advancement with quantum technologies that could transform complex systems modelling with an accurate and effective approach that requires significantly reduced memory.
Complex systems play a vital role in our daily lives, whether that be predicting traffic patterns, weather forecasts, or understanding financial markets. However, accurately predicting these behaviours and making informed decisions relies on storing and tracking vast information from events in the distant past – a process which presents huge challenges.
Current models using artificial intelligence see their memory requirements increase by more than a hundredfold every two years and can often involve optimisation over billions – or even trillions – of parameters. Such immense amounts of information lead to a bottleneck where we must trade-off memory cost against predictive accuracy.
A collaborative team of researchers from The University of Manchester, the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University (NTU) propose that quantum technologies could provide a way to mitigate this trade-off.
The team have successfully implemented quantum models that can simulate a family of complex processes with only a single qubit of memory – the basic unit of quantum information – offering substantially reduced memory requirements.
Unlike classical models that rely on increasing memory capacity as more data from past events are added, these quantum models will only ever need one qubit of memory.
The development, published in the journal Nature Communications, represents a significant advancement in the application of quantum technologies in complex system modelling.
Dr Thomas Elliott, project leader and Dame Kathleen Ollerenshaw Fellow at The University of Manchester, said: “Many proposals for quantum advantage focus on using quantum computers to calculate things faster. We take a complementary approach and instead look at how quantum computers can help us reduce the size of the memory we require for our calculations.
“One of the benefits of this approach is that by using as few qubits as possible for the memory, we get closer to what is practical with near-future quantum technologies. Moreover, we can use any extra qubits we free up to help mitigate against errors in our quantum simulators.”
The project builds on an earlier theoretical proposal by Dr Elliott and the Singapore team. To test the feasibility of the approach, they joined forces with USTC, who used a photon-based quantum simulator to implement the proposed quantum models.
The team achieved higher accuracy than is possible with any classical simulator equipped with the same amount of memory. The approach can be adapted to simulate other complex processes with different behaviours.
Dr Wu Kang-Da, post-doctoral researcher at USTC and joint first author of the research, said: “Quantum photonics represents one of the least error-prone architectures that has been proposed for quantum computing, particularly at smaller scales. Moreover, because we are configuring our quantum simulator to model a particular process, we are able to finely-tune our optical components and achieve smaller errors than typical of current universal quantum computers.”
Dr Chengran Yang, Research Fellow at CQT and also joint first author of the research, added: “This is the first realisation of a quantum stochastic simulator where the propagation of information through the memory over time is conclusively demonstrated, together with proof of greater accuracy than possible with any classical simulator of the same memory size.”
Beyond the immediate results, the scientists say that the research presents opportunities for further investigation, such as exploring the benefits of reduced heat dissipation in quantum modelling compared to classical models. Their work could also find potential applications in financial modelling, signal analysis and quantum-enhanced neural networks.
Next steps include plans to explore these connections, and to scale their work to higher-dimensional quantum memories.
Scientists propose revolution in complex systems modelling with quantum technologies
ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:
Certain cancers will likely rise exponentially due to COVID-19 screening delays
Key Takeaways Current cancer diagnoses compared with pre-pandemic rates: Researchers quantified missed diagnoses of lung, breast, and colorectal cancers by comparing observed cancer rates in 2020 with pre-pandemic cancer rates (2010-2019). Potential increase in undiagnosed disease: Incidence rates for all three types of cancer have significantly decreased, suggesting that many patients may currently harbor undiagnosed disease. Importance of screening: Study adds to the growing body of literature on pandemic-related disruptions and serves as a vital reminder to encourage all patients to stay up to date on their recommended cancer screenings. CHICAGO: ...
UTHealth Houston awarded nearly $13M in grants to study treatments for traumatic brain injury
Nearly $13 million in federal grant funds to study treatments for traumatic brain injury, which kills an average of 190 people and hospitalizes another 600 in the U.S. every day, has been awarded to UTHealth Houston by the Department of Defense’s Office of Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP). The funding marks a positive step forward for patients suffering from the medical condition, said Charles S. Cox Jr., MD, the George and Cynthia Mitchell Distinguished Chair in Neurosciences and the Glassell Family Distinguished Chair in the Department of Pediatric Surgery with McGovern ...
Research team receives grant to launch ‘Just Dis Tech’ project
A group of Virginia Tech faculty who represent a variety of disciplines is bringing the principles of disability justice to Appalachia through educational workshops, cultural events, and technology research. The team received a $502,000 grant from the Andrew Mellon Foundation to create local and regional programming for disability-led arts, culture, reflection, and technology guidance. The foundation is a nonprofit organization that funds arts and humanities work nationwide. With the three-year project, called “Just ...
Weevils, long-nosed beetles, are unsung heroes of pollination
Butterflies, bees, and even bats are celebrated as pollinators: creatures that travel from flower to flower to feed, and in the process, help fertilize the plants by spreading pollen. But some of nature’s most diverse pollinators often go unnoticed, even by scientists: long-snouted beetles called weevils. A new study in the journal Peer Community in Ecology provides a deep dive into the more than 600 species of weevils, including ones whose entire life cycles are interwoven with a specific plant that they help pollinate. “Even people who work on pollination don't usually consider weevils as one of the main pollinators, and people who ...
An emergency department visit as part of a continuum of care
INDIANAPOLIS -- Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 100 million hospital emergency department (ED) visits took place annually in the U.S. In two studies, Regenstrief Institute Research Scientist Sharmistha Dev, M.D., MPH, and colleagues characterize an ED visit as part of a continuum of care, exploring how an ED visit is a valuable arena to support care beyond the issue that motivated the visit. “Many people view a patient’s ED visit as a moment of acute care and a moment of dealing with just one issue and then the patient is either admitted or discharged. But ...
Social stress, problem-solving deficits contribute to suicide risk for teen girls
Teen girls who have greater difficulty effectively solving interpersonal problems when they experience social stress, and who experience more interpersonal stress in their lives, are at greater risk of suicidal behavior, suggests research published by the American Psychological Association. Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among teens, and rates of suicidal behavior are particularly high among girls. Previous research has found that interpersonal stressors – such as conflict with peers, friends and family – are related to suicidal behavior. Some theories of ...
Saving our soil: How to extend US breadbasket fertility for centuries
May 25, 2023 Saving Our Soil: How to Extend US Breadbasket Fertility for Centuries New research from UMass Amherst shows that the rapid and unsustainable rate of topsoil erosion can be drastically reduced with no-till agricultural methods already in practice AMHERST, Mass. – The Midwestern United States has lost 57.6 billion tons of topsoil due to farming practices over the past 160 years, and the rate of erosion, even following the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s guidelines, is still 25 times higher than the rate at which topsoil ...
Running throughout middle age keeps ‘old’ adult-born neurons ‘wired’
Aging often is accompanied by cognitive decline. Among the first structures of the brain affected are the hippocampus and adjacent cortices, areas essential for learning and memory. Deficits in cognitive ability are associated with reduced hippocampal volume and degradation of synaptic connectivity between the hippocampus and the (peri)-entorhinal cortex. Increasing evidence indicates that physical activity can delay or prevent these structural and functional reductions in older adults. A new study by Florida Atlantic University and CINVESTAV, Mexico City, Mexico, provides novel insight into the benefits of exercise, which should motivate ...
Afternoon exercise linked with greater improvements in blood sugar levels for patients with type 2 diabetes
Over 37 million Americans have diabetes, and 90-95% of that population are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle interventions, such as a healthy diet and a regular physical activity program, are methods to manage diabetes. A new study from a collaboration of investigators at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, a founding member of the Mass General Brigham healthcare system, and Joslin Diabetes Center, part of Beth Israel Lahey Health, uses data from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study, a randomized controlled trial that compared an intensive lifestyle intervention with diabetes support and education in patients diagnosed ...
Your thoughts can harm your neck and back during lifting tasks
COLUMBUS, Ohio – The mental distress of cognitive dissonance – encountering information that conflicts with how we act or what we believe – can lead to added pressure on the neck and low back during lifting and lowering tasks, new research suggests. When study participants were told they were performing poorly in a precision lowering experiment in the lab, after initially being told they were doing well, their movements were linked to increased loads on vertebrae in their neck and low back. Results showed that the higher the cognitive dissonance score, the greater the extent of loading on the upper ...