PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Scripps Research scientists develop groundbreaking technology to detect Alzheimer's disease

New study confirms concept of antibody biomarkers to diagnose disease

2011-01-07
(Press-News.org) JUPITER, FL, January 5, 2011 – Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute, have developed a novel technology that is able to detect the presence of immune molecules specific to Alzheimer's disease in patients' blood samples. While still preliminary, the findings offer clear proof that this breakthrough technology could be used in the development of biomarkers for a range of human diseases.

The study, led by Scripps Research Professor Thomas Kodadek, Ph.D., was published in the January 7, 2011 edition of the journal Cell.

Traditionally, antigens—a substance such as a protein from a virus or bacteria that stimulates an immune response—have been necessary for the discovery of antibody biomarkers. There has previously been no way to identify an antibody (a type of targeted immune molecule) without first knowing the antigen that triggers its production. The new study, however, challenges conventional wisdom and uses synthetic molecules rather than antigens to successfully detect signs of disease in patients' blood samples.

These synthetic compounds have many advantages – they can be modified easily and can be produced quickly in relatively large amounts at lower cost.

"Dr. Kodadek has conceived of a new approach for identifying antibody biomarkers of human disease that bypasses the conventional, but difficult, step of identifying the natural antigens or antigen mimics," said James M. Anderson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, who helps oversee the NIH Common Fund's Pioneer Award Program. "The results in the paper suggest great potential for using this approach to rapidly develop diagnostic biomarkers for a variety of significant human diseases. Such boldness to challenge conventional paradigms to achieve important scientific advances is a hallmark of the NIH Director's Pioneer Award Program, which supported much of this research."

"This study essentially puts an end to the notion that the only way to pull a potentially useful antibody from blood samples is with a specific antigen," said Kodadek. "Because the antigen identification problem has proven to be so difficult, we decided to take it out of the equation."

A Focus on the Immune System

To test the concept, Kodadek and his colleagues used comparative screening of combinatorial libraries of synthetic molecules – peptoids – against serum samples obtained from mice with a multiple-sclerosis-like condition or healthy controls. Those synthetic molecules that retained more immunoglobulin (IgG), a major type of antibody, from the blood samples of the diseased animals were identified as potential agents for capturing diagnostically useful molecules. This worked well.

The team next turned to serum samples from six Alzheimer's patients, six healthy individuals, and six Parkinson's disease patients. Three peptoids were identified that captured at least three-fold higher levels of IgG antibodies from all six of the Alzheimer's patients than any of the control or Parkinson's patients. The results showed that two of the peptoids bind the same IgG antibodies; a third binds different antibodies, resulting in at least two candidate biomarkers for the disease.

"We use these peptoids as a lure to capture the IgG antibodies," Kodadek said. "Some of these synthetic molecules recognize the antigen-binding sites of disease-specific antibodies well enough to pull them from blood samples, although they almost certainly don't bind as well as the native antigens. This ability should make it possible to short circuit the discovery of the natural antigens."

INFORMATION: The first author of the study, "Identification of Candidate IgG Antibody Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease through Screening of Synthetic Combinatorial Libraries," is M. Muralidhar Reddy of Opko Health Laboratories and Scripps Research.

Other authors include Rosemary Wilson and Johnnie Wilson of Opko Health Laboratories; and Steven Connell, Anne Gocke, Linda Hynan, and Dwight German of The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.

About The Scripps Research Institute

The Scripps Research Institute is one of the world's largest independent, non-profit biomedical research organizations, at the forefront of basic biomedical science that seeks to comprehend the most fundamental processes of life. Scripps Research is internationally recognized for its discoveries in immunology, molecular and cellular biology, chemistry, neurosciences, autoimmune, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases, and synthetic vaccine development. An institution that evolved from the Scripps Metabolic Clinic founded by philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps in 1924, Scripps Research currently employs approximately 3,000 scientists, postdoctoral fellows, scientific and other technicians, doctoral degree graduate students, and administrative and technical support personnel. Headquartered in La Jolla, California, the institute also includes Scripps Florida, whose researchers focus on basic biomedical science, drug discovery, and technology development. Scripps Florida is located in Jupiter, Florida. For more information, see www.scripps.edu



ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Genetic abnormalities identified in pluripotent stem cell lines

2011-01-07
A multinational team of researchers led by stem cell scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Scripps Research Institute has documented specific genetic abnormalities that occur in human embryonic (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. Their study, "Dynamic changes in the copy number of pluripotency and cell proliferation genes in human ESCs and iPSCs during reprogramming and time in culture" will be published in the January 7 issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell. The published findings highlight the need for frequent ...

Neural stem cells maintain high levels of reactive oxygen species, UCLA study finds

2011-01-07
For years, the majority of research on reactive oxygen species (ROS) – ions or very small molecules that include free radicals – has focused on how they damage cell structure and their potential link to stroke, cardiovascular disease and other illnesses. However, researchers at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research have shown for the first time that neural stem cells, the cells that give rise to neurons, maintain high levels of ROS to help regulate normal self-renewal and differentiation. The findings, published in the Jan. ...

Weizmann Institute scientists discover: A chemical signal in human tears

2011-01-07
Emotional crying is a universal, uniquely human behavior. When we cry, we clearly send all sorts of emotional signals. In a paper published online today in Science Express, scientists at the Weizmann Institute have demonstrated that some of these signals are chemically encoded in the tears themselves. Specifically, they found that merely sniffing a woman's tears – even when the crying woman is not present -- reduces sexual arousal in men. Humans, like most animals, expel various compounds in body fluids that give off subtle messages to other members of the species. ...

Weight-loss surgery improved female urinary problems but male erection issues got worse

2011-01-07
Women who underwent gastric band surgery to lose weight reported significant improvements in urinary function and quality of life after the operation, according to research published in the January issue of the urology journal BJUI. However, men undergoing the procedure did not enjoy the same significant urinary function improvements as the women. They also reported that erectile function was slightly worse after surgery, unlike studies following non-surgical weight loss where sexual function actually improved. Researchers surveyed 176 patients - 142 women and 34 ...

Tomatoes found to contain nutrient which prevents vascular diseases

2011-01-07
They are the most widely produced fruit in the world and now scientists in Japan have discovered that tomatoes contain a nutrient which could tackle the onset of vascular diseases. The research, published in the journal Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, reveals that an extracted compound, 9-oxo-octadecadienoic, has anti-dyslipidemic affects. The team led by Dr Teruo Kawada, from Kyoto University and supported by the Research and Development Program for New Bio-industry Initiatives, Japan, focused their research on extracts which tackle dyslipidemia, a condition which ...

Carbon swap bank to beat climate change

2011-01-07
Australian researchers have suggested that nations should abandon the concept of carbon emissions trading in favor of a carbon swap bank that might lead to genuine reductions in the amount of carbon dioxide greenhouse gas entering the atmosphere and so provide a mechanism for reducing climate change. Details of the carbon swap bank are outlined in the journal Interdisciplinary Environmental Review. Carbon emissions trading was to be the economic environmental solution to climate change. The original impetus of the Copenhagen Treaty in 2010 was to mitigate rising global ...

Metabolic syndrome found in 52 percent of patients after liver transplantation

2011-01-07
Researchers from Israel have determined that more than half of liver transplant recipients develop post-transplantation metabolic syndrome (PTMS), placing them at greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Prior to transplantation only 5% of the patients were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, but rates of obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and diabetes were significantly higher post transplantation. Full details of this retrospective-prevalence study are available in the January 2011 issue of Liver Transplantation, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf ...

Less invasive techniques help manage complications of severe pancreatic disease

2011-01-07
The use of combined treatments for severe acute pancreatitis is safe and effective in managing the disease, resulting in shorter hospitalizations and fewer radiological procedures than standard therapy, according to a study in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the official journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute. In a related study, doctors found that patients with infected pancreatic necrosis were able to avoid surgery through primary conservative treatment, which is in-patient medical treatment. Pancreatitis refers to the inflammation ...

Loss of gene promotes brain-tumor development, reduces survival, study finds

2011-01-07
COLUMBUS, Ohio – New research shows that loss of a gene called NFKBIA promotes the growth of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and deadly form of brain cancer, and suggests that therapies that stabilize this gene may improve survival for certain glioblastoma patients. The study was published recently in the New England Journal of Medicine. "We show that NFKBIA status may be an independent predictor of survival in certain patients with glioblastoma," says senior coauthor Dr. Arnab Chakravarti, chair and professor of Radiation Oncology and co-director of the Brain ...

Secondhand television exposure linked to eating disorders

2011-01-07
Boston, MA (January 5, 2010) — For parents wanting to reduce the negative influence of TV on their children, the first step is normally to switch off the television set. But a new study suggests that might not be enough. It turns out indirect media exposure, i.e., having friends who watch a lot of TV, might be even more damaging to a teenager's body image. Researchers from Harvard Medical School's Department of Global Health and Social Medicine examined the link between media consumption and eating disorders among adolescent girls in Fiji. What they found was surprising. ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

It takes two to TANGO: New strategy to tackle fibrosis and scarring

Researchers aim to analyze pangenomes using quantum computing

Ready and vigilant: immune cells on standby

Securing competitiveness of energy-intensive industries through relocation: The pulling power of renewables

CAR T cell therapy targeting HER2 antigen shows promise against advanced sarcoma in phase I trial

Social change may explain decline in genetic diversity of the Y chromosome at the end of the Neolithic period

Aston University research finds that social media can be used to increase fruit and vegetable intake in young people

A vaccine to fight antibiotic resistance

European Hormone Day 2024: Endocrine community unites to raise public awareness and push for policy action on hormone health

Good heart health in middle age may preserve brain function among Black women as they age

The negative effects of racism impact sleep in adolescents

Study uses wearable devices to examine 3- to 6-year-olds’ impulsivity, inattentiveness

Will future hurricanes compromise New England forests’ ability to store and sequester carbon?

Longest study to date assesses cognitive impairment over time in adults with essential tremor

Does a woman’s heart health affect cognition in midlife?

Unveiling the mysteries of cell division in embryos with timelapse photography

Survey finds loneliness epidemic runs deep among parents

Researchers develop high-energy-density aqueous battery based on halogen multi-electron transfer

Towards sustainable food systems: global initiatives and innovations

Coral identified as oldest bioluminescent organism, suggesting a new model of ancient ecology

SRI chosen by DARPA to develop next-generation computational design of metallic parts and intelligent testing of alloys

NJIT engineers muffle invading pathogens with a 'molecular mask'

Perinatal transmission of HIV can lead to cognitive deficits

The consumption of certain food additive emulsifiers could be associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

New cancer research made possible as Surrey scientists study lipids cell by cell 

Bioluminescence first evolved in animals at least 540 million years ago

Squids’ birthday influences mating

Star bars show Universe’s early galaxies evolved much faster than previously thought

Critical minerals recovery from electronic waste

The move by Apple Memories to block potentially upsetting content illustrates Big Tech’s reach and limits, writes Chrys Vilvang

[Press-News.org] Scripps Research scientists develop groundbreaking technology to detect Alzheimer's disease
New study confirms concept of antibody biomarkers to diagnose disease