(Press-News.org) Ithaca, N.Y.—Many songbirds are nesting earlier in spring because of warmer temperatures brought about by climate change. But the shift brings another danger that is especially deadly for nestlings: greater exposure to temperature variability in the form of cold snaps and heat waves. Such extremes result in more nest failures. These findings come from a Cornell Lab of Ornithology study just published in the journal Nature Communications.
"When we talk about temperature changes, the focus is mostly on averages," said co-lead author Conor Taff, a researcher in Cornell University's Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department. "But all creatures, including humans, interact with weather conditions right in the moment, not with long-term averages. Even a one or two-day period when it’s really cold or really hot can be incredibly challenging even if the average temperature hasn't changed. Changing temperature averages and temperature variability are two different components of climate change."
To understand how temperature variability might affect nesting success, the researchers analyzed 300,000 breeding bird records submitted to the Cornell Lab's NestWatch project between 1995 and 2020. They pinpointed the coldest three-day day period and the hottest three-day period for each one of the nests and then looked at whether those values predicted lower nesting success. Success was measured by how many nestlings survived to fledge.
"We found that 16 of the 24 species we studied had reduced reproductive success when a cold snap occurred during the incubation or nestling stages," Taff said. "Eleven of 24 had reduced success when a heat wave occurred during the breeding season. Aerial insectivores were the most sensitive to temperature extremes, especially cold."
The vast majority of birds feed insects to their young, regardless of their final diet, and cold snaps reduce insect availability. If these episodes occur when nestlings are most vulnerable, they can trigger a mass die-off. During a cold snap, adult birds may move away to find survivable conditions which leaves eggs and nestlings exposed to cold and lack of food.
"It's the nestlings that really get hit hard because they can't regulate their own body temperature yet," said co-author Ryan Shipley, a Cornell University Ph.D. student at the time of the research. "Nestlings also grow at an exponential rate during the first week or two of life and if insect activity drops because of a cold snap, the young birds likely won’t survive."
Taff and Shipley also examined 100 years of weather data to see if there have been changes in the timing of cold snaps and heat waves during the March through August breeding season in the United States and Canada. Although they found no clear pattern in the timing of temperature extremes, they do note that it's getting warmer everywhere.
"Even if nestlings somehow manage to survive a cold snap or heat wave, there may still be long-term consequences affecting the overall health of the birds," notes Shipley. "We're only looking at a brief snapshot during early life and cannot measure long-term health in an unbanded wild population."
Previous Tree Swallow studies by these authors have shown that temperature during development is important because it's directly linked to the rate of nestling growth and their body mass when they fledge. That, in turn, influences how likely they are to survive, make it through migration, and return to breed the following year. Therefore, changes in the variability and timing of temperature extremes and shifts in the breeding season can combine to bring about life-changing consequences for individuals and for bird populations.
Conor C. Taff and J. Ryan Shipley. Inconsistent shifts in warming and temperature variability negatively impact avian fitness. Nature Communications. November 2023. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-43071-y
Study: Temperature variability reduces nesting success
Nestlings are the most vulnerable to temperature extremes
ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:
Understanding survival factors in critically ill patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a widely used advanced life support procedure that provides cardiac and respiratory support to critically ill patients. ECMO use has been increasing exponentially over the last decade as it has shown success in resuscitating patients in critical situations like the COVID-19 pandemic and is now a lifesaving treatment modality in intensive care units (ICUs). However, prolonged ECMO use may be associated with an increased risk of mortality. Identifying risk factors for in-hospital mortality and developing standardized nursing practice guidelines for ECMO management may improve the survival rates in patients. In this vein, ...
Dr. Ralph and Marian Falk Medical Research Trust awards $1.35M to two Case Western Reserve University researchers
CLEVELAND—A combined $1.35 million from the Dr. Ralph and Marian Falk Medical Research Trust was awarded to two researchers from the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine to advance their work on finding more effective treatments—and better options—for two debilitating diseases. The Falk Trust awarded Reshmi Parameswaran, an assistant professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, pathology and pediatrics at the School of Medicine, $1 million over three years for her work in cancer cell therapy. Carlos Subauste, a professor of medicine and pathology at the School of Medicine, received a two-year, ...
High levels of maternal stress during pregnancy linked to children’s behavior problems
WASHINGTON – Children whose mothers are highly stressed, anxious or depressed during pregnancy may be at higher risk for mental health and behavior issues during their childhood and teen years, according to research published by the American Psychological Association. “Our research suggests that psychological distress during the pregnancy period has a small but persistent effect on children’s risk for aggressive, disinhibited and impulsive behaviors,” said study author Irene Tung, PhD, of California State University Dominguez Hills. “These findings add to the evidence that providing widely accessible mental health care and support ...
Catalyzing clinical change: The importance of representation in health care
DALLAS, November 16, 2023 — Disparities in health care persist, with Hispanic and Black adults reporting less satisfaction with their interactions with physicians, leading to poorer quality of care and health outcomes.,, While 19% of people in the U.S. identify as Hispanic, fewer than 7% of physicians do. This lack of representation in the delivery of health care has been shown to exacerbate health disparities among underrepresented groups and is a significant barrier to the Hispanic Latino community achieving optimal health. In response to this challenge, the American Heart Association, a global force for ...
Lithium-ion batteries are no longer the gold standard in battery tech
The use of lithium metal as the anode for batteries is one of the smarter options with better energy density than other materials. However, the interface between the electrode and electrolyte has quite a few issues that can be addressed for a safer and more functional outcome in the future. The researchers are keen on replacing the graphite anode with lithium metal anode to construct a battery system with higher energy density. However, the Li metal anode is unstable and readily reacting with electrolyte to form a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). Unfortunately, the natural SEI is brittle and fragile, resulting in poor ...
Gene splicing reduces effectiveness of CD20-targeting monoclonal antibodies designed to treat variety of blood cancers and disorders
Philadelphia, November 16, 2023 – Immunotherapies that target the CD20 antigen have revolutionized how patients with a variety of blood cancers and hematologic disorders have been treated. However, many patients develop resistance to these treatments due to a loss of the antigen that’s being targeted. Now, a new study from researchers at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) has found that gene splicing occurring within these cells can cause significant changes in CD20 protein levels that render the therapies ineffective. The findings, published today by ...
IVI signs MOU with University of Cambridge, University of Hong Kong, and the Hong Kong Jockey Club to establish the Hong Kong Jockey Club Global Health Institute
November 16, 2023, Republic of Korea — The International Vaccine Institute (IVI), an international organization with a mission to discover, develop, and deliver safe, effective, and affordable vaccines for global health, signed an MOU yesterday with University of Cambridge (UCAM), University of Hong Kong (HKU), and the Hong Kong Jockey Club (HKJC) to promote vaccine research and global health initiatives, including the establishment of the Hong Kong Jockey Club Global Health Institute (HKJCGHI). HKJC will support the HKJCGHI through one of their largest donations in history, ...
Incidence of recurrence and time to recurrence in Stage I to III colorectal cancer
About The Study: In this study of 34,000 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent surgery from 2004 to 2019, the risk of recurrence decreased over time, and higher disease stage was associated with shorter times from surgery to recurrence. Screening-detected CRC was associated with a lower risk of recurrence. Because the risk of recurrence was so low in selected patient groups, future research is warranted to explore risk-stratified surveillance protocols in patients with CRC. Authors: Claus Lindbjerg Andersen, Ph.D., of Aarhus University Hospital in Aarhus, Denmark, ...
New efforts to improve cardiovascular, stroke care in rural areas
DALLAS, November 16, 2023 — Cardiovascular mortality is on the rise in rural areas of the United States, where more than 60 million Americans live, according to an American Heart Association presidential advisory. Understanding and addressing the unique health needs of people in rural America is critical to the Association’s pursuit of a world of longer, healthier lives. Today — on National Rural Health Day — the Association, the world’s leading nonprofit organization focused on heart and brain health for all, announces two new collaborative efforts to help close the gap between ...
Make a list, check it twice with these heart-healthy holiday travel hacks
DALLAS, Nov. 16, 2023 — For people living with a health condition like heart disease or stroke, traveling away from home can pose some special challenges. The American Heart Association, the leading voluntary health organization devoted to a world of longer, healthier lives for all, says with a little pre-travel prep, you can turn travel woes from “oh no” to “let’s go!” “As we look forward to the holidays, many people will be traveling to spend treasured time with family and friends, or maybe just to enjoy some ...
LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:
Leukemia cells activate cellular recycling program
Argonne and Idaho National Laboratories partner with CMBlu Energy for innovative long-duration energy storage project
CCNY researchers publish optical data storage breakthrough in Nature Nanotechnology
Diet has a major impact on risk of Alzheimer’s disease
Study shows how ethical brands fare in a recession
New technique efficiently offers insight into gene regulation
U of M Medical School study finds visions of nonphysical world are common among cognitively healthy Ojibwe individuals
Consistency key to corporate expressions of racial solidarity
How mountains affect El Niño-induced winter precipitation
ECHO research examines nutrition data's value from pregnancy to adolescence in understanding child health
Training the immune system to prevent cancer – NextGen researchers discover paradigm-shifting approach
Snail-inspired robot could scoop ocean microplastics
Georgia State professor granted $5 million to identify and characterize objects in space
Immune protein may induce dementia unrelated to high blood pressure
Q&A: How can Canada best meet its commitment to protecting 30% of its land by 2030?
Eating disorder hospitalizations on the rise, affecting 'atypical' groups the most
Brains of newborns aren't underdeveloped compared to other primates
Mortality and morbidity among individuals with hypertension receiving a diuretic, ace inhibitor, or calcium channel blocker
Types of on-screen content and mental health in kindergarten children
Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and fetal growth during the critical rapid growth stage
About 20% of patients listed as alive in their electronic health records were actually deceased according to California data
Dietary environmental factors shape the immune defense against Cryptosporidium infection
New study maps ketamine's effects on brain
Studies help explain why some prostate cancers become resistant to hormone therapy
Hard to drug: Protein droplets reveal new ways to inhibit transcription factors in an aggressive form of prostate cancer
MD Anderson’s Katy Rezvani, M.D., receives 2023 Honorific Award from the American Society of Hematology
Salty immune cells surrounding the brain linked to hypertension-induced dementia
Dark galactic region nicknamed "The Brick" explained with Webb telescope findings
Awareness, accessibility, and affordability are crucial for the early detection of thalassemia
Complications from flu largely preventable with annual flu vaccine[Press-News.org] Study: Temperature variability reduces nesting success
Nestlings are the most vulnerable to temperature extremes