PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

When growth becomes a weakness

When growth becomes a weakness
2023-11-17
(Press-News.org) Growth is a fundamental biological process and a prerequisite for living organisms to develop and reproduce. The processes of cell growth (i.e. the production of new biomass) and of cell division must be coordinated with each other.

In multicellular organisms such as humans, the growth of cells must also be coordinated with their environment so that cells are present in the right number and size to form functional tissue or organs. Cell growth is therefore strictly regulated and takes place only when certain growth signals are present.

But cancer cells are different. They grow unchecked, they divide over and over again, and they don’t react to stop signals from their environment.

An advantage can be a disadvantage Now several studies published in the journal Molecular Cell show that uncontrolled growth is not only an advantage for cancer cells but also a weakness.

One of these studies was led by Professor Gabriel Neurohr from the Institute of Biochemistry at ETH Zurich. For several years, he and his group have been researching how cell growth influences cell function. They are also investigating what happens when cells exceed their normal size and enter a state that the researchers refer to as senescence. In this state, the cells are preternaturally large and lose their ability to divide. Nevertheless, they are still active and can influence their environment, such as by releasing messenger substances.

Senescent cells are found in normal tissue and play an important role in the ageing process. However, senescence can also be induced with chemical substances, and because it leads to a loss of the capacity to divide, it is the goal of certain cancer treatments.

A breakdown in DNA repair Neurohr’s colleague Sandhya Manohar has now investigated whether excessive size affects cellular functions in senescent cells. In her research, she treated non-​cancerous cell line and a breast cancer cell line with substances that inhibit growth and division.

When she used only division-​suppressing substances in her cell cultures, the cells were indeed no longer able to divide, but they continued to grow and went into senescence. As a result, they permanently lost their ability to divide. This effect persisted even after Manohar had discontinued the division inhibitors.

An important reason for the loss of the ability to divide is that the enlarged cells can no longer repair damage to their genetic material, such as double-​stranded DNA breaks. Such breaks always occur spontaneously when a cell duplicates its genetic material prior to cell division.

In addition, these cells cannot correctly activate a key signalling pathway (p53-​p21), which is critical for a coordinated response to DNA breaks. As a result, the damage is not repaired efficiently enough. What this means for enlarged cells is that numerous irreparable DNA breaks accumulate during division – to the point where division is no longer possible.

Is combination therapy counterproductive? Yet when the researchers treated the cells with division-​inhibiting and growth-​inhibiting substances simultaneously, the cells were able to divide and multiply normally again after both substances were discontinued. “In cancer therapy, this is precisely what you don’t want,” Neurohr says.

Growth-​ and division-​inhibiting agents are already being used in cancer treatment. “Based on our observations in cell cultures, we would expect an increased relapse rate when treating a tumour with division inhibitors and growth inhibitors at the same time. It would make more sense to first use a division inhibitor, then a drug that further damages the DNA of the cells and makes division completely impossible,” Neurohr explains.

Clinical tests needed to confirm findings Thus far, the ETH researchers have tested their new findings only on cell cultures. With both growth and division strongly dependent on the cell environment, the team cannot transfer these results directly to a clinical setting. Trials with organoids or on tissue samples are thus needed first to better test the potential treatment. Clinical studies investigating various combinations of division inhibitors and other medications are also underway.

The idea put forth by the ETH researchers under Neurohr has support from studies by three other international research teams, also published in the same issue of Molecular Cell.

These studies show that cancer cells with hyperactive growth are sensitive to treatment with division inhibitors. As these substances are already being used to treat certain types of breast cancer, the new findings could have a long-​term impact on cancer treatment.

END

[Attachments] See images for this press release:
When growth becomes a weakness When growth becomes a weakness 2

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

HKU Engineering ‘Super Steel’ team develops new ultra stainless steel for hydrogen production

HKU Engineering ‘Super Steel’ team develops new ultra stainless steel for hydrogen production
2023-11-17
A research project led by Professor Mingxin Huang at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Hong Kong (HKU) has made a brand-new breakthrough over conventional stainless steel and the development of stainless steel for hydrogen (SS-H2). This marks another major achievement by Professor Huang’s team in its ‘Super Steel’ Project, following the development of the anti-COVID-19 stainless steel in 2021, and ultra-strong and ultra-tough Super Steel in 2017 and 2020 respectively. The new steel developed by the team exhibits high corrosion ...

AI supporting creative Industries

2023-11-17
NYC Media Lab (NYCML) and Bertelsmann unveiled  the latest cohort joining the AI & the Creative Industries Challenge, a nine-week program in which teams explore new ways to use artificial intelligence (AI) to create digital content and reach new audiences for three Bertelsmann companies: Fremantle, Penguin Random House, and BMG. The teams are tasked with addressing how AI will impact these important creative industries.  This ongoing partnership, NYCML’s third project with Bertelsmann, will continue to build on new business frontiers enabled by technology. The four selected teams, from around the globe, come from various multidisciplinary ...

Porous platinum matrix shows promise as a new actuator material

Porous platinum matrix shows promise as a new actuator material
2023-11-17
Actuators are common machine components that convert energy into movement, like the muscles in the human body, vibrators in mobile phones or electric motors.  Ideal actuator materials need good electrochemical properties to repeatedly conduct electrical currents made of flowing electrons.  In addition, actuator materials require excellent mechanical properties to withstand the physical stress associated with continual movement.  Nanoporous platinum (np-Pt), a platinum matrix containing tiny pores to increase energy conduction, was recently created in large quantities and in a cost-efficient manner, making np-Pt an ideal and more practical actuator material.   A ...

Accelerating the phase identification of multiphase mixtures with deep learning

Accelerating the phase identification of multiphase mixtures with deep learning
2023-11-17
Crystalline materials are made up of atoms, ions, or molecules arranged in an ordered, three-dimensional structure. They are widely used for the development of semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, photovoltaics, and catalysts. The type of structures that fall into the category of crystalline materials continues to expand as scientists design novel materials to address emerging challenges pertaining to energy storage, carbon capture, and advanced electronics. However, the development of such materials necessitates precise ways of identifying ...

First comprehensive guideline on using biomarkers for monitoring Crohn’s disease

2023-11-17
Bethesda, MD (Nov. 17, 2023) — The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) released a new evidence-based guideline recommending the use of blood and stool-based biomarkers to help manage Crohn’s disease, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is estimated to affect 2.74 million people in the U.S. The guideline was published today in Gastroenterology.  Biomarkers are blood or stool tests that can give more information on an underlying disease process. In the context of IBD, biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) in blood and fecal calprotectin ...

The future of supply chains: 3 essential elements to stay in business

The future of supply chains: 3 essential elements to stay in business
2023-11-17
Why should supply chains matter to you? The products on your store shelves, the packages arriving at your doorstep, and even the food on your table all rely on these intricate networks. Imagine a world where these lifelines are disrupted, where shelves sit empty, and essential goods remain out of reach. In Supply Chain 5.0: The Next Generation of Business Success Through Customer Centricity, Sustainability & Human Rights and Digitalization, we unveil the critical factors shaping the future of supply chains and how they impact your everyday life. This book holds a crucial revelation about the future of our supply chains. It ...

Fishing chimpanzees found to enjoy termites as a seasonal treat

Fishing chimpanzees found to enjoy termites as a seasonal treat
2023-11-17
The discovery that chimpanzees use tools to fish for termites revolutionized our understanding of their abilities — but we still don’t have crucial context to help us understand termite fishing and chimpanzee minds. Are chimpanzees fishing for a seasonal treat or trying their luck? Researchers based at the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) and University College London (UCL) investigated the relationship between termite availability and chimpanzee fishing. They found that termites are most available early in the wet season. Although other ...

Children’s brains shaped by their time on tech devices, research to-date shows

2023-11-17
Time spent watching television or playing computer games has measurable and long-term effects on children’s brain function, according to a review of 23 years of neuroimaging research, which while showing negative impacts also demonstrates some positive effects. However, the researchers stop short of advocating limits on screen time, which they say can lead to confrontation. Instead, they urge policymakers to help parents navigate the digital world by promoting programs which support positive brain development. The evidence review, published today in the peer-reviewed journal Early Education ...

Discovery of hemoglobin in the epidermis sheds new light on our skin's protective properties

Discovery of hemoglobin in the epidermis sheds new light on our skins protective properties
2023-11-17
Philadelphia, November 17, 2023 – Researchers have shown for the first time that hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells where it binds oxygen, is also present in the epidermis, our skin's outermost body tissue. The study, which appears in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, published by Elsevier, provides important insights into the properties of our skin's protective external layer. This research was driven by a curiosity about how the epidermis protects our delicate body from the environment and what unexpected ...

A highly efficient open-shell singlet luminescent diradical with strong magnetoluminescence properties

A highly efficient open-shell singlet luminescent diradical with strong magnetoluminescence properties
2023-11-17
Open-shell singlet (OS) diradicals are important building blocks for functional molecular materials,with a large number of pioneering works by researchers advancing their development and applications across various fields. Despite this progress, there remains a lack of research regarding luminescent OS diradicals, hindering their potential use in optoelectronic applications. In fact, the luminescent diradicals are rare chemical species, there are only a few reports to date.   Magnetic field effects (MFE) on the luminescence, i.e., magnetoluminescence (ML) of radicals, hold great promise for developing novel exciton spin manipulation ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Artificial intelligence outperforms clinical tests at predicting progress of Alzheimer’s disease

ReMDO announces inaugural Piedmont Triad Regenerative Medicine Engine Ecosystem Summit in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

HarvestHub app tackles supply chain, food insecurity issues

Mathematics outreach program awarded Dolciani grant

Groundbreaking study reveals insights into Alzheimer's disease mechanisms through novel hydrogel matrix

Study examines urban forests across the United States

2023 Rolling Hills Estates landslide likely began the winter before

Rutgers researchers spot potential hazard with private well water treatment

When to trust an AI model

Research shows gamified investment sites have risks for novice investors

Specially equipped natural killer cells show effectiveness against the most common form of ovarian cancer

Entering the golden age for antibody-drug conjugates in gynecologic cancer

Judge: Texas university must release records on research study that resulted in deaths of dozens of animals

UMass Amherst food scientist rises to the challenge of giving marbled fatty feel and taste to plant-based meat

Complex impact of large wildfires on ozone layer dynamics unveiled by new study

Brain inflammation triggers muscle weakness after infections

Research alert: All stem cell therapies are not created equal

Complex impact of large wildfires on ozone layer dynamics

AI found to boost individual creativity – at the expense of less varied content

Texas A&M research collaboration uncovers how domestic rabbits become feral in the wild

Scientists find new way global air churn makes particles

Researchers discover a new neural biomarker for OCD

Vivid portrait of interacting galaxies marks Webb’s second anniversary

UMass Amherst awarded $2.1 million to advance the science of engagement in community-academic research partnerships

With gene editing, mice with a form of inherited deafness can hear again

Sant Pau researchers discover a new gene that causes ALS

Synthetic biology reveals the secrets of life without oxygen

UC3M student startup, Solaris Vita, awarded in Europe's largest entrepreneurship competition

How plant cold specialists can adapt to the environment

Biomarkers reveal how patients with glaucoma may respond to treatment

[Press-News.org] When growth becomes a weakness