PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Novel AI system could diagnose autism much earlier

Novel AI system could diagnose autism much earlier
2023-11-21
(Press-News.org) CHICAGO – A newly developed artificial intelligence (AI) system that analyzes specialized MRIs of the brain accurately diagnosed children between the ages of 24 and 48 months with autism at a 98.5% accuracy rate, according to research being presented next week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Mohamed Khudri, B.Sc., a visiting research scholar at the University of Louisville in Kentucky, was part of a multi-disciplinary team that developed the three-stage system to analyze and classify diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) of the brain. DT-MRI is a special technique that detects how water travels along white matter tracts in the brain.

“Our algorithm is trained to identify areas of deviation to diagnose whether someone is autistic or neurotypical,” Khudri said.

The AI system involves isolating brain tissue images from the DT-MRI scans and extracting imaging markers that indicate the level of connectivity between brain regions. A machine learning algorithm compares the marker patterns in the brains of children with autism to those of the normally developed brains.

“Autism is primarily a disease of improper connections within the brain,” said co-author Gregory N. Barnes, M.D., Ph.D., professor of neurology and director of the Norton Children’s Autism Center in Louisville. “DT-MRI captures these abnormal connections that lead to the symptoms that children with autism often have, such as impaired social communication and repetitive behaviors.”

The researchers applied their methodology to the DT-MRI brain scans of 226 children between the ages of 24 and 48 months from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange-II. The dataset included scans of 126 children affected by autism and 100 normally developing children. The technology demonstrated 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity, and an overall accuracy of 98.5% in identifying the children with autism.

“Our approach is a novel advancement that enables the early detection of autism in infants under two years of age,” Khudri said. “We believe that therapeutic intervention before the age of three can lead to better outcomes, including the potential for individuals with autism to achieve greater independence and higher IQs.”

According to the CDC’s 2023 Community Report on Autism, fewer than half of children with autism spectrum disorder received a developmental evaluation by three years of age, and 30% of children who met the criteria for autism spectrum disorder did not receive a formal diagnosis by 8 years of age.

“The idea behind early intervention is to take advantage of brain plasticity, or the ability of the brain to normalize function with therapy,” Dr. Barnes said.

The researchers said infants and young children with autism receive a delayed diagnosis for several reasons, including a lack of bandwidth at testing centers. Khudri said their AI system could facilitate precise autism management while reducing the time and costs associated with assessment and treatment.

“Imaging offers the promise of quickly detecting autism in an objective fashion,” Dr. Barnes said. “We envision an autism assessment that begins with DT-MRI followed by an abbreviated session with a psychologist to confirm the results and guide parents on next steps. This approach could reduce the psychologists’ workload by up to 30%.”

The AI system produces a report detailing which neural pathways are affected, the anticipated impact on brain functionality, and a severity grade that can be used to guide early therapeutic intervention.

The researchers are working toward commercializing and obtaining FDA clearance for their AI software.

Additional co-authors are Mostafa Abdelrahim, B.Sc., Yaser El-Nakieb, Ph.D., Mohamed Ali, Ph.D., Ahmed S. Shalaby, Ph.D., A. Gebreil, M.D., Ali Mahmoud, Ph.D., Ahmed Elnakib, Ph.D., Andrew Switala, Sohail Contractor, M.D., and Ayman S. El-Baz, Ph.D.

###

Note: Copies of RSNA 2023 news releases and electronic images will be available online at RSNA.org/press23.

RSNA is an association of radiologists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists and related scientists promoting excellence in patient care and health care delivery through education, research and technologic innovation. The Society is based in Oak Brook, Illinois. (RSNA.org)

Editor’s note: The data in these releases may differ from those in the published abstract and those actually presented at the meeting, as researchers continue to update their data right up until the meeting. To ensure you are using the most up-to-date information, please call the RSNA Newsroom at 1-312-791-6610.

For patient-friendly information on brain MRI, visit RadiologyInfo.org.

END


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Novel AI system could diagnose autism much earlier Novel AI system could diagnose autism much earlier 2 Novel AI system could diagnose autism much earlier 3

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

MRI reveals brain activity behind fanaticism

MRI reveals brain activity behind fanaticism
2023-11-21
CHICAGO – Soccer fans exhibit different patterns of brain activation while watching a match that may trigger positive and negative emotions and behaviors, according to research being presented next week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The researchers say the implication of these findings could extend beyond sports to fanaticism in other areas, such as politics. “This study aims to shed light on the behaviors and dynamics associated with extreme rivalry, aggression and social affiliation within and between groups of fanatics,” said the study’s lead author, Francisco Zamorano ...

Computer simulation suggests mutant strains of COVID-19 emerged in response to human behavior

Computer simulation suggests mutant strains of COVID-19 emerged in response to human behavior
2023-11-21
Using artificial intelligence technology and mathematical modeling, a research group led by Nagoya University has revealed that human behavior, such as lockdowns and isolation measures, affect the evolution of new strains of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, developed to become more transmissible earlier in its lifecycle. The researcher’s findings, published in Nature Communications, provide new insights into the relationship between how people behave and disease-causing agents.    As with any other living organism, viruses evolve over time. Those with survival advantages become dominant in the gene pool. Many environmental factors ...

Babies as young as four months show signs of self-awareness - study

Babies as young as four months show signs of self-awareness - study
2023-11-21
Babies as young as four months old can make sense of how their bodies interact with the space around them, according to new research from the University of Birmingham. The findings, published today (21 November 2023) in Scientific Reports, shed new light on how self-awareness develops. Experts from the Birmingham BabyLab showed babies a ball on a screen moving towards or away from them. When the ball was closest to them on the screen, the babies were presented with a ‘touch’ (a small vibration) on their hands, whilst their brain activity was being measured. The data collection for the study was conducted at Goldsmiths (University of London). The researchers ...

Trilobites rise from the ashes to reveal ancient map

Trilobites rise from the ashes to reveal ancient map
2023-11-21
Ten newly discovered species of trilobites, hidden for 490 million years in a little-studied part of Thailand, could be the missing pieces in an intricate puzzle of ancient world geography. Trilobites are extinct sea creatures with half-moon-shaped heads that breathed through their legs. A 100-page monograph in the British journal offers great detail about the new species, including one named in honor of Thai Royal Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. The trilobite fossils were trapped between layers of petrified ash in sandstone, ...

Novel research unveils methodological approach to study why some individuals are prone to weight gain, while others are protected from weight gain

2023-11-21
ROCKVILLE, Md.—Even though it’s known that people who have a higher genetic risk for obesity generally have a higher body mass index (BMI), researchers have unveiled a new methodological approach to find out why some individuals are more susceptible to weight gain than others for reasons not related to their genetic liability to obesity, according to a study published in Obesity, The Obesity Society’s (TOS) flagship journal. The study is the first of its kind to determine in a pair of twins with large intrapair BMI differences whom of the co-twins had acquired a BMI that deviated from their genetically-informed BMI. “This novel approach opens doors ...

Trial to prevent sudden death after a heart attack enrols first patient

2023-11-21
Sophia Antipolis – 21 November 2023:  The first clinical trial to challenge the routine implantation of a defibrillator in myocardial infarction survivors with heart failure has enrolled its first patient. The PROFID EHRA trial is part of the EU-funded PROFID project, which aims to personalise the prevention of sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction and involves a consortium of 21 multidisciplinary partners including the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Sudden cardiac death is a major public health problem ...

High temperatures may have caused over 70,000 excess deaths in Europe in 2022

2023-11-21
The burden of heat-related mortality during the summer of 2022 in Europe may have exceeded 70,000 deaths according to a study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), a research centre supported by the “la Caixa” Foundation. The authors of the study, published in The Lancet Regional Health – Europe, revised upwards initial estimates of the mortality associated with record temperatures in 2022 on the European continent. In an earlier study, published in Nature Medicine, the same team used epidemiological models applied to weekly temperature and mortality data in 823 regions in 35 European countries and estimated the number ...

Toward sustainable energy applications with breakthrough in proton conductors

Toward sustainable energy applications with breakthrough in proton conductors
2023-11-21
Donor doping into a mother material with disordered intrinsic oxygen vacancies, instead of the widely used strategy of acceptor doping into a material without oxygen vacancies, can greatly enhance the conductivity and stability of perovskite-type proton conductors at intermediate and low temperatures of 250–400 °C, as demonstrated by Tokyo Tech scientists (e.g. 10 mS/cm at 320 °C). This innovative approach provides a new design direction for proton conductors for fuel cells and electrolysis cells. Many countries in the world are pushing for the development ...

Apology psychology: Breaking gender stereotypes leads to more effective communication

2023-11-21
Saying "I'm sorry," especially in the workplace, can be tricky terrain. Delivering an effective apology can help resolve conflicts, restore trust and promote collaboration among coworkers. But what works best? A research team including a University of Arizona faculty member says that to make your next apology more effective, use language that goes against gender stereotypes. Sarah Doyle, associate professor in the Department of Management and Organizations in the Eller College of Management, said the team wanted to ...

Poor nutrition contributes to poor mental health and risk of diabetes

2023-11-21
People with diabetes (Diabetes Mellitus) are two-to-three times more likely to have depression than people without, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Current treatment includes therapy, medicine, or both. However, the understanding of the multifaceted relationship between nutrition, mental health, and DM is relatively new in scientific discourse. Mason researchers sought to learn about the connection between nutrition, diabetes, and mental health.  Two literature reviews from assistant ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Tanzanian officials praise NEST360 contribution to newborn care

4D Medicine raises £3.4 million for unique biomaterial platform

Ancient marine animal had inventive past despite being represented by few species, new study finds

Quantum sensor for the atomic world developed through international scientific collaboration

The research was wrong: study shows moderate drinking won’t lengthen your life

Save your data on printable magnetic devices? New laser technique’s twist might make this reality

Early onset dementia more common than previously reported – the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease seems to be on the rise

Pesticides potentially as bad as smoking for increased risk in certain cancers

NUS researchers develop new battery-free technology to power electronic devices using ambient radiofrequency signals

New protein discovery may influence future cancer treatment

Timing matters: Scripps Research study shows ways to improve health alerts

New gene therapy approach shows promise for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Chemical analyses find hidden elements from renaissance astronomer Tycho Brahe’s alchemy laboratory

Pacific Northwest launches clean hydrogen energy hub

Tiny deletion in heart muscle protein briefly affects embryonic ventricles but has long-term effects on adult atrial fibrillation

Harms of prescribing NSAIDs to high risk groups estimated to cost NHS £31m over 10 years

Wearing a face mask in public spaces cuts risk of common respiratory symptoms, suggests Norway study

Some private biobanks overinflating the value of umbilical cord blood banking in marketing to expectant parents

New research in fatty liver disease aims to help with early intervention

Genetics reveal ancient trade routes and path to domestication of the Four Corners potato

SNIS 2024: New study shows critical improvements in treating rare eye cancer in children

Wearable devices can increase health anxiety. Could they adversely affect health?

Addressing wounds of war

Rice researchers develop innovative battery recycling method

It’s got praying mantis eyes

Stroke recovery: It’s in the genes

Foam fluidics showcase Rice lab’s creative approach to circuit design

Montana State scientists publish evidence for new groups of methane-producing organisms

Daily rhythms depend on receptor density in biological clock

New England Journal of Medicine publishes outcomes from practice-changing E1910 trial for patients with BCR::ABL1-negative B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

[Press-News.org] Novel AI system could diagnose autism much earlier