PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

AI’s ability to detect tumor cells could be key to more accurate bone cancer prognoses

Researchers have developed a new machine-learning model that can precisely make prognosis predictions for patients with osteosarcoma, based on the density of viable tumor cells post-treatment.

AI’s ability to detect tumor cells could be key to more accurate bone cancer prognoses
2024-04-02
(Press-News.org)

Fukuoka, Japan - Researchers at Kyushu University have developed and validated a machine-learning model that can accurately evaluate the density of surviving tumor cells after treatment in pathological images of osteosarcoma—the most prevalent malignant bone tumor. The model can assess how individual tumor cells respond to treatment and can predict overall patient prognosis more reliably than conventional methods.

Surgery and chemotherapy have significantly improved the outcomes of patients with localized osteosarcoma. However, patients with advanced metastatic disease (the stage where cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues) have a low survival rate. After a standard treatment of surgery and chemotherapy, assessing the prognosis of patients is essential for determining their subsequent individual treatment plans. However, predicting patient outcomes has many challenges. Currently, prognosis relies on necrosis rate assessment, which involves pathologists evaluating the proportion of dead tissue within a tumor. Unfortunately, these methods are limited by variability between pathologists’ assessments and may not accurately predict treatment response.

Recognizing the need for faster and more accurate prognoses, co-first authors Dr. Kengo Kawaguchi and Dr. Kazuki Miyama, from the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Japan, and Dr. Makoto Endo, a lecturer of Orthopedic Surgery at Kyushu University Hospital, along with collaborators, turned to artificial intelligence (AI) for a more nuanced evaluation. The multidisciplinary team headed by Dr. Endo included Kyushu University’s Professor Ryoma Bise, Professor Yoshinao Oda, and Professor Yasuharu Nakashima. Explaining the rationale behind their research, which was published on 22 January, 2024, in njp Precision Oncology, Dr. Endo says, “In the traditional method, the necrosis rate is calculated as a necrotic area rather than individual cell counts, which is not sufficiently reproducible between assessors and does not adequately reflect the effects of anticancer drugs. We therefore considered using AI to improve the estimation.”

In phase 1 of the study, the team trained a type of AI, called a deep-learning model, to detect surviving tumor cells and validated its detection performance using patient data. The AI model showed proficiency in detecting viable tumor cells in pathological images, aligning with expert pathologists' capabilities. In phase 2, the researchers analyzed two key measures: disease-specific survival, which tracks the duration after diagnosis or treatment without death directly caused by the disease, and metastasis-free survival, which monitors the time post-treatment without cancer cells spreading to distant body parts. They also explored the correlation between AI-estimated viable tumor cell density and prognosis. Notably, the AI model demonstrated comparable detection performance and precision to that of the pathologist, with good reproducibility.

Next, the researchers sorted the patients into groups based on whether the viable tumor cell density was above or below 400/mm2. The survival analysis revealed that the high-density group showed a worse prognosis, while the low-density group showed a better prognosis for disease-specific survival and metastasis-free survival. Necrosis rate, on the other hand, was not associated with disease-specific survival or metastasis-free survival. Furthermore, analysis of individual cases revealed that AI-estimated viable tumor cell density was a more reliable predictor of prognosis than necrosis rate.

Overall, these findings suggest that the AI-based measurement of viable tumor cells reflects the inherent malignancy (ability of the cancer to spread) and individual tumor cell response of osteosarcomas. Incorporating AI in the analysis of pathological images improves detection accuracy, reduces inter-assessor variability, and enables timely assessment. Moreover, the estimation of viable tumor cells, which reflects their ability to keep multiplying following chemotherapy, is a more reliable predictor of treatment response than cell death. Large-scale validation of the AI model developed in this study can aid its wider application in real-life clinical settings.

“This new approach has the potential to enhance the accuracy of prognoses for osteosarcoma patients treated with chemotherapy. In the future, we intend to actively apply AI to rare diseases such as osteosarcoma, which have seen limited advancements in epidemiology, pathogenesis, and etiology. Despite the passage of decades, particularly in treatment strategies, substantial progress remains elusive. By putting AI to the problem, this might finally change,” concludes a hopeful Dr. Endo.

###

For more information about this research, see " Viable tumor cell density after neoadjuvant chemotherapy assessed using deep learning model reflects the prognosis of osteosarcoma" Kengo Kawaguchi, Kazuki Miyama, Makoto Endo, Ryoma Bise, Kenichi Kohashi, Takeshi Hirose, Akira Nabeshima, Toshifumi Fujiwara, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Yoshinao Oda & Yasuharu Nakashima, npj Precision Oncology, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41698-024-00515-y

About Kyushu University 
Founded in 1911, Kyushu University is one of Japan's leading research-oriented institutes of higher education, consistently ranking as one of the top ten Japanese universities in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the QS World Rankings. The university is one of the seven national universities in Japan, located in Fukuoka, on the island of Kyushu—the most southwestern of Japan’s four main islands with a population and land size slightly larger than Belgium. Kyushu U’s multiple campuses—home to around 19,000 students and 8000 faculty and staff—are located around Fukuoka City, a coastal metropolis that is frequently ranked among the world's most livable cities and historically known as Japan's gateway to Asia. Through its VISION 2030, Kyushu U will “drive social change with integrative knowledge.” By fusing the spectrum of knowledge, from the humanities and arts to engineering and medical sciences, Kyushu U will strengthen its research in the key areas of decarbonization, medicine and health, and environment and food, to tackle society’s most pressing issues.

END


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
AI’s ability to detect tumor cells could be key to more accurate bone cancer prognoses AI’s ability to detect tumor cells could be key to more accurate bone cancer prognoses 2

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

New materials discovered for safe, high-performance solid-state lithium-ion batteries

New materials discovered for safe, high-performance solid-state lithium-ion batteries
2024-04-02
All-solid-state lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with solid electrolytes are non-flammable and have higher energy density and transference numbers than those with liquid electrolytes. They are expected to take a share of the market for conventional liquid electrolyte Li-ion batteries, such as electric vehicles. However, despite these advantages, solid electrolytes have lower Li-ion conductivity and pose challenges in achieving adequate electrode-solid electrolyte contact. While sulfide-based solid electrolytes are conductive, they react with moisture to form toxic hydrogen disulfide. Therefore, there's ...

Mental health emergencies in kids were more severe during the pandemic

2024-04-02
A new study found that during the pandemic pediatric emergency departments (EDs) saw more children and adolescents who needed a psychiatric admission, as well as an increase in severe conditions, such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and substance use disorders. The higher demand for a psychiatric inpatient bed often exceeded availability, resulting in over 12-hour stays in the ED awaiting admission for nearly 20 percent of children with mental health emergencies in 2022, up from 7 percent before the pandemic. Findings were published in Academic Emergency Medicine. “Our data shows that pediatric emergency departments saw more severe mental health presentations during the pandemic, ...

The math problem that took nearly a century to solve

The math problem that took nearly a century to solve
2024-04-02
We’ve all been there: staring at a math test with a problem that seems impossible to solve. What if finding the solution to a problem took almost a century? For mathematicians who dabble in Ramsey theory, this is very much the case. In fact, little progress had been made in solving Ramsey problems since the 1930s. Now, University of California San Diego researchers Jacques Verstraete and Sam Mattheus have found the answer to r(4,t), a longstanding Ramsey problem that has perplexed ...

When did the chicken cross the road? New evidence from Central Asia

When did the chicken cross the road? New evidence from Central Asia
2024-04-02
Chickens are one of the most economically important animals in the world today. However, the story of their origins and dispersal across the ancient world is still poorly understood. In fact, new archaeological techniques have recently led to the recognition that many finds of bones previously thought to represent early chickens in fact belonged to wild birds. Now, in a new publication, an international team of archaeologists, historians, and biomolecular scientists present the earliest clear evidence for the raising of chickens for egg production, and argue that the loss of seasonal egg laying was the main driver for the dispersal of domestic chickens across Eurasia and northeast Africa.  Using ...

A data representation method using distance correlation

A data representation method using distance correlation
2024-04-02
Association in-between features has been demonstrated to improve the representation ability of data.  However, the original association data reconstruction method may face two issues: the dimension of reconstructed data is undoubtedly highly than that of original data, and adopted association measure method does not well balance effectiveness and efficiency. To solve the problems, a research team led by Yuhua QIAN published their new research on 12 Mar 2024 in Frontiers of ...

Lundquist investigator Dr. Eiji Yoshihara awarded $3 million NIH R01 grant for diabetes stem cell therapy research

Lundquist investigator Dr. Eiji Yoshihara awarded $3 million NIH R01 grant for diabetes stem cell therapy research
2024-04-02
  The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), a division of the National Institutes of Health, has granted Eiji Yoshihara, PhD, a principal investigator at The Lundquist Institute (TLI) and assistant professor at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, a five-year grant totaling $3 million. This prestigious NIH R01 grant, known for its rigorous peer-review process, is dedicated to advancing stem cell therapy research for treating diabetes. Insulin-dependent diabetes, including autoimmune Type 1 and stress-induced Type 2, presents a significant health burden, often necessitating lifelong ...

YKT6 gene variants cause a new genetic disorder finds a new study

2024-04-02
A recent collaborative study has discovered rare variants in the YKT6 gene as the cause of a new neurological disorder characterized by developmental delays along with severe progressive liver disease and a potential risk for liver cancer. The study, published in Genetics in Medicine, was led by Dr. Hugo Bellen, Distinguished Service Professor at Baylor College of Medicine and Principal Investigator at the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute (Duncan NRI) at Texas Children’s Hospital, and Dr. Wendy Chung, the Chief of the Department of Pediatrics at Boston Children’s ...

Australia on track for unprecedented, decades-long megadroughts

2024-04-02
Australia could soon see megadroughts that last for more than 20 years, according to new modelling from The Australian National University (ANU) and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes. The researchers’ bleak findings are before factoring in human impact on the climate since the Industrial Revolution. The ANU-led team also found that 20th century droughts in southwestern and eastern Australia, including the Murray-Darling Basin, were longer on average compared to pre-industrial times. According to the scientists, the findings paint a worrying picture of future droughts in Australia that are far worse than anything in recent experience. Megadroughts are exceptionally ...

Dilling named associate laboratory director for neutron sciences at ORNL

Dilling named associate laboratory director for neutron sciences at ORNL
2024-04-02
Jens Dilling has been named associate laboratory director for the Neutron Sciences Directorate, or NScD, at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, effective April 1. “ORNL pioneered neutron scattering in the 1940s, developing a new technique that enables scientists to explore and create new materials, batteries and more,” ORNL Director Stephen Streiffer said. “Today, ORNL remains at the forefront of this science, and Jens will play a critical role in ensuring the nation's ...

UC San Diego receives $6.7M to develop whole-body inflammation imaging

2024-04-02
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have been awarded two new grants by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), totaling $6.7 million, to develop and clinically test technologies that can noninvasively examine and quantify immune cells found in tumors. These immune cells, called macrophages, are involved in the body’s normal inflammatory responses, but they also make up a significant portion of solid tumors. The density of macrophages in a tumor can affect how it responds to treatment, so the ability to count them noninvasively could help doctors decide which therapies ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

UK/Portuguese study strongly suggests antibiotic-resistant “superbugs” are being passed from cats and dogs to their owners

Researchers study effects of solvation and ion valency on metallopolymers

Physicists solve puzzle about ancient galaxy found by Webb telescope

Clear guidelines needed for synthetic data to ensure transparency, accountability and fairness study says

Report finds significant gender and racial inequities in the educational measurement profession

University of Houston and Scotland’s Heriot-Watt University forge strategic energy alliance

Rice team demonstrates miniature brain stimulator in humans

Jennifer Stinson receives prestigious Barer-Flood Prize in health services research

First insights into the genetic bottleneck characterizing early sheep husbandry in the Neolithic period

Theories that explain the crisis in democracy are inadequate for Latin America, experts say

Starving cells hijack protein transport stations

Where have all the right whales gone?

Researchers find no link between COVID-19 virus and development of asthma in children

Cell’s ‘garbage disposal’ may have another role: helping neurons near skin sense the environment

Study reveals potential to reverse lung fibrosis using the body’s own healing technique

International team co-led by a BSC researcher discovers more than 50 new deep-sea species in one of the most unexplored areas of the planet

Cleveland Innovation District partners exceeding many targets set by state and JobsOhio

A third of women experience migraines associated with menstruation, most commonly when premenopausal

MD Anderson Research Highlights for April 12, 2024

Soft Robotics appoints new Deputy Editor-in-Chief, Barbara Mazzolai, PhD

Wiley releases Mass Spectra of Designer Drugs 2024 to accelerate forensics analysis of fentanyls, cannabinoids, and more

Freestanding emergency departments are popular, but do they function as intended?

University of Cincinnati experts present at national neurology conference

Bonobos are more aggressive than previously thought

How seaweed became multicellular

Melanomas resist drugs by ‘breaking’ genes

Africa’s iconic flamingos threatened by rising lake levels, study shows

Vaccination timeliness among US children ages 0-19 months

Changes in permanent contraception procedures among young adults following the Dobbs decision

Semaglutide vs endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty for weight loss

[Press-News.org] AI’s ability to detect tumor cells could be key to more accurate bone cancer prognoses
Researchers have developed a new machine-learning model that can precisely make prognosis predictions for patients with osteosarcoma, based on the density of viable tumor cells post-treatment.