PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

New urine-based test detects high-grade prostate cancer, helping men avoid unnecessary biopsies

The test looks at 18 genes and was specifically developed to pick out those cancers that need immediate treatment over the slow-growing type

2024-04-18
(Press-News.org) ANN ARBOR, Michigan — Researchers at the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center have developed a new urine-based test that addresses a major problem in prostate cancer: how to separate the slow-growing form of the disease unlikely to cause harm from more aggressive cancer that needs immediate treatment.

 

The test, called MyProstateScore2.0, or MPS2, looks at 18 different genes linked to high-grade prostate cancer. In multiple tests using urine and tissue samples from men with prostate cancer, it successfully identified cancers classified as Gleason 3+4=7 or Grade Group 2 (GG2), or higher. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread compared to Gleason 6 or Grade Group 1 prostate cancers, which are unlikely to spread or cause other impact. More than one-third of prostate cancer diagnoses are this low-grade form. Gleason and Grade Group are both used to classify how aggressive prostate cancer is.

 

Results are published in JAMA Oncology.

 

“Our standard test is lacking in terms of its ability to clearly pick out those who have significant cancer. Twenty years ago, we were looking for any kind of cancer. Now we realize that slow-growing cancer doesn’t need to be treated. All of a sudden, the game changed. We went from having to find any cancer to finding only significant cancer,” said co-senior study author John T. Wei, M.D., David A. Bloom Professor of Urology at Michigan Medicine.

 

Prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, remains the linchpin of prostate cancer detection. MPS2 improves upon a urine-based test developed by the same U-M team nearly a decade ago, following a landmark discovery of two genes that fuse to cause prostate cancer. The original MPS test, which is used today, looked at PSA, the gene fusion TMPRSS2::ERG, and another marker called PCA3. 

 

“There was still an unmet need with the MyProstateScore test and other commercial tests currently available. They were detecting prostate cancer, but in general they were not doing as good a job in detecting high-grade or clinically significant prostate cancer. The impetus for this new test is to address this unmet need,” said co-senior author Arul M. Chinnaiyan, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Michigan Center for Translational Pathology. Chinnaiyan’s lab discovered the T2::ERG gene fusion and developed the initial MPS test.

 

To make MyProstateScore even stronger at identifying high-grade cancers, researchers used RNA sequencing of more than 58,000 genes and narrowed it to 54 candidates uniquely overexpressed specifically in higher-grade cancers. They tested the biomarkers against urine samples collected and stored at U-M through another major study, the National Cancer Institute’s Early Detection Research Network. This included about 700 patients from 2008-2020 who came for a prostate biopsy due to an elevated PSA level.

 

This first step narrowed the field to 18 markers that consistently correlated with higher grade disease. The test still includes the original MPS markers, plus 16 additional biomarkers to complement them.

 

From there, the team reached out to the larger Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), a consortium of more than 30 labs across the country that are similarly collecting samples. This ensured a diverse, national sampling. Knowing no specific details about the samples, the U-M team performed MPS2 testing on more than 800 urine samples and sent results back to collaborators at the NCI-EDRN. The NCI-EDRN team assessed MPS2 results against the patient records.

 

MPS2 was shown to be better at identifying GG2 or higher cancers. More importantly, it was nearly 100% correct at ruling out GG1 cancer.

 

“If you’re negative on this test, it’s almost certain that you don’t have aggressive prostate cancer,” said Chinnaiyan, S. P. Hicks Endowed Professor of Pathology and professor of urology at Michigan Medicine.

 

Moreover, MPS2 was more effective at helping patients avoid unnecessary biopsies. While 11% of unnecessary biopsies were avoided with PSA testing alone, MPS2 testing would avoid up to 41% of unnecessary biopsies.

 

“Four of 10 men who would have a negative biopsy will have a low risk MPS2 result and can confidently skip a biopsy. If a man has had a biopsy before, the test works even better,” Wei explained.

 

For example, a patient may get a prostate biopsy due to an elevated PSA, but no cancer is detected. The patient is followed over time and if his PSA inches up, he would typically need another biopsy.

 

“In those men who have had a biopsy before and are being considered for another biopsy, MPS2 will identify half of those whose repeat biopsy would be negative. Those are practical applications for patients out there. Nobody wants to say sign me up for another biopsy. We are always looking for alternatives and this is it,” Wei said.

 

MPS2 is currently available through LynxDx, which is University of Michigan spin-off company that has an exclusive license from the university to commercialize MPS2. Patients interested in learning more can call the Michigan Medicine Cancer AnswerLine at 800-865-1125. 

 

The paper’s first authors are Jeffrey J. Tosoian, M.D., M.P.H., who is now at Vanderbilt University, and Yuping Zhang, Ph.D., and Lanbo Xiao, Ph.D., at U-M. Additional authors are Cassie Xie; Nathan L. Samora, M.D.; Yashar S. Niknafs, Ph.D.; Zoey Chopra; Javed Siddiqui; Heng Zheng, M.D.; Grace Herron; Neil Vaishampayan; Hunter S. Robinson, M.D.; Kumaran Arivoli; Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D.; Ashley E. Ross, M.D., Ph.D.; Todd M. Morgan, M.D.; Ganesh S. Palapattu, M.D.; Simpa S. Salami, M.D., M.P.H.; Lakshmi P. Kunju, M.D.; Scott A. Tomlins, M.D., Ph.D.; Lori J. Sokoll, Ph.D.; Daniel W. Chan, Ph.D.; Sudhir Srivastava, Ph.D.; Ziding Feng, Ph.D.; Martin G. Sanda, M.D.; Yingye Zheng, Ph.D.

 

Funding for this work is from the Michigan-Vanderbilt Early Detection Research Network Biomarker Characterization Center and Data Management and Coordinating Center, which are through the National Cancer Institute grants U2C CA271854 and U24 CA086368. Additional funding is from NCI grants P50 CA186786, R35 CA231996, U24 CA115102, U01 CA113913; Prostate Cancer Foundation; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and the American Cancer Society.

 

Disclosures: Chinnaiyan serves on the advisory boards of Tempus, LynxDx, Ascentage Pharmaceuticals, Medsyn therapeutics, Esanik and RAAPTA therapeutics. Tomlins is an equity holder and chief medical officer of Strata Oncology. LynxDx has obtained an exclusive license from the University of Michigan to commercialize MPS2 and the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Tosoian and Chinnaiyan are equity holders and scientific advisers to LynxDx. Siddiqui, Zhang, Xiao and Niknafs have served as scientific advisers to LynxDx.

 

Paper cited: “Development and Validation of an 18-Gene Urine Test for Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer,” JAMA Oncology. DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2024.0455

 

Resources:

University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center, www.rogelcancercenter.org

Michigan Medicine Cancer AnswerLine, 800-865-1125

 

# # #

 

END



ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Researchers reduce bias in pathology AI algorithms using foundation models

2024-04-18
Findings of substantial variability in pathology AI models’ performance based on race, insurance type and age group serve as a “call to action” to researchers and regulators to improve medical equity Large foundation models that incorporate a richer level of detail may mitigate disparities between different demographic groups and enhance model accuracy.   Advanced artificial intelligence (AI) systems have shown promise in revolutionalizing the field of pathology through transforming the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease; however, the underrepresentation of certain patient populations in pathology ...

Properties of new materials for microchips can now be measured well

Properties of new materials for microchips can now be measured well
2024-04-18
Making ever smaller and more powerful chips requires new ultrathin materials: 2D materials that are only 1 atom thick, or even just a couple of atoms. Think about graphene or ultra-thin silicon membrane for instance. Scientists at TU Delft have taken an important step in application of these materials: they can now measure important thermal properties of ultrathin silicon membranes. A major advantage of their method is that no physical contact needs to be made with the membrane, so pristine properties can ...

Maltreated children are three times more likely to develop substance use disorders in adulthood

2024-04-18
A new study published in the scientific journal Addiction has found that people who are maltreated as children may be three times more likely to be admitted to hospital for alcohol and substance use disorders by the age of 40, compared with those who are not maltreated. The study used data from over 6,000 children born at the Mater Mothers Hospital, Brisbane, Australia between 1981 and 1983.  Ten percent of those children (609 children) had at least one child maltreatment notification (reported or substantiated) up to 15 years of age. Compared with the rest of the children, those 609 ...

Two U professors selected as AAAS fellows

Two U professors selected as AAAS fellows
2024-04-18
University of Utah Health professors Amy Barrios, PhD, and H. Joseph Yost, PhD, have been elected as Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), a lifetime honor that celebrates their excellence in research and commitment to mentoring the next generation of scientists. Yost and Barrios join a distinguished cadre of AAAS Fellows at the U, including Nancy Songer, PhD; Thure Cerling, PhD; Vahe Bandarian, PhD; Eric W. Schmidt, PhD; Jennifer S. Shumaker-Parry, PhD; and Mario Capecchi, PhD. Rachel Hess, MD, associate vice president for research at U of U Health, says, ...

Dana-Farber Chief Scientific Officer, Kevin Haigis, PhD, elected as Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Dana-Farber Chief Scientific Officer, Kevin Haigis, PhD, elected as Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
2024-04-18
Boston - Kevin Haigis, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, has been named Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Election as an AAAS Fellow is a distinguished lifetime honor bestowed upon AAAS members by their peers. Haigis is recognized within Biological Sciences for his distinguished contributions to understanding the complex diversity of cellular dysregulation by different variants of RAS mutations and their consequences in pathophysiology and ...

Siblings with unique genetic change help scientists progress drug search for type 1 diabetes

2024-04-18
Two siblings who have the only known mutations in a key gene anywhere in the world have helped scientists gain new insights that could help progress the search for new treatments in type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (also known as autoimmune diabetes) is a devastating and life-long disease, in which the patient’s immune cells wrongly destroy the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. People living with autoimmune diabetes need to test their blood sugar and inject insulin throughout their lives to control their blood sugars and prevent complications. Autoimmune ...

Four MD Anderson researchers elected AAAS Fellows

Four MD Anderson researchers elected AAAS Fellows
2024-04-18
HOUSTON ― In recognition of their significant achievements in the realm of cancer care and research, four researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have been elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). This prestigious distinction stands as one of the highest accolades within the scientific research community. Boyi Gan, Ph.D., Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, M.D., Li Ma, Ph.D., and Sattva Neelapu, M.D., now join this esteemed group of fellows elected by their peers. AAAS’s annual tradition of recognizing leading scientists as fellows dates to 1874. With these newest additions, 68 MD Anderson faculty members ...

Computational biology pioneer Katie Pollard elected as AAAS fellow

Computational biology pioneer Katie Pollard elected as AAAS fellow
2024-04-18
SAN FRANCISCO—April 18, 2024—The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), one of the world’s largest general scientific societies, has elected Gladstone Senior Investigator Katie Pollard, PhD, into its new class of AAAS Fellows, a lifetime honor within the scientific community. AAAS recognized Pollard for her “distinguished contributions to the field of computational biology and bioinformatics, particularly her discovery of Human Accelerated Regions, and development of ...

New “window-of-opportunity” clinical trials explore cutting-edge treatments for cancers of the liver, head and neck

2024-04-18
April 18, 2024, TORONTO – A new round of clinical trials supported by the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR) will harness a unique opportunity to test some of the newest treatment strategies for a range of different cancers. OICR has announced two new clinical trials as part of its Window-of-Opportunity (WOO) Network, which brings together Ontario researchers, clinicians and patients to study the biology of newly diagnosed and recurrent tumours. “‘Window-of-opportunity’ clinical trials take advantage of the two-to-eight-week period between the diagnosis of cancer and the surgery to remove the cancer, at ...

Can bismuth prevent oil leaks – (and save Norwegians billions)?

Can bismuth prevent oil leaks – (and save Norwegians billions)?
2024-04-18
Over the next 25 years, as the world shifts away from fossil fuels, the oil and gas wells that have sustained the fossil fuel age will have to be plugged. No big deal, you might think, drilling those wells was the hard part. Plugging them should be no problem. But think again. The Norwegian Continental Shelf, as an example, is punctured by more than 2000 wells. Harald Linga, centre director for SWIPA (see box), a Centre for Research Based Innovation based at SINTEF, Scandinavia’s largest independent research institute, estimates that plugging them using today’s technology will cost upwards of NOK 800 billion – that’s USD 73 billion. And while oil ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Statins associated with decreased risk for CVD and death, even in very old adults

Climate change is moving tree populations away from the soil fungi that sustain them

Secrets of sargassum: Scientists advance knowledge of seaweed causing chaos in the Caribbean and West Africa

Bioinformatics approach could help optimize soldiers’ training for improved readiness and recovery

Earth scientists describe a new kind of volcanic eruption

Warmer wetter climate predicted to bring societal and ecological impact to the Tibetan Plateau

Feeding infants peanut products protects against allergy into adolescence

Who will like beetle skewers? What Europeans think about alternative protein food

ETRI wins ‘iF Design Award’ for mobile collaborative robot

Combating carbon footprint: novel reactor system converts carbon dioxide into usable fuel

Investigating the origin of circatidal rhythms in freshwater snails

Altering cellular interactions around amyloid plaques may offer novel Alzheimer’s treatment strategies

Brain damage reveals part of the brain necessary for helping others

Surprising properties of elastic turbulence discovered

Study assesses cancer-related care at US hospitals predominantly serving minority populations compared with non-minority serving hospitals

First in-human investigator-initiated clinical trial to launch for refractory prostate cancer patients: Novel alpha therapy targets prostate-specific membrane antigen

Will generative AI change the way universities communicate?

Artificial Intelligence could help cure loneliness, says expert

Echidnapus identified from an ‘Age of Monotremes’

Semaglutide may protect kidney function in individuals with overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease

New technique detects novel biomarkers for kidney diseases with nephrotic syndrome

Political elites take advantage of anti-partisan protests to disrupt politics

Tiny target discovered on RNA to short-circuit inflammation, UC Santa Cruz researchers find

Charge your laptop in a minute? Supercapacitors can help; new research offers clues

Scientists discover CO2 and CO ices in outskirts of solar system

Theory and experiment combine to shine a new light on proton spin

PKMYT1, a potential ‘Achilles heel’ of treatment resistant ER+ breast cancers with the poorest prognosis

PH-binding motifs as a platform for drug design: Lessons from protease-activated receptors (PARs)

Virginia Tech researcher creates new tool to move tiny bioparticles

On repeat: Biologists observe recurring evolutionary changes, over time, in stick insects

[Press-News.org] New urine-based test detects high-grade prostate cancer, helping men avoid unnecessary biopsies
The test looks at 18 genes and was specifically developed to pick out those cancers that need immediate treatment over the slow-growing type