PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

New models predict drastically greener Arctic in coming decades

Boom in trees, shrubs expected to lead to net increase in climate warming

2013-04-01
(Press-News.org) New research predicts that rising temperatures will lead to a massive "greening," or increase in plant cover, in the Arctic. In a paper published on March 31 in Nature Climate Change, scientists reveal new models projecting that wooded areas in the Arctic could increase by as much as 50 percent over the next few decades. The researchers also show that this dramatic greening will accelerate climate warming at a rate greater than previously expected.

"Such widespread redistribution of Arctic vegetation would have impacts that reverberate through the global ecosystem," said Richard Pearson, lead author on the paper and a research scientist at the American Museum of Natural History's Center for Biodiversity and Conservation.

Plant growth in Arctic ecosystems has increased over the past few decades, a trend that coincides with increases in temperatures, which are rising at about twice the global rate. The research team—which includes scientists from the Museum, AT&T Labs-Research, Woods Hole Research Center, Colgate University, Cornell University, and the University of York—used climate scenarios for the 2050s to explore how this trend is likely to continue in the future. The scientists developed models that statistically predict the types of plants that could grow under certain temperatures and precipitation. Although it comes with some uncertainty, this type of modeling is a robust way to study the Arctic because the harsh climate limits the range of plants that can grow, making this system simpler to model compared to other regions such as the tropics.

The models reveal the potential for massive redistribution of vegetation across the Arctic under future climate, with about half of all vegetation switching to a different class and a massive increase in tree cover. What might this look like? In Siberia, for instance, trees could grow hundreds of miles north of the present tree line.

"These impacts would extend far beyond the Arctic region," Pearson said. "For example, some species of birds seasonally migrate from lower latitudes and rely on finding particular polar habitats, such as open space for ground-nesting."

In addition, the researchers investigated the multiple climate change feedbacks that greening would produce. They found that a phenomenon called the albedo effect, based on the reflectivity of the Earth's surface, would have the greatest impact on the Arctic's climate. When the sun hits snow, most of the radiation is reflected back to space. But when it hits an area that's "dark," or covered in trees or shrubs, more sunlight is absorbed in the area and temperature increases. This has a positive feedback to climate warming: the more vegetation there is, the more warming will occur.

"By incorporating observed relationships between plants and albedo, we show that vegetation distribution shifts will result in an overall positive feedback to climate that is likely to cause greater warming than has previously been predicted," said co-author Scott Goetz, of the Woods Hole Research Center.

INFORMATION:

This work was funded by the National Science Foundation, grants IPY 0732948, IPY 0732954, and Expeditions 0832782. Other authors involved in this study include Steven Phillips (AT&T Labs-Research), Michael Loranty (Woods Hole Research Center and Colgate University), Pieter Beck (Woods Hole Research Center), Theodoros Damoulas (Cornell University), and Sarah Knight (American Museum of Natural History and University of York).


ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Pitt team finds immunity protein that ramps up inflammation, and agents that can block it

2013-04-01
Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have discovered a new biological pathway of innate immunity that ramps up inflammation and then identified agents that can block it, leading to increased survival and improved lung function in animal models of pneumonia. They reported their findings today in Nature Immunology. Pneumonia and other infections sometimes provoke an inflammatory response from the body that is more detrimental than the disease-causing bacteria, said senior author Rama Mallampalli, M.D, professor and vice chair for research, Department ...

Is guided self-help effective in treating childhood obesity?

2013-04-01
It is known that family-based treatment that combines nutrition and exercise education, along with behavior modification, is a good approach to help children lose weight. But clinic-based weight-control programs for childhood obesity are not accessible to many families, due to issues such as cost or time commitment. Initial studies at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine indicate that a self-help treatment program for overweight children and their parents, guided by clinical experts, may be an effective solution. The study, led by Kerri Boutelle, ...

Varicella vaccine has long-term effectiveness against chicken pox

2013-04-01
OAKLAND, Calif., April 1, 2013 – Chicken pox, the childhood affliction of earlier generations, has been largely neutralized by the varicella vaccine, according to a new study by the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, which appears in the current online issue of Pediatrics. The 14-year study followed 7,585 children who were vaccinated in 1995, when they were 12 to 23 months old, to assess the long-term effectiveness of the vaccine and the impact on the epidemiology of varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Researchers also observed the impact of the ...

New technique shows promise in restoring near vision without glasses

2013-04-01
Philadelphia, Pa. (April 1, 2013) - By middle age, most people have age-related declines in near vision (presbyopia) requiring bifocals or reading glasses. An emerging technique called hyperopic orthokeratology (OK) may provide a new alternative for restoring near vision without the need for glasses, according to a study, "Refractive Changes from Hyperopic Orthokeratology Monovision in Presbyopes", appearing in the April issue of Optometry and Vision Science, official journal of the American Academy of Optometry. The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ...

Jogging Stroller Reviews

2013-04-01
Every month, tens of thousands of people are searching for jogging stroller reviews online. Unfortunately, only a handful of websites currently provide legitimate reviews, making it difficult for athletic parents to find unbiased information. "It's a shame; it's hard for athletic parents to find information about jogging strollers. You never know whether you're going to make the right choice when it comes to safety and reliability" says Henry Stinson, one of the staff members at the newly launched website, BestJoggingStrollerReviews.org The site provides ...

Geranium Street Floral: Decorate with Artificial Plants and Flowers

2013-04-01
Geranium Street Floral says plants and flowers give a very different feel to any environment: they can add vitality and color to a room that otherwise would be cold, or add serenity to a busy environment, such as a doctor's office waiting room. Bob Smith, general manager of San Marcos, CA-based Geranium Street Floral, says artificial flowers or plants can be placed in key locations, such as a coffee table, a corner of the room or in the eaves of a window, to really add atmosphere. Artificial plants can add an elegant and sophisticated air to a space without creating ...

The Importance of Background Checks

2013-04-01
Research conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management shows that 50% of all resumes and applications contain false information. The U.S. Department of Commerce identifies employee theft as the cause of 33% of all business failures. The Department of Justice claims workplace violence accounts for 18% of all violent crimes. 66% of negligent hiring trial cases result in jury awards averaging $600,000 in damages. Can your business afford to skip important, yet inexpensive steps such as background checks which could save time, money and headaches when it comes to hiring? Statistics ...

GreeningtheInn Launches New and Improved Green Catalogue

2013-04-01
GreeningtheInn's target audience of green-minded hoteliers and consumers will find a more user-friendly version of their signature "Green Catalogue," launched Friday, March 28. Both the visual design and search function have been improved to provide users with easier functionality. Companies wishing to list their product(s) in the Green Catalogue have three options available to them, including a basic free listing or upgrades to premium or featured listings. For more information on the Green Catalog, visitors can go to http://www.greeningtheinn.com, click ...

Dr. Jennifer Thompson and Dr. T. Payson Thompson join Avance Care Morrisville

2013-04-01
Dr. Pratik Desai, MD FACC, President of Avance Care, P.A. announced that Dr. Jennifer Thompson and Dr. Payson Thompson will join the team of medical professionals at Avance Care Morrisville, located at 6402 McCrimmon Parkway, Suite 100. Dr. Jennifer Thompson, a Board Certified Family Physician, is originally from Buffalo NY and relocated to Raleigh in 1997. Dr. Thompson received her undergraduate training from SUNY Buffalo and UNC Chapel Hill, and then attended the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University. She comes to Avance Care with experience gained ...

Creative Performance Inc. Announces Workamajig Project Management University

2013-04-01
This content, normally reserved exclusively to our Workamajig Deployment and Workamajig Re-deployment consulting solutions, is now available to general audiences for the very first time. Of the numerous Project Management seminars on the market, few are focused specifically on the unique needs for advertising and marketing Agency Project Managers, and none are Workamajig specific - except for ours. To be held in Portland, Oregon from May 21 to May 24, 2013, this Project Management seminar will focus on agency best practices and ways to utilize the many benefits of Workamajig ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Scientists model 'true prevalence' of COVID-19 throughout pandemic

New breakthrough to help immune systems in the fight against cancer

Through the thin-film glass, researchers spot a new liquid phase

Administering opioids to pregnant mice alters behavior and gene expression in offspring

Brain's 'memory center' needed to recognize image sequences but not single sights

Safety of second dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines after first-dose allergic reactions

Changes in disparities in access to care, health after Medicare eligibility

Use of high-risk medications among lonely older adults

65+ and lonely? Don't talk to your doctor about another prescription

Exosome formulation developed to deliver antibodies for choroidal neovascularization therapy

Second COVID-19 mRNA vaccine dose found safe following allergic reactions to first dose

Plant root-associated bacteria preferentially colonize their native host-plant roots

Rare inherited variants in previously unsuspected genes may confer significant risk for autism

International experts call for a unified public health response to NAFLD and NASH epidemic

International collaboration of scientists rewrite the rulebook of flowering plant genetics

Improving air quality reduces dementia risk, multiple studies suggest

Misplaced trust: When trust in science fosters pseudoscience

Two types of blood pressure meds prevent heart events equally, but side effects differ

New statement provides path to include ethnicity, ancestry, race in genomic research

Among effective antihypertensive drugs, less popular choice is slightly safer

Juicy past of favorite Okinawan fruit revealed

Anticipate a resurgence of respiratory viruses in young children

Anxiety, depression, burnout rising as college students prepare to return to campus

Goal-setting and positive parent-child relationships reduce risk of youth vaping

New research identifies cancer types with little survival improvements in adolescents and young adul

Oncotarget: Replication-stress sensitivity in breast cancer cells

Oncotarget: TERT and its binding protein: overexpression of GABPA/B in gliomas

Development of a novel technology to check body temperature with smartphone camera

The mechanics of puncture finally explained

Extreme heat, dry summers main cause of tree death in Colorado's subalpine forests

[Press-News.org] New models predict drastically greener Arctic in coming decades
Boom in trees, shrubs expected to lead to net increase in climate warming