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How disordered proteins spread from cell to cell, potentially spreading disease

How disordered proteins spread from cell to cell, potentially spreading disease
2011-02-20
One bad apple is all it takes to spoil the barrel. And one misfolded protein may be all that's necessary to corrupt other proteins, forming large aggregations linked to several incurable neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Stanford biology Professor Ron Kopito has shown that the mutant, misfolded protein responsible for Huntington's disease can move from cell to cell, recruiting normal proteins and forming aggregations in each cell it visits. Knowing that this protein spends part of its time outside cells "opens up the possibility ...

A better way to diagnose pneumonia

2011-02-20
Researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology have created a new sampling device that could prevent thousands of people worldwide from dying of pneumonia each year. Called PneumoniaCheck, the device created at Georgia Tech is a solution to the problem of diagnosing pneumonia, which is a major initiative of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Pneumonia, an inflammation of the lungs, kills about 2.4 million people each year. The problem is particularly devastating in Africa, Southeast Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean, where a child dies ...

New model for probing antidepressant actions

2011-02-20
The most widely prescribed antidepressants – medicines such as Prozac, Lexapro and Paxil – work by blocking the serotonin transporter, a brain protein that normally clears away the mood-regulating chemical serotonin. Or so the current thinking goes. That theory about how selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) work can now be put to the test with a new mouse model developed by neuroscientists at Vanderbilt University. These mice, described in the online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), express a serotonin transporter that ...

Enhancing nuclear security: Training and international collaboration

2011-02-20
While a world free of nuclear weapons remains a goal for governments around the world, nuclear security constitutes a major challenge for the 21st century, as recognised at the 2010 nuclear security summit in Washington. Citizens are generally aware of international efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, but they are often unaware of nuclear security research and the important role science in this field. A new European nuclear security training centre and enhanced international collaboration are good examples. A recent survey on the EU´s radiological ...

Turning to nature for inspiration

2011-02-20
To build the next generation of sensors – with applications ranging from medical devices to robotics to new consumer goods – Chang Liu looks to biology. Liu, professor of mechanical engineering and electrical engineering and computer science at Northwestern University's McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, is using insights from nature as inspiration for both touch and flow sensors — areas that currently lack good sensors for recording and communicating the senses. Liu will discuss his research in a symposium at the annual meeting of the American Association ...

Plant breeding is being transformed by advances in genomics and computing

2011-02-20
The arrival of affordable, high throughput DNA sequencing, coupled with improved bioinformatics and statistical analyses is bringing about major advances in the field of molecular plant breeding. Multidisciplinary breeding programs on the world's major crop plants are able to investigate genome-wide variations in DNA sequences and link them to the inheritance of highly complex traits controlled by many genes, such as hybrid vigor. Furthermore, there has been a step-change in speed and cost-effectiveness. What previously took six generations to achieve can now be done in ...

AAAS Symposium: New research facilitates scientific knowledge transfer

2011-02-20
NEW YORK, February 4, 2011 –– A defining feature of a scientific discovery is replication by others. In today's age of computational science, this means higher standards of communication of discoveries — making available the data that generated the results along with the published research paper. Doing this makes the technology behind the finding widely accessible, facilitating re-use and verification of results. Tools and approaches to facilitate such knowledge transfer will be discussed at a symposium titled The Digitization of Science: Reproducibility and Interdisciplinary ...

Weight loss improves knee pain from common arthritic condition, study says

2011-02-20
SAN DIEGO, CA – Knee pain related to osteoarthritis (OA) is a common complaint among obese individuals and retired professional athletes, especially former NFL players, but researchers presenting their work at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Specialty Day program (February 19th) say they have a simple solution: lose weight. "Our research on patients who were obese with early-onset knee osteoarthritis showed that those individuals who underwent isolated weight loss via bariatric surgery and lost an average of 57 pounds within the first six months ...

Misguided public perception on what Tommy John surgery can do apparent in new study

2011-02-20
SAN DIEGO, CA – Despite known risks and outcomes of the common elbow procedure known as Tommy John surgery, parents, coaches and players still have incorrect assumptions regarding player performance, say researchers presenting their study at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Specialty Day in San Diego, CA (February 19th). "Despite the recognized risk of pitch type and amount of pitches, nearly a third of those we surveyed did not believe pitch counts were a risk factor for injury. Even more disturbing was that fact that a quarter of players and coaches ...

Hamstring grafts prove more effective in ACL knee reconstruction, study says

2011-02-20
SAN DIEGO, CA - Patients receiving anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) knee reconstruction with a hamstring tendon graft rather than a knee tendon graft were less likely to suffer from pain and mobility issues15 years after surgery, say researchers presenting a study today at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Specialty Day in San Diego, California (February 19). "While we have seen excellent results in terms of knee symptoms and function with both graft types, comparing the two definitely showed differences, "said Leo Pinczewski, MD, lead researcher ...

Study shows young patients may benefit from microfracture knee procedures

2011-02-20
SAN DIEGO, CA - Surgical treatment using microfracture for pediatric knee injury repair may improve activity outcomes, according to research presented at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Specialty Day in San Diego (February 19). The study shows patients are able to regain function and return to a normal activity level following surgery and rehabilitation. "Our study focused on patients with articular cartilage injuries to the knee, which can be a debilitating source of pain and a strong limitation to function in pediatric patients," said lead researcher, ...

Specialized blood plasma treatment does not improve rotator cuff healing, study finds

2011-02-20
SAN DIEGO, CA – Improving healing after a rotator cuff tendon repair is an ongoing problem for orthopaedic surgeons world-wide. Researchers, presenting a study at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Specialty Day in San Diego (February 19th) found that one of the latest tools for healing injuries, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), does not make a big difference. "Our study on 79 patients who received platelet-rich plasma with a fibrin matrix (PRFM) demonstrated no real differences in healing in a tendon-to-bone rotator cuff repair. In fact, this preliminary ...

Mimicking photosynthesis path to solar-derived hydrogen fuel

2011-02-20
Inexpensive hydrogen for automotive or jet fuel may be possible by mimicking photosynthesis, according to a Penn State materials chemist, but a number of problems need to be solved first. "We are focused on the hardest way to make fuel," said Thomas Mallouk, Evan Pugh Professor of Materials Chemistry and Physics. "We are creating an artificial system that mimics photosynthesis, but it will be practical only when it is as cheap as gasoline or jet fuel." Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen can be done in a variety of ways, but most are heavily energy intensive. The ...

A new high-resolution method for imaging below the skin using a liquid lens

A new high-resolution method for imaging below the skin using a liquid lens
2011-02-20
University of Rochester optics professor Jannick Rolland has developed an optical technology that provides unprecedented images under the skin's surface. The aim of the technology is to detect and examine skin lesions to determine whether they are benign or cancerous without having to cut the suspected tumor out of the skin and analyze it in the lab. Instead, the tip of a roughly one-foot-long cylindrical probe is placed in contact with the tissue, and within seconds a clear, high-resolution, 3D image of what lies below the surface emerges. Rolland will be presenting ...

'Universal standards' for research integrity may have unintended consequences

2011-02-20
The global scientific community is capable of policing its own behavior and should resist creation of a central oversight body to enforce 'universal standards' that may have unintended consequences, a renowned physicist and director of the Energy Institute at the University of Texas at Austin said Saturday. Speaking at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science Without Borders meeting in Washington, D.C., Raymond L Orbach, Ph.D., singled out several elements contained in the "Singapore Statement of Research Integrity" (www.singaporestatement.org) ...

When fingers start tapping, the music must be striking a chord

2011-02-20
Washington (Thursday, February 17) — According to University of Toronto speech-language pathologist Luc De Nil, the beat could be revealing such things as how children master one of the most complex tasks of all – speech. "The rapid and precise muscle movements of speech must be the most intricate, yet poorly understood, of all the sensory-motor skills," says De Nil. De Nil's interest in finger-tapping came out of his group's previous work on adults who stutter. His team discovered that they have problems in acquiring new and unusual tapping sequences and not just speech. ...

Plants that can move inspire new adaptive structures

2011-02-20
ANN ARBOR, Mich.---The Mimosa plant, which folds its leaves when they're touched, is inspiring a new class of adaptive structures designed to twist, bend, stiffen and even heal themselves. University of Michigan researchers are leading their development. Mechanical engineering professor Kon-Well Wang will present the team's latest work Feb. 19 at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's 2011 Annual Meeting in Washington D.C. He will also speak at a news briefing earlier that day. Wang is the Stephan P. Timoshenko Collegiate Professor of Mechanical Engineering ...

Super-sharp radio 'eye' remeasuring the universe

2011-02-20
Using the super-sharp radio "vision" of astronomy's most precise telescope, scientists have extended a directly-measured "yardstick" three times farther into the cosmos than ever before, an achievement with important implications for numerous areas of astrophysics, including determining the nature of Dark Energy, which constitutes 70 percent of the Universe. The continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) also is redrawing the map of our home Galaxy and is poised to yield tantalizing new information about extrasolar planets, among many other cutting-edge research projects. The ...

Tip sheet: Caltech researchers presenting at AAAS

2011-02-20
At this year's American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting in Washington, D.C., February 17 to 21, Caltech researchers will present topics ranging from solar and renewable energy solutions to the latest advancements in bioengineering. Caltech's Alice S. Huang, AAAS president, will deliver the President's Address at the opening ceremony, highlighting this year's AAAS theme, "Science Without Borders." Friday, February 18 Session: Portraits of the California Energy System in 2050: Cutting Emissions by 80 Percent Title: The Future of Game-Changing ...

Large study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reveals some surprises

2011-02-20
Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is highly effective and provides durable results five years after surgery, according to a large, prospective study by Hospital for Special Surgery investigators. The study also surprisingly revealed that the rotator cuff has the ability to heal even when early imaging studies have found a defect at the site of repair. The research will be presented at the upcoming American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) 2011 Specialty Day meeting, to be held Feb. 19 in San Diego, Calif., following the annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic ...

Common hip disorder can cause sports hernia

2011-02-20
Sports hernias are commonly found in individuals with a mechanical disorder of the hip and can be resolved with surgery to fix the hip disorder alone in some cases, according to a recent study. The research, conducted by investigators at Hospital for Special Surgery, will be presented at the American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine 2011 Specialty Day meeting, held Feb. 19 in San Diego following the annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. "If individuals have symptoms of athletic pubalgia otherwise known as sports hernia, doctors should carefully ...

Climate projections show human health impacts possible within 30 years

2011-02-20
A panel of scientists speaking today at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) unveiled new research and models demonstrating how climate change could increase exposure and risk of human illness originating from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes ecosystems, with some studies projecting impacts to be felt within 30 years. "With 2010 the wettest year on record and third warmest for sea surface temperatures, NOAA and our partners are working to uncover how a changing climate can affect our health and our prosperity," said Jane ...

The world’s oldest water?

2011-02-20
This release is available in French. Washington — New evidence bolsters the notion that deep saline groundwaters in South Africa's Witwatersrand Basin may have remained isolated for many thousands, perhaps even millions, of years. The study, recently accepted for publication in Chemical Geology, found the noble gas neon dissolved in water in three-kilometre deep crevices. The unusual neon profile, along with the high salinities and some other unique chemical signatures, is very different from anything seen in molten fluid and gases rising from beneath the Earth's ...

NutraSense adds ImmunoSmart to Instantly Boost Immune System

2011-02-20
The NutraSense Company adds another product, ImmunoSmart , to its line of high quality American Made nutritional supplements. Maintaining optimal health during the cold and flu season is on everyone's mind these days. When your immune system is functioning at its peak, your body can defend itself and keep you well in most cases. But what if you've been running on overdrive since the holidays and you feel depleted? Not eating the right foods? Not getting enough sleep, or stressed at the job? NutraSense carries a unique product called ImmunoSmart which was developed by ...

Ladbrokes Bookmaker provide giant grant to Adoption & fostering charity for 30th Anniversary

2011-02-20
One of several UK's top children's causes, the British Association for Adoption and Fostering (BAAF), has a added reason to remember its 30th anniversary this coming year following getting given a GBP100,000 grant from Ladbrokes Bookmaker within the Community Charitable Trust. BAAF, which provides services so helping to locate families for hundreds of The uk's most vulnerable children and young people every year, is marking a significant milestone since its humble beginnings in 1980 with a number of events along with fundraising programs. Amongst them, a London to Paris ...
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