PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Study finds decrease in incidence of stroke, subsequent death

2014-07-15
(Press-News.org) In a study that included a large sample of black and white U.S. adults from several communities, rates of stroke incidence and subsequent death decreased from 1987 to 2011, with decreases varying across age-groups, according to a study in the July 16 issue of JAMA.

Stroke ranks fourth among all causes of death in the U.S. and is recognized as a leading cause of serious physical and cognitive long-term disability in adults. Almost 800,000 Americans suffer a stroke each year, and over 600,000 of them are first-ever events. Stroke incidence varies by gender and ethnic group, according to background information in article.

Silvia Koton, Ph.D., of Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, and colleagues examined trends in stroke incidence and subsequent death among black and white adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, a study of 15,792 residents in four communities in the U.S., ages 45 to 64 years at baseline (1987-1989). The communities were Minneapolis, Washington County, Md., Forsyth County, N.C., and Jackson, Mississippi. For this analysis, the researchers followed-up on 14,357 participants free of stroke at baseline for all stroke hospitalizations and deaths from 1987 to 2011.

During the study period, there were 1,051 (7 percent) participants with incident stroke. The researchers found a significant decrease in stroke incidence from 1987 to 2011 in both whites and blacks as well as men and women, but this decrease was seen only above age 65 years, with younger participants experiencing stable stroke incidence rates.

Of participants with incident stroke, 614 (58 percent) died through 2011, with analysis indicating a decrease in mortality during the last two decades, mostly due to a decrease among participants younger than 65 years. This decrease was generally similar in men and women and by race.

The authors speculate that "more successful control of risk-factors in the last decades, mainly hypertension control starting in the 1970s, and later, hypertension treatment combined with smoking cessation, control of diabetes and dyslipidemia, and treatment of atrial fibrillation may have resulted in lower stroke incidence and less severe strokes, which may account for the observed lower case-fatality rates." (doi:10.1001/jama.2014.7692; Available pre-embargo to the media at http://media.jamanetwork.com)

Editor's Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

Editorial – Declining Stroke Incidence and Improving Survival in U.S. Communities
Evidence for Success and Future Challenges

"Whether the decline in stroke incidence and mortality will continue in older age groups is still speculative, and the absence of a decline in younger age groups could be an early warning sign," write Ralph L. Sacco, M.D., and Chuanhui Dong, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Miami, in an accompanying editorial.

"Although there has been significant progress in reducing smoking and lowering blood pressure and cholesterol, formidable challenges to address stroke disparities and successfully control risk factors and lifestyle behaviors across race, ethnicity, and regions persist. Unless health disparities are addressed and innovative strategies to change behavior are developed and adopted, the cerebrovascular health of the population will be unlikely to improve. Greater improvements in brain health, especially with controllable risk factors such as diet, exercise, smoking, and obesity, among younger segments of the population are required to reduce the risk of stroke and enhance the chance of successful cognitive aging for all adults." (doi:10.1001/jama.2014.7693; Available pre-embargo to the media at http://media.jamanetwork.com)

Editor's Note: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.

INFORMATION: END


ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Telecare intervention improves chronic pain

2014-07-15
A telephone-delivered intervention, which included automated symptom monitoring, produced clinically meaningful improvements in chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to usual care, according to a study in the July 16 issue of JAMA. Pain is the most common symptom reported both in the general population and patients seen in primary care, the leading cause of work disability, and a condition that costs the United States more than $600 billion each year in health care and lost productivity. Musculoskeletal pain accounts for nearly 70 million outpatient visits annually in ...

History of stroke linked with increased risk of adverse outcomes after non-cardiac surgery

2014-07-15
In an analysis that included more than 480,000 patients who underwent elective noncardiac surgery, a history of stroke was associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and death, particularly if time elapsed between stroke and surgery was less than 9 months, according to a study in the July 16 issue of JAMA. Noncardiac surgeries performed in patients with a recent heart attack or stent implantation have been associated with increased risk of perioperative cardiac events, as well as stent thrombosis (blood clot), and bleeding compared with ...

Physicians have higher rate of organ donation registration than general public

2014-07-15
A study that included about 15,000 physicians found that they were more likely to be registered as an organ donor compared to the general public, according to a study in the July 16 issue of JAMA. A shortage of organs for transplant has prompted many countries to encourage citizens to register ("opt in") to donate their organs and tissues when they die. However, less than 40 percent of the public is registered for organ donation in most countries with a registry. "One common fear is that physicians will not take all measures to save the life of a registered citizen at ...

Common treatment of certain autoimmune disease does not appear effective

2014-07-15
Among patients with the systemic autoimmune disease primary Sjögren syndrome, use of hydroxychloroquine, the most frequently prescribed treatment for the disorder, did not improve symptoms during 24 weeks of treatment compared with placebo, according to a study in the July 16 issue of JAMA. Primary Sjögren syndrome is characterized by mouth and eye dryness, pain, and fatigue, with systemic manifestations occurring in approximately one-third of patients. Despite the wide use of hydroxychloroquine in clinical practice, evidence regarding its efficacy is limited, according ...

JAMA study: Telecare program optimizing non-opioid chronic pain medication very effective

JAMA study: Telecare program optimizing non-opioid chronic pain medication very effective
2014-07-15
INDIANAPOLIS -- Chronic pain in the back, neck and other joints due to arthritis or other musculoskeletal disorders is extremely common but difficult to treat. In a new study published in the July 16 issue of Journal of the American Medical Association, primary-care patients enrolled in a 12-month telecare program optimizing non-opioid medications for chronic pain were twice as likely to see improvement as patients who received usual care for chronic pain. In addition to experiencing pain improvement, patients in the telecare arm of the pain management study reported ...

Do daughters really cause divorce? Maybe not

2014-07-15
DURHAM, N.C. -- In the U.S., couples with daughters are somewhat more likely to divorce than couples with sons. Many scholars have read those numbers as evidence that daughters cause divorce. But new research from Duke University suggests something quite different may be at play: Girls may be hardier than boys, even in the womb, and may be better able to survive pregnancies stressed by a troubled marriage. Previous studies have argued that fathers prefer boys and are more likely to stay in marriages that produce sons. Conversely, the argument runs, men are more likely ...

Gene discovery could lead to better soybean varieties for Northern United States

Gene discovery could lead to better soybean varieties for Northern United States
2014-07-15
WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – Researchers from Purdue University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have discovered a soybean gene whose mutation affects plant stem growth, a finding that could lead to the development of improved soybean cultivars for the northern United States. Purdue agronomy professor Jianxin Ma (pronounced Jen-SHIN' Ma) and collaborators identified a gene known as Dt2, which causes semideterminacy in soybean plants. Semideterminate soybean plants - mid-size plants that continue vegetative growth even after flowering - can produce as many or more pods ...

Transparency lacking in clinical trials, BU study finds

2014-07-15
A significant percentage of completed drug clinical trials, especially those funded by industry, are not disclosed to the public, years after being completed—a trend that "threatens the validity of the clinical research literature in the U.S.," according to a study led by a Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researcher. The study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, found that close to 30 percent of 400 randomly selected clinical trials completed in 2008 had not resulted, four years later, in either publication in a journal or the posting of results to the ...

Do women talk more than men? It's all about context

Do women talk more than men? Its all about context
2014-07-15
We've all heard the stereotype: Women like to talk. We bounce ideas off each other about everything from career moves to dinner plans. We hash out big decisions through our conversations with one another and work through our emotions with discussion. At least, that's what "they" say. But is any of it actually true? A new study from Northeastern University professor David Lazer's lab says it isn't that simple. Lazer, who researches social networks and holds joint appointments in the Department of Political Science and the College of Computer and Information Sciences, ...

NASA's Van Allen Probes show how to accelerate electrons

NASAs Van Allen Probes show how to accelerate electrons
2014-07-15
One of the great, unanswered questions for space weather scientists is just what creates two gigantic donuts of radiation surrounding Earth, called the Van Allen radiation belts. Recent data from the Van Allen Probes -- two nearly identical spacecraft that launched in 2012 -- address this question. The inner Van Allen radiation belt is fairly stable, but the outer one changes shape, size and composition in ways that scientists don't yet perfectly understand. Some of the particles within this belt zoom along at close to light speed, but just what accelerates these particles ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Scientists model 'true prevalence' of COVID-19 throughout pandemic

New breakthrough to help immune systems in the fight against cancer

Through the thin-film glass, researchers spot a new liquid phase

Administering opioids to pregnant mice alters behavior and gene expression in offspring

Brain's 'memory center' needed to recognize image sequences but not single sights

Safety of second dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines after first-dose allergic reactions

Changes in disparities in access to care, health after Medicare eligibility

Use of high-risk medications among lonely older adults

65+ and lonely? Don't talk to your doctor about another prescription

Exosome formulation developed to deliver antibodies for choroidal neovascularization therapy

Second COVID-19 mRNA vaccine dose found safe following allergic reactions to first dose

Plant root-associated bacteria preferentially colonize their native host-plant roots

Rare inherited variants in previously unsuspected genes may confer significant risk for autism

International experts call for a unified public health response to NAFLD and NASH epidemic

International collaboration of scientists rewrite the rulebook of flowering plant genetics

Improving air quality reduces dementia risk, multiple studies suggest

Misplaced trust: When trust in science fosters pseudoscience

Two types of blood pressure meds prevent heart events equally, but side effects differ

New statement provides path to include ethnicity, ancestry, race in genomic research

Among effective antihypertensive drugs, less popular choice is slightly safer

Juicy past of favorite Okinawan fruit revealed

Anticipate a resurgence of respiratory viruses in young children

Anxiety, depression, burnout rising as college students prepare to return to campus

Goal-setting and positive parent-child relationships reduce risk of youth vaping

New research identifies cancer types with little survival improvements in adolescents and young adul

Oncotarget: Replication-stress sensitivity in breast cancer cells

Oncotarget: TERT and its binding protein: overexpression of GABPA/B in gliomas

Development of a novel technology to check body temperature with smartphone camera

The mechanics of puncture finally explained

Extreme heat, dry summers main cause of tree death in Colorado's subalpine forests

[Press-News.org] Study finds decrease in incidence of stroke, subsequent death