Improving road safety to tackle crime
Improving road safety in cities could result in a lower rate of violent crime, according to research from UCL.
(Press-News.org) Improving road safety in cities could result in a lower rate of violent crime, according to research from UCL. Experts analysing crime and car accident data in Mexico City found a surprisingly high level of synchronicity between the two on a weekly cycle, suggesting that applying more resources to prevent road accidents would improve crime rates by enabling more efficient policing. For the paper, published today in Cities as Complex Systems special issue in PLOS ONE, experts plotted the time and locations of nearly one million car accidents and 200,000 violent crimes from January 2016 to March 2020 in Mexico City, creating a 'heartbeat' - so-called because of its resemblance to an electrocardiogram - of the city. The pattern of crash and crime occurrences were similar day by day, repeating on the weekly cycle, the concept of which had previously been unexplored. Experts observed 'valleys' during the night and peaks in the evening, where at a city level, crime peaked at 7.5 times more than in the depth of valleys, and car accidents peaked at 12.3 times. Lead author Dr Rafael Prieto Curiel (UCL CASA) explained: "Distinct parts of the city have different heartbeats in terms of crime and of crashes. A neighbourhood with bars and restaurants has a different heartbeat than a residential neighbourhood or one with offices or schools. The land-use of the region can help us explain why we observe distinct heartbeats and make projections and forecasts". Crime and road accidents have been observed and analysed together before, but not in terms of cyclic behaviour. The team analysed both by capturing weekly occurrences of crime and accidents, using geotagged data capturing time and location. This created the heartbeat of the city. This heartbeat was then analysed for a more specific location, relating to distance from the Mexico City Metro and other public transport stations, to create 'tiles' of the city. Nearby tiles were found to have similar heartbeats, in that they saw peaks and valleys in crime and crashes at similar times during the week. These peaks and valleys related to economic activities, such as residents commuting to work. The team further observed that crimes and crashes reach their respective intensity peak on Friday night and valley on Tuesday morning. The mathematical method the team used can be applied to other cities. Using the weekly cycle makes it easier to predict peaks and valleys in the near future, with potential implications on city policing. Whereas most cities have resources - albeit of differing levels - in place to tackle and prevent crime, road safety has had comparatively less resource attributed to it. Dr Prieto Curiel added: "Focusing more on preventing road accidents would improve crime prevention in urban areas and give more resource to police tackling crime. Serious road accidents usually require the presence of police officers to divert traffic and secure the area. "Unfortunately, due to the temporal synchronisation between crashes and crime, the times when more officers are engaged with road accidents is also when they are most needed due to the high levels of crime. Therefore, road accidents reduce the presence of police officers and could increase response time to other emergencies." Road accidents kill more than 1.35 million people around the world each year and 50 million people suffer non-fatal injuries in a crash. Three times more people are killed by cars than all types of crime and violence combined. Additionally, crime and road accidents are becoming a more relevant urban problem. In Mexico, some of its cities suffer nearly twice the number of crimes per capita than the national level, so most of the urban population fears crime, In the US, for example, 54% of road accident deaths in 2018 occurred in urban areas, up from less than 40% in 2000.
ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:
New research at UH Rainbow studies the impact of face masks on heart ra
CLEVELAND, Ohio - Researchers at University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital (UH Rainbow) published new findings today that wearing a face mask - either a cloth mask or a surgical mask - did not impair the ability of subjects to get air in and out of their bodies. The study measured heart rate, transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension, and oxygen levels in 50 adult volunteers at the conclusion of six 10-minute phases: Sitting quietly and then walking briskly without a mask; sitting quietly and then walking briskly while wearing a cloth mask; and sitting quietly and then walking ...
New technology shows potential to improve potency and durability benefits in gene therapy
WATERTOWN, Mass. - Gene therapy has traditionally been conceptualized as a one-time, curative treatment option; however, research shows that there may be a need for subsequent doses years after initial treatment. While adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are a core part of this powerful therapeutic approach, they present two key challenges in gene therapy. The first challenge is their immunogenicity. In gene therapy, the formation of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) in response to AAV vector administration precludes retreatment of a patient due to the potentially dangerous immune response that would occur after a second or third administration of the therapy. The second obstacle relates to their durability. AAV vectors ...
Scientists describe earliest primate fossils
A new study published Feb. 24 in the journal Royal Society Open Science documents the earliest-known fossil evidence of primates. A team of 10 researchers from across the U.S. analyzed several fossils of Purgatorius, the oldest genus in a group of the earliest-known primates called plesiadapiforms. These ancient mammals were small-bodied and ate specialized diets of insects and fruits that varied by species. These newly described specimens are central to understanding primate ancestry and paint a picture of how life on land recovered after the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago that wiped out all dinosaurs -- except for birds -- and led to the rise of mammals. Gregory Wilson Mantilla, a University of Washington professor of biology and curator of vertebrate ...
Revive the map: 4D building reconstruction with machine learning
A research team from Skoltech and FBK (Italy) presented a methodology to derive 4D building models using historical maps and machine learning. The implemented method relies on the geometric, neighbourhood, and categorical attributes to predict building heights. The method is useful for understanding urban phenomena and changes contributing to defining our cities' actual shapes. The results were published in the MDPI Applied Sciences journal. Historical maps are the most powerful source used to analyze changes in urban development. Nevertheless, maps represent the 3D world ...
Record-high Arctic freshwater will flow to Labrador Sea, affecting local and global oceans
Freshwater is accumulating in the Arctic Ocean. The Beaufort Sea, which is the largest Arctic Ocean freshwater reservoir, has increased its freshwater content by 40% over the past two decades. How and where this water will flow into the Atlantic Ocean is important for local and global ocean conditions. A study from the University of Washington, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shows that this freshwater travels through the Canadian Archipelago to reach the Labrador Sea, rather than through the wider marine passageways that connect to seas in Northern Europe. The open-access study was published Feb. 23 ...
Diabetes patients use of mobile health app found to improve health outcomes, lower medical costs
Emerging smart mobile health (or mHealth) technologies are changing the way patients track information related to diagnosed conditions. A new study examined the health and economic impacts of mHealth technologies on the outcomes of diabetes patients in Asia. The study concluded that compared to patients who did not use mHealth applications, patients who used the apps had better health outcomes and were able to regulate their health behavior more effectively. They also had fewer hospital visits and lower medical costs. The study was conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and New York University ...
Study identifies strengths and challenges of responding to dual disasters
New Orleans, LA -- A new study of how the 2020 major hurricanes and the COVID-19 pandemic affected each other as well as disaster response found that although prior experience enabled community-based organizations to respond to the pandemic, the pandemic is also creating new challenges to preparing for and responding to natural disasters. The research is published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, available here. "Two major crises hit Louisiana and coastal communities in the Southeastern United States in 2020 - a significant increase in the frequency and severity of hurricanes, and the COVID-19 pandemic," says Benjamin Springgate, MD, MPH, Chief of Community & Population Medicine at ...
A combination therapy for treating severe neurological childhood disorders
A study aiming to develop a new therapeutic technique could bring a revolution in our approach to treating rare, fatal Sanfilippo syndrome, a disorder that affects children as young as 2 years old and leads to childhood dementia and premature death. "We are using a combination of gene therapy, stem cells and small molecules to restore metabolic defects in the patient's brain cells" says Dr. Alexey Pshezhetsky, Professor at CHU Ste-Justine and lead GlycoNet Investigator on this project. "First results in the mouse models of the disease are very encouraging." Sanfilippo syndrome belongs to a group of rare diseases known as lysosomal storage disorders. The syndrome occurs in ...
Bearded seals are loud - but not loud enough
ITHACA, N.Y. - During mating season, male bearded seals make loud calls to attract a mate. How loud? Well, even their "quiet" call can still be as ear-rattling as a chainsaw. These elaborate vocalizations are essential for bearded seal reproduction, and have to be loud enough to be heard over the cacophony of their equally loud brethren. But in the rapidly changing Arctic soundscape, where noise from industrial activities is predicted to dramatically increase in the next 15 years, bearded seals may need to adjust their calling behavior if they are ...
New study charts the complexity of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization
Washington, DC - February 24, 2021 - In the absence of effective treatments for COVID-19, many countries have approved the therapeutic use of blood plasma from recovering patients because it contains antibodies against the coronavirus. But not every type of antibody can neutralize the virus and render it noninfectious. New research published this week in mSphere, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, explores variation in virus neutralization capabilities, which can vary widely by type of antibody. "What we need for plasma therapy is not only high levels of antibodies but also high neutralization capability," said virologist Michael Schindler, Ph.D, at University Hospital Tübingen, ...
LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:
Crop rotations with beans and peas offer more sustainable and nutritious food production
Five research-backed steps to a pro-vaccination social media campaign
1 in 4 parents give youth sports low rankings for enforcement of COVID-19 guidelines
Doctors still reluctant to prescribe medical cannabis: McMaster
Influence of sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean on air quality in the Yangtze River Delta region
Frog species with 6 sex chromosomes offer new clues on evolution of complex XY systems
Study reveals the 3D structure of human uterine endometrium and adenomyosis tissue
ETRI develops a haptic film activated by LEDs
Researchers' work will help the pipeline industry limit the destructive power of bubbles
E-cigarettes with a cigarette-like level of nicotine are effective in reducing smoking
Deep Learning model developed at UHN to maximize lifespan after liver transplant
Convenience over reputation: Study looks at how older adults pick a doctor
Ocean bacteria release carbon into the atmosphere
Spotting cows from space
Scientists watch 2D puddles of electrons emerge in a 3D superconducting material
Research suggests SEC's increasing focus on terrorism may limit financial oversight
Plastic planet: Tracking pervasive microplastics across the globe
Gut epithelium muscles up against infection
Scientists discover three liquid phases in aerosol particles
New mechanism identified behind blindness in older adults
Common approach to diversity in higher education reflects preferences of white Americans
Study reveals cancer immunotherapy patients at most risk of life-threatening side effects
Study reveals crucial details on skin-related side effects of cancer immune therapies
Researchers identify surface protein as a new osteosarcoma therapeutic target for antibody-drug conjugates
Differences in B cell responses to coronaviruses and other pathogens in children and adults
Bottom-up is the way forward for nitrogen reduction at institutions
Road salts and other human sources are threatening world's freshwater supplies
Researchers engineer probiotic yeast to produce beta-carotene
Spanking may affect the brain development of a child
UConn researchers find bubbles speed up energy transfer[Press-News.org] Improving road safety to tackle crime
Improving road safety in cities could result in a lower rate of violent crime, according to research from UCL.