PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Light shed on the coordination of neural stem cell activation

Light shed on the coordination of neural stem cell activation
2021-04-08
(Press-News.org) In all adult vertebrates, neural stem cells can be recruited to produce new neurons in the brain. However, little is known about these so-called "activation" processes. Scientists at the Institut Pasteur, CNRS, and Tel Aviv University working in collaboration with the École Polytechnique and INRAE have successfully performed 3D visualization and spatial and temporal distribution analysis of neural stem cell activation in the adult brain of a zebrafish vertebrate model. Their findings demonstrate for the first time that activation events for these cells are coordinated in time and space. In particular, these results may help improve our understanding of regulation processes triggered during brain tumor formation. These findings are published in the April 5, 2021 issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell.

Stem cells, which are found in many adult organs in vertebrates including humans, are capable of proliferating and differentiating to generate new functional cells. For instance, stem cells in the brain (neural stem cells) produce new neurons in adulthood. Most of the time, neural stem cells are in a dormant state known as "quiescence". In order to produce neurons, they must therefore first activate and then divide. This activation stage is crucial: it is a prerequisite for stem cell recruitment and is also critical to their survival (cells that activate excessively become exhausted quickly) and to the position and type of neurons formed.

Within their niche, neural stem cells activate and return to a dormant state in random order and asynchronously, suggesting that these events may be coordinated at cell population level. Scientists in the Zebrafish Neurogenetics Unit at the Institut Pasteur chose zebrafish to test this hypothesis, since zebrafish adult brains contain large quantities of neural stem cells, otherwise similar to mammalian stem cells. Through intravital (non-invasive) two-photon imaging of adult fish, they were able to film stem cells in their niche for several weeks and study the activation pattern of each cell in relation to neighboring cells in real time. Spatial statistical analysis and modeling performed both in real time and in long-term computational simulations demonstrated the existence of inhibitory interactions generated by activated cells, delaying the activation of other adjacent stem cells by several days. By administering a pharmacological molecule in vivo, the scientists also identified the molecular pathway involved, which is known as the Notch signaling pathway. Finally, they demonstrated that these interactions enabled steady neuronal production in time and space.

"This is the first real-time and long-term imaging of an entire neural stem cell population in the brain of an adult vertebrate. These findings demonstrate for the first time that neural stem cell activation events in the vertebrate brain are coordinated in time and space within the niche," commented Laure Bally-Cuif, CNRS scientist, lead author of the study, and Head of the Zebrafish Neurogenetics Unit1 at the Institut Pasteur. Unexpectedly, this study has also demonstrated that the stem cells themselves are involved in this coordination. Therefore, this research has prompted the emergence of a new concept whereby stem cell populations self-organize as a dynamic system enabling spatiotemporal coordination of the behavior of each individual cell.

Such regulation may occur in tumor masses containing cancerous stem cells, in which stem cells in various states of quiescence or activation have been observed. It is also likely that such regulation takes place in the stem cell populations of other adult organs where stem cells are found in compact niches, such as epithelia.

Link a to a video showing stem cells covering one of the cerebral hemispheres of an adult fish. The stem cells were monitored for 23 days to analyze their positions, activation events, and differentiation. The fish were anesthetized and filmed using a two-photon microscope every 3 days. The dots show the center of each cell and the arrows show dividing stem cells : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPZsMz5tsGM

INFORMATION:


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Light shed on the coordination of neural stem cell activation

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Artificial Intelligence could 'crack the language of cancer and Alzheimer's'

Artificial Intelligence could crack the language of cancer and Alzheimers
2021-04-08
Powerful algorithms used by Netflix, Amazon and Facebook can 'predict' the biological language of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, scientists have found. Big data produced during decades of research was fed into a computer language model to see if artificial intelligence can make more advanced discoveries than humans. Academics based at St John's College, University of Cambridge, found the machine-learning technology could decipher the 'biological language' of cancer, Alzheimer's, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Their ground-breaking study has been published in the scientific journal PNAS today (April 8 2021) and could be used in the future to 'correct the grammatical mistakes inside cells that cause disease'. Professor Tuomas Knowles, lead ...

Children and Corona: More infections than reported cases during second wave in Germany

2021-04-08
The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in preschool and school children is an important benchmark for deciding whether to open kindergartens and schools. The screening study "Fr1da" led by Anette-Gabriele Ziegler tests children in Bavaria for an early stage of type 1 diabetes. These tests include the collection of blood samples. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the researchers had decided to use the valuable study infrastructure of the Fr1da study to detect SARS-CoV-2 infections, too. For this, they developed a SARS-CoV-2 antibody test with particularly high accuracy. During the first ...

A combined influence of three oceans on record-breaking rainfall over China in June 2020

A combined influence of three oceans on record-breaking rainfall over China in June 2020
2021-04-08
The rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley (YRV) in June 2020 broke the record since 1979 (Figure 1). As of June 28, the People's Daily Online reported that there were more than 12 million people affected by flood disasters related to this torrential rain, with deaths or disappearances of 78 persons and a direct economic loss of more than 25 billion CNY. Recently, scientists from South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO), Chinese Academy of Sciences revealed the cause of the record-breaking rainfall over the YRV. According to their study published in Science China Earth Sciences on March 19, 2021, all three oceans of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans ...

A new agent for the brain diseases: mRNA

A new agent for the brain diseases: mRNA
2021-04-08
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) demonstrate an mRNA delivery system that effectively produces BDNF protein in rat brain to protect neurons from ischemia Tokyo - A lack of oxygen to brain tissue--known as ischemia--leads to the death of neurons, which results in stroke. Despite considerable research, there are currently no treatments that successfully prevent neuronal death. Now, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers have reported a way of delivering mRNA to produce a therapeutic protein that protects neurons. Their findings, demonstrated in rats, ...

Cycling study transforms heart health of dialysis patients

2021-04-08
Cycling at moderate intensity during dialysis could drastically improve the heart health of patients with kidney failure and result in significant savings for the NHS, according to new research by the University of Leicester supported by the charity Kidney Research UK and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre. Patients in the CYCLE-HD study were offered 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise on a specially adapted bicycle during their regular dialysis sessions. Dialysis can lead to long-term scarring of the heart, which can accumulate over time and lead to heart failure. The study set out to examine ...

Transforming crop and timber production could reduce species extinction risk by 40%

2021-04-08
Ensuring sustainability of crop and timber production would mitigate the greatest drivers of terrestrial wildlife decline, responsible for 40% of the overall extinction risk of amphibians, birds and mammals, according to a paper published today in Nature Ecology & Evolution. These results were generated using a new metric which, for the first time, allows business, governments and civil society to assess their potential contributions to stemming global species loss, and can be used to calculate national, regional, sector-based, or institution-specific targets. The work was led by the IUCN Species Survival Commission's Post-2020 Taskforce, hosted by Newcastle ...

Study calls for urgent climate change action to secure global food supply

2021-04-08
New Curtin University-led research has found climate change will have a substantial impact on global food production and health if no action is taken by consumers, food industries, government, and international bodies. Published in one of the highest-ranking public health journals, the Annual Review of Public Health, the researchers completed a comprehensive 12-month review of published literature on climate change, healthy diet and actions needed to improve nutrition and health around the world. Lead researcher John Curtin Distinguished Emeritus Professor Colin Binns, from the Curtin School of Population Health at Curtin University, said climate change has had a detrimental impact on health and food production for the past 50 years and far more needs to be ...

Curtin research finds introduced honeybee may pose threat to native bees

2021-04-08
A Curtin University study has found the introduced European honeybee could lead to native bee population decline or extinction when colonies compete for the same nectar and pollen sources in urban gardens and areas of bush. Published in the 'Biological Journal of the Linnean Society', the research found competition between the native bees and the introduced European honeybee could be particularly intense in residential gardens dominated by non-native flowers, and occurred when the bees shared the same flower preferences. Under these conditions, it would appear that European honeybees, being very abundant, and effective foragers, with the ...

Graphene: Everything under control

Graphene: Everything under control
2021-04-08
How can large amounts of data be transferred or processed as quickly as possible? One key to this could be graphene. The ultra-thin material is only one atomic layer thick, and the electrons it contains have very special properties due to quantum effects. It could therefore be very well suited for use in high-performance electronic components. Up to this point, however, there has been a lack of knowledge about how to suitably control certain properties of graphene. A new study by a team of scientists from Bielefeld and Berlin, together with researchers from other research institutes in Germany and Spain, is changing this. The team's findings have been published in the journal Science Advances. Consisting of carbon atoms, graphene is a material just one atom ...

Evolution of outcomes for patients hospitalized during the COVID pandemic

2021-04-08
As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread in France, a thorough characterization of hospital care needs and of the trajectories of hospital patients, as well as how they have changed over time, is essential to support planning. This led scientists from the Mathematical Modeling of Infectious Diseases Unit at the Institut Pasteur and the University of Cambridge to develop a probabilistic model that can be used to analyze detailed patient trajectories based on 198,846 hospitalizations in France during the first nine months of the pandemic (from March to No-vember 2020). These findings were published in The Lancet Regional Health Europe on March 20, 2021. This ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

E-cigarettes with a cigarette-like level of nicotine are effective in reducing smoking

Deep Learning model developed at UHN to maximize lifespan after liver transplant 

Convenience over reputation: Study looks at how older adults pick a doctor

Ocean bacteria release carbon into the atmosphere

Spotting cows from space

Scientists watch 2D puddles of electrons emerge in a 3D superconducting material

Research suggests SEC's increasing focus on terrorism may limit financial oversight

Plastic planet: Tracking pervasive microplastics across the globe

Gut epithelium muscles up against infection

Scientists discover three liquid phases in aerosol particles

New mechanism identified behind blindness in older adults

Common approach to diversity in higher education reflects preferences of white Americans

Study reveals cancer immunotherapy patients at most risk of life-threatening side effects

Study reveals crucial details on skin-related side effects of cancer immune therapies

Researchers identify surface protein as a new osteosarcoma therapeutic target for antibody-drug conjugates

Differences in B cell responses to coronaviruses and other pathogens in children and adults

Bottom-up is the way forward for nitrogen reduction at institutions

Road salts and other human sources are threatening world's freshwater supplies

Researchers engineer probiotic yeast to produce beta-carotene

Spanking may affect the brain development of a child

UConn researchers find bubbles speed up energy transfer

Antidepressant use in pregnancy tied to affective disorders in offspring; no causal link

Binge-eating is not caused by stress-induced impulsivity

Stress does not lead to loss of self-control in eating disorders

USC Stem Cell study reveals neural stem cells age rapidly

Following atoms in real time could lead to better materials design

People want to improve mental health by exercising, but stress and anxiety get in the way

More than the sum of mutations

Living foams

Research brief: How pharmacists contribute meaningfully in primary health care

[Press-News.org] Light shed on the coordination of neural stem cell activation