Climate models can predict decadal rainfall variations on Tibetan plateau
(Press-News.org) Summer rainfall on the Tibetan Plateau is highly predictable on multiyear timescales in large ensemble predictions, according to a research team led by ZHOU Tianjun from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The study, published in Science Advances on June 9, shows evidence that the predictable signal of summer rainfall across the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau is substantially underestimated in state-of-the-art decadal prediction models. The predictable signal is so weak that it can be concealed by unpredictable noise. "The too weak predictable signal arises from the low signal-to-noise ratios in models in comparison with the real world," said ZHOU, corresponding author of the study. "This phenomenon is a kind of deficiency in climate models, but it also urges us to again recognize the decadal predictability in the prediction models." ZHOU is a senior scientist at the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at IAP. He is also a professor at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. ZHOU and his team used large ensembles from the sixth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) of the Decadal Climate Prediction Project (DCPP), an archive of comprehensive decadal prediction experiments based on diverse climate models, to eliminate stochastic unpredictable noise and extract the predictable signal of Tibetan Plateau summer rainfall. The researchers produced realistic predictions through a post-processing procedure of variance adjustment, indicating that Tibetan Plateau summer rainfall is highly predictable on decadal timescales. The Tibetan Plateau has the most glaciers outside the Arctic and Antarctic. The meltwater feeds more than 10 prominent rivers, including the Yangtze River, the Yellow River, and the Ganges River. "Our results matter a lot to the management of water resources for about 40% of the world's population," said ZHOU. Based on real-time forecasts, the researchers revealed that the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau will become wetter, with a 12.8% increase in rainfall for the period 2020-2027 relative to 1986-2005. "The government and scientists have recognized the urgent need for effective near-term (2021-2040) climate information, but there are large uncertainties in the traditional scenarios-based near-term climate projections of summer rainfall on the Tibetan Plateau due to internal variability in the climate system," ZHOU said. "Our results demonstrate that decadal climate prediction systems can be a valuable tool for overcoming the defect of traditional scenario-based projection uncertainties related to near-term climate change on the Tibetan Plateau."
ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:
Low doses of "laughing gas" could be fast, effective treatment for severe depression
A new study at the University of Chicago Medicine and Washington University found that a single inhalation session with 25% nitrous oxide gas was nearly as effective as 50% nitrous oxide at rapidly relieving symptoms of treatment-resistant depression, with fewer adverse side effects. The study, published June 9 in Science Translational Medicine, also found that the effects lasted much longer than previously suspected, with some participants experiencing improvements for upwards of two weeks. These results bolster the evidence that non-traditional treatments may be a viable option for patients whose depression is not responsive to typical antidepressant medications. It may also provide a rapidly effective treatment option for patients in crisis. Often called "laughing gas," nitrous ...
Laughing gas relieves symptoms in people with treatment-resistant depression
A single, one-hour treatment that involves breathing in a mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide -- otherwise known as laughing gas -- significantly improved symptoms in people with treatment-resistant depression, according to new data from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the University of Chicago. In a phase 2 clinical trial, the researchers demonstrated that symptoms of depression improve rapidly following treatment with inhaled nitrous oxide. Further, they reported the benefits can last for several weeks. The findings are published June 9 in the journal Science Translational Medicine. "A large percentage of patients don't respond to standard antidepressant therapies -- the ...
Elemental copper and iron found within the brains of deceased Alzheimer's patients
A new study unexpectedly identified tiny deposits of elemental copper and iron within the brains of two deceased people with Alzheimer's disease. The findings could help scientists better understand how these elemental metals, which were uncovered in the cores of amyloid plaques, contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and could point to a target for alternative Alzheimer's therapies. While enzymes and proteins containing positively charged copper and iron ions have been known to control key processes in the human brain, little has been known about how the organ mineralizes iron and copper, including the formation of elemental metallic nanoparticles, which ...
Gender differentiates how facial expressions are processed in the brains of alcoholics
(Boston)--Should treatment of alcoholics be different based on gender? Yes, according to a new study that shows that alcoholic men and women respond differently to their disease resulting in different levels of brain activity and brain abnormalities. Research indicates that they distinguish facial expressions differently and that this is an important clue as to how treatment strategies might be tailored. Chronic long-term Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) or "alcoholism," is a harmful condition that has been associated with deficits in emotion and memory, including memory for the emotional expressions of faces. In addition to its effects on memory for facial emotions, AUD also has been associated with impairments ...
How catalysts age
PSI researchers have developed a new tomography method with which they can measure chemical properties inside catalyst materials in 3-D extremely precisely and faster than before. The application is equally important for science and industry. The researchers published their results today in the journal Science Advances. The material group of vanadium phosphorus oxides (VPOs) is widely used as a catalyst in the chemical industry. VPOs have been used in the production of maleic anhydride since the 1970s. Maleic anhydride in turn is the starting material for the ...
Researchers develop tool to aid in development, efficiency of hydrogen-powered cars
Widespread adoption of hydrogen-powered vehicles over traditional electric vehicles requires fuel cells that can convert hydrogen and oxygen safely into water - a serious implementation problem. Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder are addressing one aspect of that roadblock by developing new computational tools and models needed to better understand and manage the conversion process. Hendrik Heinz, an associate professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, is leading the effort in partnership with the University of California Los Angeles. His team recently published new findings on the subject in Science Advances. Fuel cell electric vehicles combine ...
Lower and safer doses of laughing gas relieve treatment-resistant depression in phase 2 trial
A single one-hour treatment with nitrous oxide - also known as laughing gas - can relieve symptoms of treatment-resistant depression for several weeks, according to a phase 2 clinical trial involving 28 participants. By showing that a 25% concentration of the gas still has therapeutic effects, the results suggest that lower concentrations of nitrous oxide could be useful against depression in the clinic while bringing a lower risk of side effects. Inhaled nitrous oxide is commonly used as a sedative agent in dental and medical offices, but the gas has also attracted attention as a possible treatment for depression. A previous study showed that nitrous oxide had marked ...
Curtin study finds aspirin takes the headache out of restoration
New Curtin research has shown how a readily available, cheap and safe-to-use product found in the medicine cabinet of most homes could be the key to better ecological restoration practices with major benefits for the environment and agriculture. The study revealed that aspirin, which naturally occurs in the bark of the willow tree and other plants, can improve the survival of grass species important for ecological restoration and sustainable pasture when applied in a seed coating. Lead researcher Dr Simone Pedrini from the ARC Centre for Mine Site Restoration in Curtin's School of Molecular and Life Sciences, said salicylic acid has been used for its medicinal properties for more than 4000 years and its modern synthetic version, acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, is one ...
Rapamycin changes the way our DNA is stored
Our genetic material is stored in our cells in a specific way to make the meter-long DNA molecule fit into the tiny cell nucleus of each body cell. An international team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, the CECAD Cluster of Excellence in Ageing research at the University of Cologne, the University College London and the University of Michigan have now been able to show that rapamycin, a well-known anti-ageing candidate, targets gut cells specifically to alter the way of DNA storage inside these cells, and thereby promotes gut health and longevity. This effect has been observed in flies and mice. The researchers believe this finding will open up new possibilities for targeted therapeutic interventions ...
New study underscores the role of race and poverty in COVID-19
BOSTON - A new analysis by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) offers a novel perspective on the disproportionate impact that COVID-19 has had on people of color, low-income populations, and other structurally disadvantaged groups. Their findings, published in a research letter to the END ...