Study: Maternal adult characteristics do not predict stillbirth, early neonatal death
(Press-News.org) University of Illinois Chicago researchers studying birth outcomes in marmoset monkeys found there were no adult maternal characteristics like age or weight gain during pregnancy to predict stillbirth or early neonatal death, but that a mother's birth weight or litter size were associated with early neonatal death.
"Our findings of early life contributions to adult pregnancy outcomes in the common marmoset disrupt mother-blaming narratives of pregnancy outcomes in humans," the paper states.
Julienne Rutherford, associate professor at UIC's School of Nursing, is lead author of "Womb to Womb: Maternal litter size and birth weight but not adult characteristics predict early neonatal death of offspring in the common marmoset monkey" published in the journal PLOS ONE.
Marmosets are primates who naturally produce twins, triplets and quadruplets in litters, which allow researchers to look at how different prenatal environments influence female reproductive biology. Earlier research by Rutherford and colleagues suggests that for marmoset triplets, in utero fetal life is more crowded and competitive, and they sought to find out if those factors influence pregnancy success in adulthood, a concept Rutherford calls womb-to-womb.
Rutherford and colleagues explored whether pregnancy outcomes were predicted independently by maternal adult weight versus maternal litter size and birth weight in marmoset monkeys. The study also explored whether stillbirth and early neonatal death were differentially predicted by maternal variables.
The study found that female marmosets who were triplet-born or born at lower birth weights had greater rates of infant loss during the first week of life when they became mothers. No adult maternal characteristic predicted early infant loss, and no maternal characteristic - whether when she was born or when she was an adult - predicted stillbirth in this study.
The infant marmosets who died during their first week lost significantly more weight compared with infants who survived but otherwise showed no other deficits at birth that would have predicted their deaths.
"Significant weight loss suggests they are not eating and that presents a potential pathway for asking more questions about how a mother's early life development might shape her milk production as an adult and feeding behaviors in her own babies," Rutherford said.
Rutherford said the study's findings suggest that our current approach to understanding perinatal mortality is incomplete. The causes and pathways for stillbirths versus infant death need to be understood independently. And the rigid focus on adult health and lifestyle as risk factors leaves out a huge sphere of experience and impact on pregnancy outcomes, she added.
"So much guilt and shame around pregnancy loss at every time point is in part because of our focus on lifestyle, and the individualist emphasis on personal responsibility complicates our ability to address the problems that are deeper, structural and intergenerational," Rutherford said.
"Millions of pregnancies end in really sad losses for parents, and we are still not great at understanding why that happens," Rutherford said. "Most of the things you would look at to be predictive risks focus on the woman's health history around the time of pregnancy, or race, which is really a reflection of racism. There is a lot of obsession about weight and other kinds of 'lifestyle' decisions, things that fall under individual responsibility. But these risks don't predict all these losses. Neonatal deaths still happen even when people do all the 'right' things."
Rutherford added she hopes this research can contribute to the larger view of health equity.
"What does monkey biology tell us about justice?" Rutherford said. "I see an opportunity in this kind of work to think about reimagining the way we approach human health and human health care that is just and biologically sound."
The study's additional authors include Larisa Burke, Alana Steffen and Victoria deMartelly of UIC; Corinna Ross, Donna Layne Colon and Suzette Tardif of the Southwest National Primate Research Center, San Antonio; Toni Ziegler of the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin; Aubrey Sills of the Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, San Antonio; and Laren Narapareddy of Emory University, Atlanta.
The marmosets in the study were part of the Southwest National Primate Research Center marmoset colony at Texas Biomedical Research Institute. This study was funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development R01 HD076018, and the study also used resources that were supported by the Southwest National Primate Research Center grant P51 OD011133 from the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs, National Institutes of Health.
ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:
Since the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were questions about how people in active cancer treatment would fare if they became infected with SARS-CoV-2. The worries were due, in large part, to the effects that cancer and its treatments can have on the immune system. Now that COVID-19 vaccines are widely available, concerns have shifted to the safety and effectiveness of vaccination in this potentially vulnerable population. A study published June 5 in the journal Cancer Cell aims to allay those fears.
In a review of 200 patients with a wide spectrum of cancer diagnoses, researchers at Montefiore Health System and Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, NY, found that after full vaccination, 94% of patients overall demonstrated seroconversion, ...
The routes and schedules of public transit, the presence or absence of sidewalks, the availability of different transportation options, and the design of highways that divide cities--these are examples of aspects of transportation systems that can profoundly impact underserved communities' access to basic needs like jobs, health care, education and even food.
A new study by University of Michigan researchers reveals common barriers that transportation decision-makers face in considering these issues and addressing them.
To conduct the study, a team from a multidisciplinary project involving engineering, ...
DARIEN, IL - A study shows that a deep neural network model can accurately predict the brain age of healthy patients based on electroencephalogram data recorded during an overnight sleep study, and EEG-predicted brain age indices display unique characteristics within populations with different diseases.
The study found that the model predicted age with a mean absolute error of only 4.6 years. There was a statistically significant relationship between the Absolute Brain Age Index and: epilepsy and seizure disorders, stroke, elevated markers of sleep-disordered breathing (i.e., apnea-hypopnea index and arousal ...
The widely studied metallic asteroid known as 16 Psyche was long thought to be the exposed iron core of a small planet that failed to form during the earliest days of the solar system. But new University of Arizona-led research suggests that the asteroid might not be as metallic or dense as once thought, and hints at a much different origin story.
Scientists are interested in 16 Psyche because if its presumed origins are true, it would provide an opportunity to study an exposed planetary core up close. NASA is scheduled to launch its Psyche mission in 2022 and arrive at the asteroid in 2026.
[RALEIGH, N.C.] - How are the squirrels doing this year? The bears? The armadillos? How would you know? A new paper published June 8 sets up the framework for answering these questions across the United States by releasing the data from the first national mammal survey made up of 1,509 motion-activated camera traps from 110 sites located across all 50 states.
Unlike birds, which have multiple large-scale monitoring programs, there has been no standard way to monitor mammal populations at a national scale. To address this challenge, scientists from the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute recently collaborated ...
DURHAM, N.C. - Engineers at Duke University have demonstrated a prototype X-ray scanning machine that reveals not just the shape of an object but its molecular composition. With unprecedented resolution and accuracy, the technology could revolutionize a wide range of fields such as cancer surgery, pathology, drug inspection and geology.
Many of the ideas behind the prototype were originally conceived in the pursuit of performing better bomb detection for aviation security. In the new paper, published online May 19 in the journal Scientific Reports, the researchers adapted the technology for several targeted scientific and medical applications.
"Whether you're trying to spot a bomb in a bag or a tumor in a body, the physics is more or less the same," said ...
Watching honeybees buzz among flowers, it's easy to see how the expression "busy as a bee" arose. One of many movements a bee's body makes is the repetitive curving and straightening of its abdomen. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have found that tiny hairs reduce friction from these motions, saving energy for the industrious insects' daily activities while reducing wear and tear. This knowledge could help researchers design longer-lasting moving parts.
A bee's abdomen is divided into several tough outer plates that make up its exoskeleton. When the abdomen flexes and extends, these segments slide over each other, creating friction. However, the overlapping portions of the segments show very little wear and tear, ...
WASHINGTON, June 9, 2021 -- The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control recommend keeping a certain distance between people to prevent the spread of COVID-19. These social distancing recommendations are estimated from a variety of studies, but further research about the precise mechanism of virus transport from one person to another is still needed.
In Physics of Fluids, by AIP Publishing, researchers from Stony Brook University, Harvard, ETH Zurich, and Hanyang University demonstrate normal breathing indoors without a mask ...
Summer rainfall on the Tibetan Plateau is highly predictable on multiyear timescales in large ensemble predictions, according to a research team led by ZHOU Tianjun from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The study, published in Science Advances on June 9, shows evidence that the predictable signal of summer rainfall across the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau is substantially underestimated in state-of-the-art decadal prediction models.
The predictable signal is so weak that it can be concealed by unpredictable noise. "The too weak predictable signal arises from the low signal-to-noise ratios in models in comparison with the real world," ...
A new study at the University of Chicago Medicine and Washington University found that a single inhalation session with 25% nitrous oxide gas was nearly as effective as 50% nitrous oxide at rapidly relieving symptoms of treatment-resistant depression, with fewer adverse side effects. The study, published June 9 in Science Translational Medicine, also found that the effects lasted much longer than previously suspected, with some participants experiencing improvements for upwards of two weeks.
These results bolster the evidence that non-traditional treatments may be a viable option for patients whose depression is not responsive to typical antidepressant medications. It may also provide a rapidly effective treatment option for patients in crisis.
Often called "laughing gas," nitrous ...
LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:
[Press-News.org] Study: Maternal adult characteristics do not predict stillbirth, early neonatal death