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New Geosphere series: The St. Elias Erosion/Tectonics Project in Southern Alaska

( Boulder, Colo., USA – GEOSPHERE has added a new themed issue to its roster: "Neogene tectonics and climate-tectonic interactions in the southern Alaskan orogeny." Interest in Alaskan tectonics has varied over time, propelled mostly by geologic hazards. In 1964, the great Alaskan earthquake focused attention on Alaska and was a major factor in the establishment of the concept of subduction in the early days of plate tectonics.

In the 1980s, the northern Cordillera, including Alaska, was the subject of extensive study using the terrane analysis approach, which spawned a series of new tectonic syntheses. Topical studies continued in Alaska through the 1990s and into the early part of the first decade of the twenty-first century, but in smaller research groups primarily working on specific, focused studies.

Larger multidisciplinary research projects were focused in Alaska at about the time of the 2002 Denali earthquake, which occurred while a large, collaborative research group was being assembled with a goal of understanding the general problems of the Neogene tectonics of Alaska associated with the collision of the Yakutat terrane.

The St. Elias Erosion/Tectonics Project (STEEP; arose in large part because of increasing evidence that erosion-tectonic interactions within mountain belts were poorly understood, and southern Alaska is in an ideal setting for examining the role of glacial erosional processes in this type of interaction. Although subsequent studies indicated that the original highest estimates of glacial erosion rates were overestimated, even these revised estimates indicated that fast moving, temperate ice was capable of removing rock at rates of centimeters per year.

Since most of the world's moderate- to high-latitude mountain systems are either no longer active or are marginally active tectonically, and erosion rates are orders of magnitude lower, the southern Alaskan orogen represents a premier site for studies of the interactions between tectonic processes and glacial erosion. STEEP efforts, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Continental Dynamics Program, together with other ongoing studies of Alaskan tectonics by the U.S. Geological Survey and other academic researchers, have focused attention back on Alaskan tectonics.

The next decade promises to see even more profound changes in our level of knowledge of this last frontier for geologic studies in the United States. Research reported in this GEOSPHERE themed issue was launched by members of the STEEP research group with the intent of showcasing some of the unusual data sets that were being assembled in this project.

Introduction to the New Themed Series by Terry L. Pavlis et al., Dept. of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, USA. Published 10 April 2014,

Two other 10 April postings are highlighted below and are available at Representatives of the media may obtain complimentary copies of GEOSPHERE articles by contacting Kea Giles at the address above.

Please discuss articles of interest with the authors before publishing stories on their work, and please make reference to GEOSPHERE in articles published. Contact Kea Giles for additional information or assistance.

Non-media requests for articles may be directed to GSA Sales and Service,

OTHER ARTICLES Late Quaternary faulting history of the Carrizal and related faults, La Paz region, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Paul J. Umhoefer et al., School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, 625 S. Knoles Drive, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011, USA. Published online 10 April 2014; Themed issue: Origin and Evolution of the Sierra Nevada and Walker Lane.

From the abstract: The southwest margin of the Gulf of California has an array of active normal faults despite this being an oblique-divergent plate boundary with spreading centers that localized deformation along the plate boundary two to three million years ago. The Carrizal and Centenario faults form the western border fault of the Gulf of California marginal fault system within and south of La Paz Bay, and ~20 to 30 km west of the capital city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Geologic and geomorphic mapping, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) geochronology, and paleoseismic investigations onshore, compressed high-intensity radar pulse (CHIRP) profiling offshore, and analysis of uplifted marine terraces in the footwall of the offshore Carrizal fault provide some of the first numerical and geometrical constraints on late Pleistocene-Holocene faulting along the Carrizal fault. The onshore Carrizal fault has ruptured with up to ~1 to 2 m of vertical displacement per event, likely producing 6.3 to 6.9 magnitude earthquakes, and at least two to three surface rupturing earthquakes have occurred since 22 thousand years ago…

Geological data extraction from LiDAR 3-D photorealistic models: A case study in an organic-rich mudstone, Eagle Ford Formation, Texas
Daniel Minisini et al., Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 3333 Highway 6 South, Houston, Texas 77082, USA. Published online 10 April 2014;

From the abstract: The use of LiDAR (light detection and ranging) 3-D photorealistic outcrop models, combined with traditional sedimentological and structural field data, improves the accuracy and efficiency of qualitative and quantitative characterization of outcrops, which in turn can be used as analogs for reservoir modeling and other geologic purposes. This paper illustrates how geological data extraction from 3-D photorealistic outcrop models can be exploited, and presents some novel workflows that reduce the time needed for post-processing. The extracted data are calibrated with conventional outcrop studies and allow extensive quantitative analyses and detailed statistical examinations of the distribution, dimension, and shape of geological features that can be used to define and build geological models. We present the first statistical characterization based on LiDAR of a set of geological outcrops at centimeter resolution (bed scale) over a distance of 45 km (basin scale). These innovative methods of outcrop visualization and characterization are applied to the Eagle Ford Formation, an important unconventional hydrocarbon play in Texas. The Eagle Ford Formation consists of alternating organic-rich mudstone, limestone, and bentonites; mudstones represent the source and reservoir of the hydrocarbons, limestones control the rock's brittleness, and bentonites provide time lines for dating and correlating sections. The presented analyses provide empirical relationships that can be applied to better understand geologic processes, to build geologic models, and to reduce uncertainties in exploration and development of hydrocarbon systems.



Diverse gene pool critical for tigers' survival, say Stanford scholars

New research by Stanford scholars shows that increasing genetic diversity among the 3,000 or so tigers left on the planet is the key to their survival as a species. Iconic symbols of power and beauty, wild tigers may roam only in stories someday soon. Their historical range has been reduced by more than 90 percent. But conservation plans that focus only on increasing numbers and preserving distinct subspecies ignore genetic diversity, according to the study. In fact, under that approach, the tiger could vanish entirely. "Numbers don't tell the entire story," said study ...

UT Arlington physicist creates new nanoparticle for cancer therapy

UT Arlington physicist creates new nanoparticle for cancer therapy
A University of Texas at Arlington physicist working to create a luminescent nanoparticle to use in security-related radiation detection may have instead happened upon an advance in photodynamic cancer therapy. Wei Chen, professor of physics and co-director of UT Arlington's Center for Security Advances Via Applied Nanotechnology, was testing a copper-cysteamine complex created in his lab when he discovered unexplained decreases in its luminescence, or light emitting power, over a time-lapse exposure to X-rays. Looking further, he found that the nanoparticles, called ...

Using video surveillance to measure peoples' hand washing habits

One of the best defenses against infectious disease is one of the most simple – hand washing. Still, despite years of global public awareness campaigns, hand washing rates remain low. Caregivers of young children in low-income, developing world settings are found to wash their hands only 17 percent of the time after using the toilet. A new study finds that video surveillance can provide insights into hand washing behavior. When another person is present, for example, hand washing rates increase 23 percent. These findings could, in turn, inform the design, monitoring ...

Irrigated agriculture -- precious habitat for the long-billed curlew

Petaluma, CA – Despite the recent rainfall, California is still in a drought, so not only are water supplies limited, but demand for water is increasing from a variety of uses. In a recent study published by Point Blue Conservation Science (Point Blue) and Audubon California in the journal Western Birds, scientists document the importance of irrigated agricultural crops in California's Central Valley to a conspicuous shorebird. Crops like alfalfa provide critical habitat for the Long-billed Curlew, the largest shorebird in North America and a species of continental conservation ...

Body Mass Index associated with breast cancer, regardless of body shape

ATLANTA – April 16, 2014— A study of predominantly white women finds a larger waist circumference is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but not beyond its contribution to BMI. The study, by American Cancer Society researchers, fails to confirm previous findings that body shape itself is an independent risk factor for breast cancer. The current study appears in the April 2014 issue of Cancer Causes, and Control. A significant body of research has linked abdominal obesity to a number of conditions, including heart disease, type II diabetes, and ...

A study in scarlet

A study in scarlet
This area of the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus (The Centaur), is home to many bright nebulae, each associated with hot newborn stars that formed out of the clouds of hydrogen gas. The intense radiation from the stellar newborns excites the remaining hydrogen around them, making the gas glow in the distinctive shade of red typical of star-forming regions. Another famous example of this phenomenon is the Lagoon Nebula (eso0936 -, a vast cloud that glows in similar bright shades of scarlet. The nebula in this picture ...

Warm US West, cold East: A 4,000-year pattern

Warm US West, cold East: A 4,000-year pattern
SALT LAKE CITY, April 16, 2014 – Last winter's curvy jet stream pattern brought mild temperatures to western North America and harsh cold to the East. A University of Utah-led study shows that pattern became more pronounced 4,000 years ago, and suggests it may worsen as Earth's climate warms. "If this trend continues, it could contribute to more extreme winter weather events in North America, as experienced this year with warm conditions in California and Alaska and intrusion of cold Arctic air across the eastern USA," says geochemist Gabe Bowen, senior author of the ...

Scientists achieve first direct observations of excitons in motion

A quasiparticle called an exciton — responsible for the transfer of energy within devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and semiconductor circuits — has been understood theoretically for decades. But exciton movement within materials has never been directly observed. Now scientists at MIT and the City College of New York have achieved that feat, imaging excitons' motions directly. This could enable research leading to significant advances in electronics, they say, as well as a better understanding of natural energy-transfer processes, such as photosynthesis. The research ...

Wind Over Water Jewelry Project Launch on Indiegogo: Fashion-forward, Baby-friendly and Socially Minded Jewelry Designs For Moms

Wind Over Water Jewelry designs are exclusively through the Indiegogo Campaign. Providing fashion-forward, baby-friendly and socially-minded jewelry options to mothers. FASHION FORWARD - an upgrade to any outfit plus unique asymmetrical designs always allow mom to remember on what side she last nursed BABY FRIENDLY - materials that are non-toxic plus something that perks baby's interest SOCIALLY MINDED - a partnership that helps impoverished women now plus creates a new future through access to education. That's a lot for a necklace! Fashion-Forward Jewelry Our ...

Richmond Family Dentistry Wins Consecutive Talk of the Town Awards

For the third straight year, Richmond Family Dentistry has received the prestigious Talk of the Town Customer Satisfaction Award in the Health & Medical -- Dentists. Cheryl Billingsley, DDS, MAGD, ND, and the team at Richmond Family Dentistry were honored with the award after earning the highest possible customer satisfaction rating of 5 stars. The Talk of the Town Awards, presented by Talk of the Town News, honor companies and professionals that provide excellent customer service as reported by their customers through no-cost, user-review websites, blogs, social ...


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[] New Geosphere series: The St. Elias Erosion/Tectonics Project in Southern Alaska