PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Lipid biomarkers in urine can determine the type of asthma


Lipid biomarkers in urine can determine the type of asthma
2021-01-13
(Press-News.org) In a new study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have used a urine test to identify and verify a patient's type of asthma. The study, which has been published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, lays the foundation for a more personalized diagnosis and may result in improved treatment of severe asthma in the future.

About 10 percent of the Swedish population suffers from asthma, a disease that has become increasingly widespread over the past 50 years, with annual global mortality of around 400,000 according to the World Health Organization. Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airways, which can result in symptoms including coughing, mucous formation and shortness of breath.

There are many types of asthma, and symptoms can vary between individuals, from mild to severe. Currently, in order to make an asthma diagnosis, a wide-ranging investigation is conducted that can consist of multiple elements including patient interviews, lung function tests, blood tests, allergy investigations and x-rays.

"There are no simple methods to determine what type of asthma an individual has, knowledge that is particularly important in order to better treat patients suffering from the more severe types of the disease," says Craig Wheelock, associate professor at the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, and the last author of the study.

In this new study, research groups at Karolinska Institutet have made an important discovery, which can offer a simple but clear contribution to a correct diagnosis.

Using a mass spectrometry-based methodology developed in the Wheelock laboratory, they were able to measure urinary metabolite levels of certain prostaglandins and leukotrienes --eicosanoid signalling molecules that are known mediators of asthmatic airway inflammation.

"We discovered particularly high levels of the metabolites of the mast cell mediator prostaglandin D2 and the eosinophil product leukotriene C4 in asthma patients with what is referred to as Type 2 inflammation," says Johan Kolmert, postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, and first author of the study. "Using our methodology, we were able to measure these metabolites with high accuracy and link their levels to the severity and type of asthma."

The study is based on data from the U-BIOPRED study (Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes), which was designed to investigate severe asthma. The study included 400 participants with severe asthma, which often requires treatment with corticosteroid tablets, nearly 100 individuals with milder forms of asthma and 100 healthy control participants.

In addition to the increased eicosanoid metabolite levels associated with asthma type and severity, the study shows that measurement using a urine test provides improved accuracy relative to other measurement methods, for example certain kinds of blood tests.

"Another discovery was that levels of these metabolites were still high in patients who were seriously ill, despite the fact that they were being treated with corticosteroid tablets. This highlights the need for alternative treatments for this group of patients," explains Johan Kolmert.

The researchers were also able to replicate the discovery in urine samples from a study of schoolchildren with asthma, that was conducted by the paediatricians Gunilla Hedlin, Jon Konradsen and Björn Nordlund at Karolinska Institutet.

"We could see that those children who had asthma with Type 2 inflammation were displaying the same profiles of metabolites in the urine as adults," says Sven-Erik Dahlén, professor at the Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, who led the work together with Craig Wheelock.

According to the researchers, this study of severe asthma may be the largest evaluation of eicosanoid urinary metabolites conducted worldwide, and may be an important step towards future biomarker-guided precision medicine.

Treatment with steroid inhalers is often sufficient for patients with mild asthma, but for those with severe asthma it may be necessary to supplement with corticosteroid tablets. Corticosteroids are associated with several side-effects, such as high blood pressure, diabetes and harm to the eyes and bones.

"To replace corticosteroid tablets, in recent times several biological medicines have been introduced to treat patients with Type 2 inflammation characterised by increased activation of mast cells and eosinophils," Sven-Erik Dahlén says. "However, these treatments are very expensive, so it is an important discovery that urine samples may be used to identify precisely those patients who will benefit from the Type 2 biologics."

INFORMATION:

The study has been funded by the EU and the IMI, the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and ALF Medicine.

Publication: "Urinary Leukotriene E4 and Prostaglandin D2 Metabolites Increase in Adult and Childhood Severe Asthma Characterized by Type 2 Inflammation. A Clinical Observational Study", Johan Kolmert, Cristina Gómez, David Balgoma, Marcus Sjödin, Johan Bood, Jon R. Konradsen, Magnus Ericsson, John-Olof Thörngren, Anna James, Maria Mikus, Ana R. Sousa, John H. Riley, Stewart Bates, Per S. Bakke, Ioannis Pandis, Massimo Caruso, Pascal Chanez, Stephen J. Fowler, Thomas Geiser, Peter Howarth, Ildikó Horváth, Norbert Krug, Paolo Montuschi, Marek Sanak, Annelie Behndig, Dominick E. Shaw, Richard G. Knowles, Cécile T. J. Holweg, Åsa M. Wheelock, Barbro Dahlén, Björn Nordlund, Kjell Alving, Gunilla Hedlin, Kian Fan Chung, Ian M. Adcock, Peter J. Sterk, Ratko Djukanovic, Sven-Erik Dahlén and Craig E. Wheelock. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, online 1 January 2021, doi: 10.1164/rccm.201909-1869OC.


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Lipid biomarkers in urine can determine the type of asthma

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

New studies support blood test for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

New studies support blood test for early detection of Alzheimers disease
2021-01-13
In three recent publications in Molecular Psychiatry, Brain and JAMA Neurology researchers from the University of Gothenburg provide convincing evidence that an in-house developed blood test for Alzheimer's disease can detect the disease early and track its course, which has major implications for a potential use in clinical practice and treatment trials. "This is an extremely dynamic research field right now, thanks to the technological development and seminal scientific progress in the past years. The dream scenario is to have a blood test for the early detection and screening of Alzheimer's disease up and running. That would give significantly ...

Workaholism leads to mental and physical health problems

Workaholism leads to mental and physical health problems
2021-01-13
Workaholism or work addiction risk is a growing public health concern that can lead to many negative mental and physical health outcomes such as depression, anxiety or sleep disorder. Perception of work (job demands and job control) may become a major cause of employees' work addiction. The international group of researchers including the HSE University scientist explored the link between work addiction risk and health-related outcomes using the framework of Job Demand Control Model. The results were published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Workaholics are people who usually work seven and more hours more than ...

High-sensitivity nanophotonic sensors with passive trapping of analyte molecules in hot-spots

High-sensitivity nanophotonic sensors with passive trapping of analyte molecules in hot-spots
2021-01-13
Optical sensors can quantitatively analyze chemical and biological samples by measuring and processing the optical signals produced by the samples. Optical sensors based on infrared absorption spectroscopy can achieve high sensitivity and selectivity in real time, and therefore play a crucial role in a variety of application areas such as environmental sensing, medical diagnostics, industrial process control and homeland security. In a new paper published in Light: Science & Applications, a team of scientists, led by Dr. Peter Q. Liu from the Department of Electrical Engineering, the State University of New York at Buffalo, have demonstrated a new type of high-performance optical sensor which can utilize ...

Catalysts: worth taking a closer look

Catalysts: worth taking a closer look
2021-01-13
Metal surfaces play a role as catalysts for many important applications - from fuel cells to the purification of car exhaust gases. However, their behaviour is decisively affected by oxygen atoms incorporated into the surface. This phenomenon has been known for a long time, but until now it has not been possible to precisely investigate the role of oxygen in complex surfaces point by point in order to understand the chemical background at the atomic level. This has now been achieved at TU Wien in cooperation with a team from the Elettra Synchrotron in Trieste. It became possible ...

Could we harness energy from black holes?

2021-01-13
A remarkable prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity--the theory that connects space, time, and gravity--is that rotating black holes have enormous amounts of energy available to be tapped. For the last 50 years, scientists have tried to come up with methods to unleash this power. Nobel physicist Roger Penrose theorized that a particle disintegration could draw energy from a black hole; Stephen Hawking proposed that black holes could release energy through quantum mechanical emission; while Roger Blandford and Roman Znajek suggested electromagnetic ...

UCI scientists measure local vibrational modes at individual crystalline faults

2021-01-13
Irvine, Calif., Jan. 11, 2021 - Often admired for their flawless appearance to the naked eye, crystals can have defects at the nanometer scale, and these imperfections may affect the thermal and heat transport properties of crystalline materials used in a variety of high-technology devices. Employing newly developed electron microscopy techniques, researchers at the University of California, Irvine and other institutions have, for the first time, measured the spectra of phonons - quantum mechanical vibrations in a lattice - at individual crystalline faults, and they discovered the propagation of phonons near the flaws. The team's findings are the subject of a study published recently in Nature. "Point defects, dislocations, stacking ...

UCI researchers use deep learning to identify gene regulation at single-cell level

2021-01-13
Irvine, Calif., Jan. 5, 2021 -- Scientists at the University of California, Irvine have developed a new deep-learning framework that predicts gene regulation at the single-cell level. Deep learning, a family of machine-learning methods based on artificial neural networks, has revolutionized applications such as image interpretation, natural language processing and autonomous driving. In a study published recently in Science Advances, UCI researchers describe how the technique can also be successfully used to observe gene regulation at the cellular level. Until now, that process had ...

Research reveals how teeth functioned and evolved in giant mega-sharks

Research reveals how teeth functioned and evolved in giant mega-sharks
2021-01-13
A pioneering study by University of Bristol researchers finds that the evolution of teeth in the giant prehistoric shark Megalodon and its relatives was a by-product of becoming huge, rather than an adaptation to new feeding habits. The iconic extinct Megalodon was the largest shark to ever roam the seas. Its name translates to 'big tooth', making reference to its massive teeth, which represent the most abundant fossil remains of the species. They are broad and triangular, nothing like the curved, blade-like teeth of the closest relatives of Megalodon. The ...

Recurrent GBM brain tumors with few mutations respond best to immunotherapy

2021-01-13
DURHAM, N.C. - Glioblastoma brain tumors are especially perplexing. Inevitably lethal, the tumors occasionally respond to new immunotherapies after they've grown back, enabling up to 20% of patients to live well beyond predicted survival times. What causes this effect has long been the pursuit of researchers hoping to harness immunotherapies to extend more lives. New insights from a team led by Duke's Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center provide potential answers. The team found that recurring glioblastoma tumors with very few mutations are far more vulnerable ...

Upper ocean temperatures hit record high in 2020

Upper ocean temperatures hit record high in 2020
2021-01-13
Even with the COVID-19-related small dip in global carbon emissions due to limited travel and other activities, the ocean temperatures continued a trend of breaking records in 2020. A new study, authored by 20 scientists from 13 institutes around the world, reported the highest ocean temperatures since 1955 from surface level to a depth of 2,000 meters. The report was published on January 13 in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences and concluded with a plea to the policymakers and others to consider the lasting damage warmer oceans can cause as they attempt to mitigate the ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Where COVID-19 hit hardest, sudden deaths outside the hospital increased

Many parents say teens with anxiety, depression may benefit from peer confidants at school

Vermont's BIPOC drivers are most likely to have a run-in with police, study shows

Students returning home may have caused 9,400 secondary COVID-19 infections across UK

Changing diets -- not less physical activity -- may best explain childhood obesity crisis

Scientists shed light on how and why some people report "hearing the dead"

Better diet and glucose uptake in the brain lead to longer life in fruit flies

The COVID-19 pandemic in brazil has overwhelmed its health systems

New study connects religiosity in US South Asians to cardiovascular disease

Rapid blood test identifies COVID-19 patients at high risk of severe disease

Scientists offer road map to improve environmental observations in the Indian Ocean

USask study finds COVID isolation worsens student diets, inactivity, and alcohol intake

45% of adults over 65 lack online medical accounts, which could affect COVID vaccination

COVID-19 deaths really are different. But best practices for ICU care should still apply

T cells linked to myelin implicated in MS-like disease in monkeys

Conductive nature in crystal structures revealed at magnification of 10 million times

Nanodiamonds feel the heat

Glass frogs living near roaring waterfalls wave hello to attract mates

New study compiles four years of corn loss data from 26 states and Ontario, Canada

US fishing and seafood industries saw broad declines last summer due to COVID-19

Controlling chemical catalysts with sculpted light

Special interests can be assets for youth with autism

New videos show RNA as it's never been seen

USC study measures brain volume differences in people with HIV

Large mammals make soil more fertile in tropical forests

Principles of care established for young adults with substance use disorders

Physicists propose a new theory to explain one dimensional quantum liquids formation

Is your skin thirsty? Optoacoustic sensor measures water content in living tissue

Want a hot stock tip? Avoid this type of investment fund

Biodistribution of AAV gene transfer vectors in nonhuman primate

[Press-News.org] Lipid biomarkers in urine can determine the type of asthma