PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Speeding treatment for urinary tract infections in children

Guidelines on white blood cell counts could help doctors prescribe antibiotics earlier

Speeding treatment for urinary tract infections in children
2021-03-08
(Press-News.org) DALLAS - March 8, 2021 - A study led by UT Southwestern and Children's Health researchers defines parameters for the number of white blood cells that must be present in children's urine at different concentrations to suggest a urinary tract infection (UTI). The findings, published recently in Pediatrics, could help speed treatment of this common condition and prevent potentially lifelong complications.

UTIs account for up to 7 percent of fevers in children up to 24 months old and are a common driver of hospital emergency room visits. However, says study leader Shahid Nadeem, M.D., assistant professor of pediatrics at UTSW as well as an emergency department physician and pediatric nephrologist at Children's Medical Center Dallas, these bacterial infections in infants and toddlers can be difficult to diagnose because their symptoms are similar to other fever-causing conditions.

If a diagnosis is delayed, he explains, a UTI can develop into a serious infection that can cause lasting consequences. For example, UTI-related kidney scarring has been linked with hypertension and chronic kidney disease later in life.

To diagnose a UTI, doctors must culture a urine sample and wait for it to grow telltale bacteria in a petri dish containing nutrients. However, says Nadeem, this process can take up to two days, delaying treatment. Consequently, he and other doctors typically rely on testing urine for a white blood cell-linked protein known as leukocyte esterase (LE), then confirm the presence of white blood cells - a sign of immune activity - by looking for them in urine under a microscope.

In children, he adds, the number of white blood cells can be highly variable, with some of this variation potentially due to varying urine concentration. As such, it's been unknown what white blood cell number threshold should be used to begin treating a suspected UTI based on urine concentration.

To determine these parameters, Nadeem and his colleagues searched medical records of children younger than 24 months old who were brought to the emergency department at Children's Medical Center between January 2012 and December 2017 with a suspected UTI and had both a urinalysis - in which their urine concentration and the presence of LE and white blood cells were assessed - and a urine culture. The search turned up 24,171 patients, 2,003 of whom were diagnosed with a UTI based on urine culture.

Using their urine's specific gravity - the density of urine compared with water, a measurement that serves as a surrogate for concentration - and the number of white blood cells present in the field of a high-power microscope, the researchers came up with cutoff points for three urine concentration groups: For low urine concentrations, children needed only three white blood cells to suspect UTI; for moderate concentrations, that number was six; and for high concentrations, it was eight.

For each of these concentration groups, leukocyte esterase remained constant, says Nadeem - suggesting that it's a good trigger for analyzing urine for the presence of white blood cells.

Knowing how many white blood cells tend to be present in urine samples at different concentrations in children with UTIs could help physicians start treating these infections before they receive urine culture results, he adds, giving relief to patients and their parents and preventing complications.

"The earlier we can start treatment, the better it is for these young patients," Nadeem says. "Our results add more information to physicians' toolboxes to make this decision."

INFORMATION:

Other UTSW/Children's Health researchers who contributed to this study include Mohamed Badawy, Oluwaseun Oke, Laura M. Filkins, Jason Y. Park, and Halim M. Hennes.


[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Speeding treatment for urinary tract infections in children

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Financial pollution in the US health system

2021-03-08
Boston, MA - Financial pollution arises when exorbitant or unnecessary healthcare spending depletes resources needed for the wellbeing of the population. This is the subject of a JAMA Health Forum Insight co-authored by researchers in the Department of Population Medicine at Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The Insight was published in the March 8, 2021 issue of JAMA Health Forum. The authors lay out the rationale for "financial pollution" as a metaphor to express the urgency of addressing wasteful health care spending and to guide innovative policymaking. Akin to environmental pollution, financial ...

Understanding the resilience of barrier islands and coastal dunes after storms

2021-03-08
When a coastline undergoes massive erosion, like a hurricane flattening a beach and its nearby environments, it has to rebuild itself - relying on the resilience of its natural coastal structures to begin piecing itself back together in a way that will allow it to survive the next large phenomena that comes its way. Drs. Orencio Duran Vinent, assistant professor, and Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, Distinguished University Professor and Wofford Cain Chair I Professor, in the Department of Ocean Engineering at Texas A&M University, are investigating the resilience of barrier ...

A better way to measure acceleration

A better way to measure acceleration
2021-03-08
You're going at the speed limit down a two-lane road when a car barrels out of a driveway on your right. You slam on the brakes, and within a fraction of a second of the impact an airbag inflates, saving you from serious injury or even death. The airbag deploys thanks to an accelerometer -- a sensor that detects sudden changes in velocity. Accelerometers keep rockets and airplanes on the correct flight path, provide navigation for self-driving cars, and rotate images so that they stay right-side up on cellphones and tablets, among other essential tasks. Addressing the increasing ...

Brain activity foreshadows changes in stock prices

Brain activity foreshadows changes in stock prices
2021-03-08
Forecasting changes in stock prices may be possible with the help of brain activity in regions associated with how people feel before making investment choices. Scientists could accurately forecast market price changes based on the average brain activity among a group but failed when using only prior stock trends or people's investment choices, according to new research published in JNeurosci. Scientists have used the average brain activity among a group to predict which videos will go viral and which crowdfunding campaigns will receive funding. In a new study, Stallen et al. investigated if this relationship extends to a more ...

New discovery explains antihypertensive properties of green and black tea

New discovery explains antihypertensive properties of green and black tea
2021-03-08
Irvine, CA - March 8, 2021 - A new study from the University of California, Irvine shows that compounds in both green and black tea relax blood vessels by activating ion channel proteins in the blood vessel wall. The discovery helps explain the antihypertensive properties of tea and could lead to the design of new blood pressure-lowering medications. Published in Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, the discovery was made by the laboratory of Geoffrey Abbott, PhD, a professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the UCI School of Medicine. Kaitlyn Redford, a graduate student in the Abbott Lab, was first author of the study titled, "KCNQ5 potassium channel activation underlies vasodilation by tea." Results from the research revealed that two catechin-type ...

New teamwork model could improve patient health care

2021-03-08
HOUSTON - (March 8, 2021) - Health care teams must prepare for anything, including the unconventional work environments brought about by a global pandemic and social unrest. Multiracial medical team having a discussion as they stand grouped together around a tablet computer on a stair well, overhead view Open communication and trust are essential for successful teamwork in challenging health care situations, as detailed in "Building effective healthcare team development interventions in uncertain times: Tips for success." The paper was authored by researchers at Rice University, the University of Texas MD Anderson ...

Sophisticated skin

2021-03-08
Squids have long been a source of fascination for humans, providing the stuff of legend, superstition and myth. And it's no wonder -- their odd appearances and strange intelligence, their mastery of the open ocean can inspire awe in those who see them. Legends aside, squids continue to intrigue people today -- people like UC Santa Barbara professor Daniel Morse -- for much the same, albeit more scientific, reasons. Having evolved for hundreds of millions of years to hunt, communicate, evade predators and mate in the vast, often featureless expanses of open water, squids have developed some of the most sophisticated skin in the animal kingdom. "For centuries, people have been amazed at the ability of squids to change the color and patterns of their skin -- which they ...

Assessing regulatory fairness through machine learning

Assessing regulatory fairness through machine learning
2021-03-08
The perils of machine learning - using computers to identify and analyze data patterns, such as in facial recognition software - have made headlines lately. Yet the technology also holds promise to help enforce federal regulations, including those related to the environment, in a fair, transparent way, according to a new study by Stanford researchers. The analysis, published this week in the proceedings of the Association of Computing Machinery Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency(link is external), evaluates machine learning techniques designed to support a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiative to reduce ...

Rise of marine predators reshaped ocean life as dramatically as sudden mass extinctions

Rise of marine predators reshaped ocean life as dramatically as sudden mass extinctions
2021-03-08
GAINESVILLE, Fla. --- Evolutionary arms races between marine animals overhauled ocean ecosystems on scales similar to the mass extinctions triggered by global disasters, a new study shows. Scientists at Umeå University in Sweden and the Florida Museum of Natural History used paleontological databases to build a multilayered computer model of the history of marine life over the last 500 million years. Their analysis of the fossil record closely echoed a seminal 1981 study by paleontologist J. John Sepkoski - with one key difference. Sepkoski's ground-breaking statistical work showed abrupt ocean-wide changes in biodiversity about 490 and 250 ...

Oncotarget: Sensitivity testing on ovarian cancer cells isolated from malignant ascites

Oncotarget: Sensitivity testing on ovarian cancer cells isolated from malignant ascites
2021-03-08
Oncotarget published "Chemotherapy sensitivity testing on ovarian cancer cells isolated from malignant ascites" which reported that the authors aim is to determine the feasibility of cell proliferation assays of tumor cells isolated from malignant ascites to predict in vitro chemotherapy sensitivity, and to correlate these results with clinical outcome. Cell samples were enriched for tumor cells and EOC origin was confirmed by intracellular staining of CK7, surface staining of CA125 and EpCAM, and HE4 gene expression. In vitro sensitivity to chemotherapy was determined in cell proliferation assays using intracellular ATP content as an indirect measure of cell number. In twelve of ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Crop rotations with beans and peas offer more sustainable and nutritious food production

Five research-backed steps to a pro-vaccination social media campaign

1 in 4 parents give youth sports low rankings for enforcement of COVID-19 guidelines

Doctors still reluctant to prescribe medical cannabis: McMaster

Influence of sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean on air quality in the Yangtze River Delta region

Frog species with 6 sex chromosomes offer new clues on evolution of complex XY systems

Study reveals the 3D structure of human uterine endometrium and adenomyosis tissue

ETRI develops a haptic film activated by LEDs

Researchers' work will help the pipeline industry limit the destructive power of bubbles

E-cigarettes with a cigarette-like level of nicotine are effective in reducing smoking

Deep Learning model developed at UHN to maximize lifespan after liver transplant 

Convenience over reputation: Study looks at how older adults pick a doctor

Ocean bacteria release carbon into the atmosphere

Spotting cows from space

Scientists watch 2D puddles of electrons emerge in a 3D superconducting material

Research suggests SEC's increasing focus on terrorism may limit financial oversight

Plastic planet: Tracking pervasive microplastics across the globe

Gut epithelium muscles up against infection

Scientists discover three liquid phases in aerosol particles

New mechanism identified behind blindness in older adults

Common approach to diversity in higher education reflects preferences of white Americans

Study reveals cancer immunotherapy patients at most risk of life-threatening side effects

Study reveals crucial details on skin-related side effects of cancer immune therapies

Researchers identify surface protein as a new osteosarcoma therapeutic target for antibody-drug conjugates

Differences in B cell responses to coronaviruses and other pathogens in children and adults

Bottom-up is the way forward for nitrogen reduction at institutions

Road salts and other human sources are threatening world's freshwater supplies

Researchers engineer probiotic yeast to produce beta-carotene

Spanking may affect the brain development of a child

UConn researchers find bubbles speed up energy transfer

[Press-News.org] Speeding treatment for urinary tract infections in children
Guidelines on white blood cell counts could help doctors prescribe antibiotics earlier