Wild bees need deadwood in the forest
(Press-News.org) How many tree species are there in the forest? How are the trees scattered throughout? How high are the individual tree crowns? Are there fallen trees or hollowed-out tree trunks? Forest scientists characterize forests according to structural factors. "Structural richness is very important for biodiversity in forests. But forests used for forestry are generally poor in terms of structure," says Tristan Eckerter from the Chair of Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology at the University of Freiburg. Therefore, together with research teams from the Chair of Silviculture and the Black Forest National Park, he investigated whether structures such as standing timber in forests help to promote the diversity of wild bees. In addition, the researchers analyzed which other natural features of the spruce-dominated forest help wild bees survive. They found that creating deadwood in coniferous forests is a promising restoration measure to promote the abundance of aboveground nesting bees. The scientists recently published their findings in the journal Forest Ecology and Management.
Restauration experiment aims to strengthen biodiversity
As part of this long-term restoration experiment, structural richness was artificially created in 2016 on several sample plots in the Black Forest National Park. Researchers felled and uprooted 20 spruce trees per plot, creating deadwood and small gaps in six 50 by 50 meter plots. Six other plots were left in their natural state as a control group. "The restoration measures have increased what we call the structural complexity of the forest stands. That is, these plots provide a more diverse, varied habitat. We would not have thought to have found so many different wild bees as a result," explains Eckerter.
Standing deadwood promotes bee population
The researchers compared how many wild bees were in the different plots in June 2018 and 2019. Their results show that deadwood increases the abundance and biodiversity of wild bees. In this regard, standing deadwood particularly encourages above-ground nesting bees such as masked bees. "We suspect that some of the bees use deadwood as a nesting site," says Eckerter. As a result, he recommends, "If the bark beetle has already flown out and the tree is already dead, it's important to leave the standing dead tree for the bees."
Increased blueberry growth
In addition, the thinner forest areas prove beneficial to bees, as the light stimulates the growth of flowering plants. Increased blueberry growth provides bees with more nectar, increasing the abundance and richness of the bee community. Looking toward the future, Prof. Dr. Alexandra Klein, head of the Chair of Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology, emphasizes, „In the course of climate change, forest areas will be increasingly characterized by deadwood and sparse areas caused by storms, droughts or bark beetles. As a result, forest habitat will increase in importance for wild bees."
Chair of Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology
Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources
Tel.: 0176 85056045
Dr. Marc Förschler
Head of Ecosystem Monitoring, Research and Conservation
Black Forest National Park
Tel.: 07442 18018 200
[Attachments] See images for this press release:
ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:
A new article published in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research presents a neural model of maladaptive consumption.
Consumption (of, for instance, substances, food, and online media) is driven mainly by expected rewards that stem from the ability of the consumption act to satisfy intrinsic (e.g., curiosity) and extrinsic (e.g., job performance) needs. In the article, "A Triple-System Neural Model of Maladaptive Consumption," the authors define maladaptive consumption as a state of compulsive seeking and consumption of rewarding products or experiences, which are sustained despite the negative consequences of such behaviors.
"Understanding the neural basis of maladaptive ...
Pairing blueberry pie with a scoop of ice cream is a nice summer treat. Aside from being tasty, this combination might also help people take up more of the "superfruit's" nutrients, such as anthocyanins. Researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry show that α-casein, a protein found in cow's milk, helped rats absorb more blueberry anthocyanins and their byproducts, boosting accessibility to these good-for-you nutrients.
In studies, anthocyanins have been shown to have antioxidant properties, lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of developing some cancers. However, only small amounts of these nutrients are absorbed ...
For patients who have inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS), the condition is literally a pain in the gut. Chronic -- or long-term -- abdominal pain is common, and there are currently no effective treatment options for this debilitating symptom. In a new study in ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science, researchers identify a new potential source of relief: a molecule derived from spider venom. In experiments with mice, they found that one dose could stop symptoms associated with IBS pain.
The sensation of pain originates in electrical signals carried from the body to the brain by cells called ...
Air quality varies greatly within regions and cities around the world, and exposure to air pollution can have severe health impacts. In the U.S., people of color are disproportionately exposed to poor air quality. A cover story in Chemical & Engineering News, the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, highlights how scientists and community activists are using new technologies to gather data that could help address this inequity.
Despite the success of the U.S. Clean Air Act in improving ambient air quality over the past 50 years, discriminatory housing, loan ...
Over recent years, the retina has established its position as one of the most promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's. Moving on from the debate as to the retina becoming thinner or thicker, researchers from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Hospital Clínico San Carlos are focusing their attention on the roughness of the ten retinal layers.
The study, published in Scientific Reports, "proves innovative" in three aspects according to José Manuel Ramírez, Director of the IIORC (Ramón Castroviejo Institute of Ophthalmologic Research) at the UCM. "This is the first study to propose studying the roughness of the retina and its ten constituent layers. They have devised a mathematical method to measure the degree of wrinkling, through the fractal ...
Children with obstructive sleep apnea are nearly three times more likely to develop high blood pressure when they become teenagers than children who never experience sleep apnea, according to a new study funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health. However, children whose sleep apnea improves as they grow into adolescence do not show an increased chance of having high blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for heart disease.
The long-term study, one of the largest of its kind in the pediatric population, underscores the seriousness of sleep apnea in children and the importance of early treatment, the researchers said. Their findings appear online in the journal JAMA Cardiology.
Obstructive sleep apnea, ...
Previous research was falsely reassuring; captured only 2% of cirrhosis patients
Findings underscore lack of access to health care for Black patients
Cirrhosis is leading cause of death and affects more than 600,000 people in U.S.
CHICAGO --- Black patients with cirrhosis - late-stage liver disease - are about 25% more likely to die compared to non-Hispanic white patients and four times less likely to receive a liver transplant, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study.
Estimates of racial disparity in cirrhosis have been limited by a lack of large-scale longitudinal data, which track patients from diagnosis to death and/or transplant.
The paper is one of the first to link all seven large liver centers in Chicago with the death registry and transplant registry to examine ...
Psycholinguists from the HSE Center for Language and Brain, in collaboration with researchers from the City University of New York and the University of Stuttgart, investigated how reading in Russian varies among different groups of readers. The authors used a novel method in bilingualism research -comparison of the eye-movement sequences (scanpaths) in adult native speakers of Russian, Russian-speaking children, and adult bilinguals with different levels of Russian proficiency. The results of the study were published in Reading Research Quarterly.
A total of 120 readers took part in the study, with 30 participants in each group. Participants included adult ...
BUFFALO, N.Y. -- The giant plumose anemone is an animal, but it looks a bit like an underwater cauliflower. Its body consists of a stalk-like column that attaches to rocks and other surfaces on one end, and to a crown of tentacles on the other.
The anemones use these feelers to collect and shove food into their mouths, and a new study provides an in-depth look into the rich diversity of prey the anemones are catching. This includes a surprising menu item: ants, specifically the pale-legged field ant, Lasius pallitarsis. And the occasional spider.
The research was published on June 15 in the journal Environmental DNA. The study focused on giant plumose ...
How long do virus-laden particles persist in an elevator after a person infected with COVID-19 leaves? And is there a way to detect those particles? A group of electrical engineers and computer scientists at KAUST set out to answer these questions using mathematical fluid dynamics equations.
"We found1 that virus-laden particles can still be detected several minutes after a short elevator trip by an infected person," says KAUST electrical engineer Osama Amin.
The team's equations and breath simulations suggest that a biosensor's ability to detect a virus improves when placed on an elevator wall that can reflect particles. Also, to protect future occupants, the amount of particles in the air can be reduced by making the other three walls absorptive.
LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:
[Press-News.org] Wild bees need deadwood in the forest