Out of eleven medical specialties, anesthesiology ranked eighth both for the percentage of entering residents with a “research-oriented” background and the percentage of anesthesiology residents who are women, according to the ARC working group’s analysis based on data from the National Resident Matching Program and Association of American Medical Colleges from 2009-2019. ARC proposes a variety of recommendations to increase the size and diversity of the anesthesiology physician-scientist pipeline, from increasing the visibility of anesthesiology research to medical students, to expanding research fellowship opportunities, to incorporating child-care-friendly policies at national meetings facilitating attendance and career development.
“The research conducted by anesthesiology physician-scientists over the last few decades has led to a revolution in life-saving changes in perioperative medicine and remarkable improvements in safety,” said Charles W. Emala, M.S., M.D., chair of the ARC working group and vice chair for research at New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York. “But the public and even many physicians aren’t aware that the research anesthesiology physician-scientists are involved in extends beyond intraoperative anesthesia care and surgery itself, from understanding the basis of consciousness, to reducing organ injury during transplantation to addressing pain without the need for opioids and using interventional methods to relieve chronic pain.”
ARC was formed in 2019 by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER) and the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS) to address compelling issues in academic anesthesiology. The number of physicians who focus on research — particularly in anesthesiology — has been inadequate to meet demands for decades. Efforts to increase the numbers have not made a meaningful difference, prompting ARC to tackle the pipeline as its first issue.
There are several reasons for the shortfall of medical students pursuing anesthesiology research pathways, starting with medical students’ reduced exposure to the specialty of anesthesiology. The ARC working group’s survey of anesthesiology residency program directors revealed that only 46% of medical schools required students exposure to clinical anesthesiology, and when they do, the average time is two weeks, versus eight for other major specialties such as surgery, pediatrics and internal medicine, Dr. Emala said.
The working group did unearth some encouraging findings. They found anesthesiology ranked fourth out of 11 specialties for residents who identified themselves as belonging to an underrepresented group in medicine. They also noted that since 2015, there has been a 70% increase in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding to anesthesiology departments and a 70% increase in the number of NIH early scientist career development awards given to anesthesiologists.
To expand the size and diversity of the anesthesiology physician-scientists pipeline, ARC offers more than 40 recommendations within six categories:
Medical student trainee initiatives, such as increasing financial support of FAER to expand the medical student summer research fellowship and having the specialty of anesthesiology represented at annual national meetings of medical students in the NIH-sponsored medical scientist training program (MSTP). Mentoring and professional development, including expediting full membership status for the Association of University Anesthesiologists to faculty demonstrating research or academic productivity. Training grants, such as awarding mentored foundation grants only to departments that demonstrate a culture of inquiry by investing in the continued development of physician-scientists. Supporting trainees with diverse needs, including by creating pipeline programs to identify and mentor underrepresented minority undergraduate students, medical students and residents who have an interest in becoming physician-scientists, as well as providing financial support for child-care needs during attendance and presentations at national meetings. Supporting anesthesiology leaders to expand institution research, such as embedding early-career physician-scientists within multi-disciplinary teams. Expanding academic anesthesiology by department chairs, such as by petitioning the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Anesthesiology to allow for expanded fellowships that enable one to two years of research. Read the article: The Anesthesiology Physician-Scientist Pipeline: Current Status & Recommendations for Future Growth, An Initiative of the Anesthesia Research Council (ARC).
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THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ANESTHESIOLOGISTS
Founded in 1905, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) is an educational, research, and scientific professional society with more than 56,000 members organized to secure the future of and advance the medical practice of anesthesiology. ASA is committed to ensuring anesthesiologists evaluate and supervise the medical care of all patients before, during, and after surgery. ASA members also lead the care of critically ill patients in intensive care units, as well as treat pain in both acute and chronic settings.
For more information on the field of anesthesiology, visit the American Society of Anesthesiologists online at asahq.org. To learn more about how anesthesiologists help ensure patient safety, visit asahq.org/MadeforThisMoment. Like ASA on Facebook and follow ASALifeline on Twitter.
THE FOUNDATION FOR ANESTHESIA EDUCATION AND RESEARCH (FAER)
FAER is a related organization of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). For over 35 years, FAER has been dedicated to developing the next generation of physician-investigators in anesthesiology. Charitable contributions and support to FAER help fuel the future of anesthesiology through scientific discovery. Funding priorities include: Research, Education, and Training. At the time of this article's publication, FAER has awarded more than $55 million in research grants and programs since 1986. To donate to FAER, visit FAER.org/donate.
THE INTERNATIONAL ANESTHESIA RESEARCH SOCIETY
The International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS) is a nonpolitical, not-for-profit medical society founded in 1922 to advance and support scientific research and education related to anesthesia, and to improve patient care through research. The IARS contributes more than $1 million annually to fund anesthesia research; provides a forum for anesthesiology leaders to share information and ideas; maintains a worldwide membership of physicians, health professionals in anesthesia-related practice, and physician residents and others with doctoral degrees; sponsors the SmartTots initiative; and publishes the monthly Anesthesia & Analgesia journal in print and online as well as the clinical companion journal A&A Practice, published semi-monthly.
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