- Press Release Distribution

COVID-infected adults with 4 or more underlying diseases or advanced age, face higher risk of ICU stay, death

10-state June 2021-March 2023 study from CDC’s VISION Network identifies risk factors for critical outcomes

( Whether vaccinated or not, having at least four disease risk factors put adults hospitalized due to COVID-19 at higher risk for critical outcomes, according to a 10-state study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) VISION Network. The study describes the characteristics of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 from June 2021 through March 2023 and enumerates their risk factors for critical outcomes, defined as intensive care unit (ICU) admission and/or in-hospital death.

It is not uncommon for older adults hospitalized for COVID-19 to have four or more of these disease risk factors. The study authors note that this suggests that overall frailty may play a large role in susceptibility to critical disease regardless of vaccine status.

The majority of hospitalizations which resulted in ICU admission or death, regardless of vaccination status, were among male or female patients with multiple disease risk factors across multiple organ systems. Disease risk factors include hypertension, all types of diabetes, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), kidney disease, obesity, dementia and other long-term conditions.

Data from statewide immunization information systems, electronic health records and insurance claims of 60,488 individuals aged 18 or older from 10 states, who were hospitalized with COVID-19 across periods of Delta predominance to the post-BA.4/BA.5 period were analyzed.

From summer 2021 to spring 2023, the epidemiology of COVID-19 changed markedly. The researchers determined that the proportion of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 who experienced critical outcomes decreased with time, as did their hospital lengths of stay. Over the same time period the median patient age increased from 60 to 75 years.

“This is one of the first studies to examine and describe how the characteristics of seriously ill COVID-19 patients and the risk factors associated with those hospitalizations changed over time,” said study co-author Shaun Grannis, M.D., M.S., Regenstrief Institute vice president for data and analytics and a professor at Indiana University School of Medicine. “Our findings provide insight into factors that influence outcomes for hospitalized patients and can help us be alerted to those potential risks, so we can pay special attention to the most at-risk individuals.”

Vaccinated individuals, age 65 or older or with four or more underlying chronic medical conditions, were 1.7 times as likely to have a critical outcome. Unvaccinated individuals, age 65 or older or with four or more underlying medical conditions, were 2.3 times as likely to have a critical outcome. Both tendencies are in comparison to younger individuals or those with fewer than four disease risk factors.

“The number of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection has decreased over time for a variety of reasons, including vaccination and natural immunity acquired due to past infection, advances in medical care as well as the severity of variants. But the virus hasn’t gone away and it’s important to note that people are still being infected or reinfected and are being hospitalized,” said study co-author Brian Dixon, PhD, MPA, interim director of the Center for Biomedical Informatics at Regenstrief Institute and professor at Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health. “Our analysis shows that the people hospitalized for COVID who are at higher risk of an ICU stay or even an in-hospital death tend to be older and sicker with underlying conditions, some of which may be undiagnosed. If you are or have family members who are at higher risk, you and your family members should stay up to date on vaccinations and avoid spreading the disease with vulnerable members.”

“Clinical epidemiology and risk factors for critical outcomes among vaccinated and unvaccinated adults hospitalized with COVID-19 -- VISION Network, 10 States, June 2021-March 2023” is published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, an official journal of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

In addition to Drs. Grannis and Dixon, Regenstrief authors of this VISION Network study are Nimish R. Valvi, DrPH; Katie S. Allen, B.S.; William F. Fadel, PhD, and former Regenstrief president and current affiliate scientist Peter Embi, M.D.

Complete author and affiliations list:

Eric P. Griggs, MPH1, Patrick K. Mitchell, ScD2, Victoria Lazariu, PhD2, Manjusha Gaglani, MBBS, FIDSA, FPID, FAAP3,4, Charlene McEvoy, M.D., MPH5, Nicola P. Klein, M.D., PhD6, Nimish R. Valvi, DrPH7, Stephanie A. Irving, MHS8, Noah Kojima, M.D.9, Edward Stenehjem, M.D., MSc10, Bradley Crane, M.S.8, Suchitra Rao, MBBS, MSCS11, Shaun J. Grannis, M.D., M.S.7,12, Peter J. Embi, M.D., M.S.13, Anupam B. Kharbanda, M.D.14, Toan C. Ong, PhD11, Karthik Natarajan, PhD15,16, Kristin Dascomb, M.D., PhD17, Allison L. Naleway, PhD8, Elizabeth Bassett, MPH2, Malini B. DeSilva, M.D., MPH5, Monica Dickerson, B.S.9, Deepika Konatham, B.S.18, Bruce Fireman, M.A.6, Katie S. Allen, B.S.7,19, Michelle A. Barron, M.D.11, Maura Beaton, M.S.15 Julie Arndorfer, MPH17, Gabriela Vazquez-Benitez, PhD5, Shikha Garg, M.D.9, Kempapura Murthy, MBBS, MPH18, Kristin Goddard, MPH6, Brian E. Dixon, PhD, MPA7,19, Jungmi Han, B.S.15, Nancy Grisel, MPP17, Chandni Raiyani, BDS, MPH18, Ned Lewis, MPH6, William F. Fadel, PhD7,19, Melissa S. Stockwell, M.D., MPH16,20,21, Mufaddal Mamawala, MBBS, MPH18, John Hansen, MPH6, Ousseny Zerbo, PhD6, Palak Patel, MBBS, MPH9, Ruth Link-Gelles, PhD, MPH1, Katherine Adams, MPH9 and Mark W. Tenforde, M.D.,PhD9.

1Coronavirus and Other Respiratory Viruses Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Westat, Rockville, Maryland, USA; 3Section of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, Texas, USA; 4Department of Medical Education, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Temple, Texas, USA; 5Health Partners Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 6Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, Oakland, California, USA; 7Center for Biomedical Informatics, Regenstrief Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; 8Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon, USA; 9Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 10Division of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Epidemiology, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; 11School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA; 12School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; 13Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA; 14Children’s Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 15Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA; 16NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital ,New York, USA; 17Division of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Epidemiology, IntermountainHealthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; 18Department of Research Analytics and Development, Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, Texas, USA; 19Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, USA; 20Division of Child and Adolescent Health, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA; 21Department of Population and Family Health, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York, USA.

About Shaun Grannis, M.D., M.S.
In addition to his role as the vice president for data and analytics at Regenstrief Institute, Shaun Grannis, M.D., M.S., occupies the Regenstrief Chair in Medical Informatics and is a professor of family medicine at Indiana University School of Medicine.

About Brian E. Dixon, PhD, MPA
In addition to his roles as interim director of the Regenstrief Institute’s Clem McDonald Center for Biomedical Informatics and director of public health informatics for Regenstrief Institute and Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Brian E. Dixon, PhD, MPA, is a professor of epidemiology at the Fairbanks School of Public Health. He is also an affiliate scientist at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Health Information and Communication, Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center.

About Regenstrief Institute
Founded in 1969 in Indianapolis, the Regenstrief Institute is a local, national and global leader dedicated to a world where better information empowers people to end disease and realize true health. A key research partner to Indiana University, Regenstrief and its research scientists are responsible for a growing number of major healthcare innovations and studies. Examples range from the development of global health information technology standards that enable the use and interoperability of electronic health records to improving patient-physician communications, to creating models of care that inform clinical practice and improve the lives of patients around the globe.

Sam Regenstrief, a nationally successful entrepreneur from Connersville, Indiana, founded the institute with the goal of making healthcare more efficient and accessible for everyone. His vision continues to guide the institute’s research mission.

About IU School of Medicine
IU School of Medicine is the largest medical school in the U.S. and is annually ranked among the top medical schools in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. The school offers high-quality medical education, access to leading medical research and rich campus life in nine Indiana cities, including rural and urban locations consistently recognized for livability.

About the Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health

Located on the IUPUI and Fort Wayne campuses, the Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health is committed to advancing the public’s health and well-being through education, innovation and leadership. The Fairbanks School of Public Health is known for its expertise in biostatistics, epidemiology, cancer research, community health, global health, health policy and health services administration.










Novel ligands for transition-metal catalysis of photoreactions

Novel ligands for transition-metal catalysis of photoreactions
Transition metals form catalytic complexes that can speed up various chemical processes, especially in the production of pharmaceuticals as well as various pigments, dyes, and laboratory reagents like sulfuric acid. The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) has boosted the use of visible light in reaction catalysis, and scientists have developed photo-redox catalysts made of iridium and ruthenium, which facilitate catalysis when irradiated with specific wavelengths of light. Further, scientists have even demonstrated visible light photoreactions with palladium complexes without the use of photo-redox catalysts. While several such transition metal-catalyzed ...

Ability to drive a car influences quality of life of older adults in Japan

Ability to drive a car influences quality of life of older adults in Japan
Physical health and cognitive function declines as we age. Aging impacts people’s ability to perform routine tasks, which affects their well-being and sense of independence. One such routine activity that is frequently affected is driving. For older adults, the inability to drive themselves can mean that they become unable to access basic needs or engage in social activities. In a recent study that was made available online on 29 August 2023 and is all set to be published in volume 176 of Transportation Research in October 2023, researchers ...

Pediatric endocrinologists concerned for safety amid divisive political climate

WASHINGTON—Pediatric endocrinologists are concerned for their safety and their ability to provide evidenced-based care to transgender and gender-diverse adolescents amid political divides over gender-affirming care, according to a new paper published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society. Pediatric endocrinologists specialize in the care of children and adolescents with disorders related to hormones and the glands that produce them, such as diabetes and disorders of growth, thyroid or puberty. Some pediatric endocrinologists also provide gender-affirming care as part of their medical practice. Among youth ages 13 to 17 in the United States, 1.4% identify as transgender, ...

Team looks to plant tissues that move for inspiration in designing artificial actuators

Team looks to plant tissues that move for inspiration in designing artificial actuators
Scientists are looking to plant tissues that are capable of motion to inspire the design and fabrication of artificial actuators. These bioinspired actuators hold significant potential in applications, such as soft robotics, prosthetics, and smart biomedical devices. A research team from the Chinese Academy of Sciences has published a perspective paper focusing specifically on the ways plants regulate their motion speed and how this might be applied with artificial actuators.   Their paper is published in the journal Nano Research on September 18.   These artificial actuators, that are responsive to humidity, solvents, heat, light, and electricity, ...

Treating NASH disease by removing cholesterol from macrophages using a unique supramolecule

Treating NASH disease by removing cholesterol from macrophages using a unique supramolecule
A research group from the Graduate School of Medicine and Research Institute of Environmental Medicine at Nagoya University reported that cholesterol accumulation in macrophages promotes liver fibrosis in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Using a unique supramolecule, they removed cholesterol in a mouse model, stopping the development of the disease. As cholesterol crystals are also found in human patients, this suggests a potential treatment for the disease. Their findings were published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.     As the number of patients with ...

Researchers unveil new flexible adhesive with exceptional recovery and adhesion properties for electronic devices

Researchers unveil new flexible adhesive with exceptional recovery and adhesion properties for electronic devices
The rapid advancements in flexible electronic technology have led to the emergence of innovative devices such as foldable displays, wearables, e-skin, and medical devices. These breakthroughs have created a growing demand for flexible adhesives that can quickly recover their shape while effectively connecting various components in these devices. However, conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) often face challenges in achieving a balance between recovery capabilities and adhesive strength. In an extraordinary study conducted at UNIST, researchers have successfully synthesized new types of urethane-based crosslinkers that address this critical challenge. Led by Professor Dong Woog ...

Grant awarded to University of Louisville law professor will fund climate adaptation project

Grant awarded to University of Louisville law professor will fund climate adaptation project
The Resilience Justice Project (RJ Project) at the University of Louisville’s Brandeis School of Law has been awarded a one-year multi-institutional grant through a national competitive process to evaluate how climate adaptation planning can be more equitable for low-income communities in eight U.S. coastal areas. The RJ Project will use the $75,000 award from the National Sea Grant Law Center through NOAA’s National Coastal Resilience Fund to examine coastal urban adaptation in the eight cities: Boston, Cleveland, Miami, New Orleans, San Diego, Savannah, Seattle and Tampa. Principal ...

Technological progress and climate change

Technological progress and climate change
Technological progress can reduce the energy required to achieve the same ends, reducing the use of fossil fuels and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. But technological progress can also make production, consumption, and travel cheaper, stimulating demand and consequently increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Sai Liang and colleagues sought to explore this conundrum by building an environmentally extended general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agent and input-output network covering 141 nations and 65 sectors, ...

Yogurt may be the next go-to garlic breath remedy

COLUMBUS, Ohio – It turns out yogurt may have a previously unknown benefit: eliminating garlic odors. A new study conducted in a lab – with follow-up human breath tests being planned – showed that whole milk plain yogurt prevented almost all of the volatile compounds responsible for garlic’s pungent scent from escaping into the air. Researchers tested the garlic deodorizing capacity of yogurt and its individual components of water, fat and protein to see how each stood up to the stink. Both fat and protein were effective at trapping garlic odors, leading the scientists to suggest high-protein ...

Laser-based ice-core sampling for studying climate change

Laser-based ice-core sampling for studying climate change
Researchers led by Yuko Motizuki from the Astro-Glaciology Laboratory at the RIKEN Nishina Center in Japan have developed a new laser-based sampling system for studying the composition of ice cores taken from glaciers. The new system has a 3-mm depth-resolution—about 3 times smaller than what is currently available—meaning that it can detect temperature variations that occurred over much smaller periods of time in the past. The new laser melting sampler, or LMS, is expected to help reconstruct continuous annual temperature changes that occurred thousands to hundreds of thousands of years ago, which will ...


Gun violence touches nearly 60 percent of Black Americans – and predicts disability

A rise in sea urchins and related damage to kelp forests impacts Oregon’s gray whales and their food

Detroit researchers find connection between PFAS exposure in men and the health of their offspring

Cosmic rays illuminate the past

Ochsner Health hosts third annual Black Men’s Health Event at Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club on May 25

New tool may help prioritize high-risk infants for RSV immunization

Drug helps reprogram macrophage immune cells, suppress prostate and bladder tumor growth

Green infrastructure plans need to consider historical racial inequalities, say researchers

ENDO 2024 press conferences to highlight male birth control, anti-obesity medications

Highly sensitive fiber optic gyroscope senses rotational ground motion around active volcano

Research reveals endurance exercise training impacts biological molecules

Does managing oxidative stress hold the key to effectively treating Alzheimer’s disease

Warming climate intensifies flash droughts worldwide

US public health preparedness and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses

DRI to host AWE+ wildfire summit

MD Anderson Research Highlights for May 21, 2024

Polymer research aims to expand possibilities in sensor technology

New therapeutic avenues in bone repair

Socioeconomic status transition throughout life and risk of dementia

Climbing the social ladder slows dementia, Japanese study reveals

Researchers discover hidden step in dinosaur feather evolution

Studies reveal cell-by-cell changes caused when pig hearts and kidneys are transplanted into humans

SRI earns FDA Orphan Drug Designation for pancreatic cancer

A new gene-editing system tackles complex diseases

Tracking down toxic metals from tobacco smoke

Clarifying the cellular mechanisms underlying periodontitis with an improved animal model

Age, race impact AI performance on digital mammograms

SwRI leads courses at 2024 Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting

Hope for a cure for visceral leishmaniasis, an often fatal infectious disease

How AI helps programming a quantum computer

[] COVID-infected adults with 4 or more underlying diseases or advanced age, face higher risk of ICU stay, death
10-state June 2021-March 2023 study from CDC’s VISION Network identifies risk factors for critical outcomes