PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Personalized cancer medicine: humans make better treatment decisions than AI

Charité study highlights limits of large language models in precision medicine

Personalized cancer medicine: humans make better treatment decisions than AI
2023-11-20
(Press-News.org) Treating cancer is becoming increasingly complex, but also offers more and more possibilities. After all, the better a tumor’s biology and genetic features are understood, the more treatment approaches there are. To be able to offer patients personalized therapies tailored to their disease, laborious and time-consuming analysis and interpretation of various data is required. Researchers at Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin have now studied whether generative artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as ChatGPT can help with this step. This is one of many projects at Charité analyzing the opportunities unlocked by AI in patient care.

If the body can no longer repair certain genetic mutations itself, cells begin to grow unchecked, producing a tumor. The crucial factor in this phenomenon is an imbalance of growth-inducing and growth-inhibiting factors, which can result from changes in oncogenes – genes with the potential to cause cancer – for example. Precision oncology, a specialized field of personalized medicine, leverages this knowledge by using specific treatments such as low-molecular weight inhibitors and antibodies to target and disable hyperactive oncogenes.

The first step in identifying which genetic mutations are potential targets for treatment is to analyze the genetic makeup of the tumor tissue. The molecular variants of the tumor DNA that are necessary for precision diagnosis and treatment are determined. Then the doctors use this information to craft individual treatment recommendations. In especially complex cases, this requires knowledge from various fields of medicine. At Charité, this is when the “molecular tumor board” (MTB) meets: Experts from the fields of pathology, molecular pathology, oncology, human genetics, and bioinformatics work together to analyze which treatments seem most promising based on the latest studies. It is a very involved process, ultimately culminating in a personalized treatment recommendation.

Can artificial intelligence help with treatment decisions?

Dr. Damian Rieke, a doctor at Charité, Prof. Ulf Leser and Xing David Wang of Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Dr. Manuela Benary, a bioinformatics specialist at Charité, wondered whether artificial intelligence might be able to help at this juncture. In a study just recently published in the journal JAMA Network Open*, they worked with other researchers to examine the possibilities and limitations of large language models such as ChatGPT in automatically scanning scientific literature with an eye to selecting personalized treatments.

“We prompted the models to identify personalized treatment options for fictitious cancer patients and then compared the results with the recommendations made by experts,” Rieke explains. His conclusion: “AI models were able to identify personalized treatment options in principle – but they weren’t even close to the abilities of human experts.”

The team created ten molecular tumor profiles of fictitious patients for the experiment. A human physician specialist and four large language models were then tasked with identifying a personalized treatment option. These results were presented to the members of the MTB for assessment, without them knowing where which recommendation came from.

Improved AI models hold promise for future uses

“There were some surprisingly good treatment options identified by AI in isolated cases,” Benary reports. “But large language models perform much worse than human experts.” Beyond that, data protection, privacy, and reproducibility pose particular challenges in relation to the use of artificial intelligence with real-world patients, she notes.

Still, Rieke is fundamentally optimistic about the potential uses of AI in medicine: “In the study, we also showed that the performance of AI models is continuing to improve as the models advance. This could mean that AI can provide more support for even complex diagnostic and treatment processes in the future – as long as humans are the ones to check the results generated by AI and have the final say about treatment.”

AI projects at Charité aim to improve patient care

Prof. Felix Balzer, Director of the Institute of Medical Informatics, is also certain medicine will benefit from AI. In his role as Chief Medical Information Officer (CMIO) within IT, he is responsible for the digital transformation of patient care at Charité. “One special area of focus when it comes to greater efficiency in patient care is digitalization, which also means the use of automation and artificial intelligence,” Balzer explains.

His institute is working on AI models to help with fall prevention in long-term care, for example. Other areas at Charité are also conducting extensive research on AI: The Charité Lab for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine is working to develop tools for AI-based prognosis following strokes, and the TEF-Health project, led by Prof. Petra Ritter of the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité (BIH), is working to facilitate the validation and certification of AI and robotics in medical devices.
 

* Benary W., Wang XD., Schmidt M. et al. Leveraging Large Language Models for Decision Support in Personalized Oncology. JAMA Network Open 2023 Nov 20. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.43689


About the study

The study was performed under the auspices of researchers from Charité and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Dr. Damian Rieke (Department of Hematology, Oncology and Cancer Immunology and Charité Comprehensive Cancer Center), Prof. Ulf Leser (Deputy Director of the Department of Computer Science at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin), Dr. Manuela Benary (bioinformatics specialist at the Charité Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité (BIH)), and Xing Wang (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) all contributed equally. Principal funding for the study was provided by the German Research Foundation (DFG), Deutsche Krebshilfe, and the German Federal Joint Committee Innovation Fund.

END

[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Personalized cancer medicine: humans make better treatment decisions than AI Personalized cancer medicine: humans make better treatment decisions than AI 2

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Genomic study links cannabis abuse to multiple health problems

2023-11-20
New Haven, Conn. — A Yale-led analysis of the genomes of more than 1 million people has shed light on the underlying biology of cannabis use disorder and its links to psychiatric disorders, abuse of other substances such as tobacco, and possibly even an elevated risk of developing lung cancer. For the study, researchers examined a genome-wide set of genetic variants in individuals from multiple ancestry groups enrolled in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs’ Million Veteran Program, one of the world’s largest genetic databases, and ...

Younger people are more vulnerable to the effects of cardiovascular risk associated with high blood cholesterol and hypertension

Younger people are more vulnerable to the effects of cardiovascular risk associated with high blood cholesterol and hypertension
2023-11-20
Young people may be more susceptible to the effects of the risk factors for developing atherosclerosis. According to a study carried out at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), younger people are especially vulnerable to the damaging effects of elevated blood cholesterol and hypertension, two of the major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. These findings, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, underline the need to implement aggressive control of cardiovascular risk factors at younger ages, requiring a change in primary prevention strategies to include “surveillance of subclinical atherosclerosis ...

Creativity in the age of generative AI: a new era of creative partnerships

2023-11-20
Recent advancements in generative artificial intelligence (AI) have showcased its potential in a wide range of creative activities such as to produce works of art, compose symphonies, and even draft legal texts, slide presentations or the like. These developments have raised concerns that AI will outperform humans in creativity tasks and make knowledge workers redundant. These comments are most recently underlined by a Fortune article entitled ‘Elon Musk says AI will create a future where ‘no job is needed’: ‘The AI will be able to do everything’. In ...

Ambegaonkar studying physical & mental workload & recovery in collegiate dancers

2023-11-20
Ambegaonkar Studying Physical & Mental Workload & Recovery In Collegiate Dancers  Jatin Ambegaonkar, Professor, School of Kinesiology, received funding for the project: "Physical and mental workload and recovery in collegiate dancers."  He and his collaborators, Kelley Wiese (PhD Student, CEHD – Kinesiology concentration) and Dr. Jena Hansen-Honeycutt (School of Dance, CVPA) aim to comprehensively assess the workload in collegiate dancers over the academic year.   Specifically, they are examining objective physical activity demands ...

Big-data study explores social factors affecting child health

2023-11-20
A team led by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine has used an AI-based approach to uncover underlying patterns among the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, termed social determinants of health (SDoH), and then linked each pattern to children’s health outcomes. Compared with traditional approaches, the strategy, in principle, provides a more objective and comprehensive picture of potential social factors that affect child health, which in turn, can enable better targeted interventions. As reported Oct. 16 in JAMA Pediatrics, the researchers analyzed data on more than 10,500 American children, in communities across 17 U.S. ...

Dere to make updates to CHIANTI atomic database & software

2023-11-20
Dere To Make Updates To CHIANTI Atomic Database & Software Kenneth Dere, Research Professor, Physics and Astronomy, received funding from NASA for: "Updates to the CHIANTI atomic database and software." CHIANTI is a database that contains a large quantity of atomic data for the analysis of astrophysical spectra.  Dere will also conduct maintenance on and make improvements to the ChiantiPy software package.  ChiantiPy is the Python interface to the CHIANTI atomic database for astrophysical ...

Want better AI? Get input from a real (human) expert

Want better AI? Get input from a real (human) expert
2023-11-20
RICHLAND, Wash.—Can AI be trusted? The question pops up wherever AI is used or discussed—which, these days, is everywhere.   It’s a question that even some AI systems ask themselves.   Many machine-learning systems create what experts call a “confidence score,” a value that reflects how confident the system is in its decisions. A low score tells the human user that there is some uncertainty about the recommendation; a high score indicates to the human user that the system, at least, is quite sure of its decisions. Savvy humans know to check the confidence score when ...

Boomerang-like beams of light

Boomerang-like beams of light
2023-11-20
Researchers at the University of Warsaw's Faculty of Physics have superposed two light beams twisted in the clockwise direction to create anti-clockwise twists in the dark regions of the resultant superposition. The results of the research have been published in the prestigious journal “Optica”. This discovery has implications for the study of light-matter interactions and represents a step towards the observation of a peculiar phenomenon known as a quantum backflow. “Imagine that you are throwing a tennis ball. The ball starts moving forward with positive momentum. If the ball doesn’t hit an obstacle, you are unlikely to expect it to suddenly ...

Miniature colons with immune components aid the study of intestinal diseases

Miniature colons with immune components aid the study of intestinal diseases
2023-11-20
A team at the Medical University of South Carolina and Cincinnati Children’s has developed a sophisticated model for studying the diseased colon that could lead to the development of personalized treatments for colon-related diseases, such as cancer and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The researchers report their findings in the Nov. 2 issue of Cell Stem Cell. MUSC Hollings Cancer Center researcher Jorge Munera, Ph.D., collaborated with James Wells, Ph.D., and Daniel Kechele, Ph.D., both of Cincinnati Children’s, to grow miniature human colons complete with an immune system in the lab. This model improves upon existing organoids, or mini ...

Are vanadium flow batteries worth the hype? (video)

Are vanadium flow batteries worth the hype? (video)
2023-11-20
WASHINGTON, Nov. 20, 2023 — There’s a century-old technology that’s taking the grid-scale battery market by storm. Based on water, virtually fireproof, easy to recycle and cheap at scale, vanadium flow batteries could be the wave of the future. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPtaDqLsbnM Reactions is a video series produced by the American Chemical Society and PBS Digital Studios. Subscribe to Reactions at http://bit.ly/ACSReactions and follow us on Twitter @ACSReactions. The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. ACS’ mission is to advance the broader chemistry enterprise ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Antibiotic pollution disrupts the gut microbiome and blocks memory in aquatic snails 

Researchers expose new symbiosis origin theories, identify experimental systems for plant life

Q&A: How AI affects kids’ creativity

Virtual lab meetings improve undergraduate research experience and foster diversity in academia

Study shows effectiveness of updated COVID-19 vaccines wanes moderately over time, is lower against currently circulating variants

Researchers expose new ‘origin’ theories, identify experimental systems for plant life

Researchers honored for outstanding contributions to cancer care

A new Hungarian method may aid protein research

AIM algorithm enhances super-resolution microscope images in real time

Rice researchers uncover surprising role of opioid receptors in gut development

Cleveland Clinic and IBM researchers apply quantum computing methods to protein structure prediction

Blood flow makes waves across the surface of the mouse brain

More out-of-state patients seek abortions in Washington state

Researchers take step toward development of universal COVID-19 antibodies

Do epilepsy medications taken during pregnancy affect a child’s creativity?

First hints of memory problems associated with changes in the brain

Mass General Brigham study finds that memory complaints can predict biological changes in the brain

JPMorgan Chase, Argonne and Quantinuum show theoretical quantum speedup with the quantum approximate optimization algorithm

AI browser plug-ins to help consumers improve digital privacy literacy, combat manipulative design

Grant funds CU project to develop novel mechanism to expand NF1 treatments

A drying Salton Sea pollutes neighboring communities

Wild megalopolis: Study shows unexpected pockets of biodiversity pepper Los Angeles

Slugs and snails love the city, unlike other animals

Ideas that cross international borders may have powerful impact on elections

YouTube’s comments section: Political echo chamber or constructive cross-partisan forum?

Babies babble squeals and growls in clustering patterns observable from birth through the first year, suggesting this active vocal exploration is important to speech development

The sweat bee, H. rubicundus, is less sociable in Scotland than in Cornwall, but is genetically differentiated and genetically isolated too

Smartphone use may help adolescents feel better - at least in the moment, finds real-time survey of US teens

Public have no difficulty getting to grips with an extra thumb, study finds

Breakthrough in cancer prediction with nano informatics and AI

[Press-News.org] Personalized cancer medicine: humans make better treatment decisions than AI
Charité study highlights limits of large language models in precision medicine