PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Starving cells hijack protein transport stations

Starving cells hijack protein transport stations
2024-04-12
(Press-News.org) A new study details how nutrient-starved cells divert protein transport stations to cellular recycling centers to be broken down, highlighting a novel approach cells use to deal with stressful conditions.

New proteins bound for outside the cell are manufactured on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – a snaking membrane inside the cell. Grape-like tubular outgrowths on the ER called ER exit sites serve as transport stations, collecting these newly synthesized proteins and delivering them to the next step in their journey.

In recent years, scientists have discovered that these ER exit sites also help deliver cellular material and misfolded proteins to lysosomes -- organelles that degrade and recycle material in the cell -- and provide a platform for replication of viruses, including COVID-19. But researchers were perplexed how this one structure, the ER exit site, can participate in all these diverse functions. 

In a new study, researchers from HHMI's Janelia Research Campus, led by Ya-Cheng Liao, a former postdoc in the Lippincott-Schwartz lab and now an assistant professor at Columbia University, used super-resolution live cell imaging and volume electron microscopy to examine the effect of nutrient stress on ER exit sites.

The team found that the stress triggers a series of molecules to work together to direct ER exit sites to lysosomes where they are destroyed – a novel pathway the cell may use to free up amino acids needed to make proteins inside the cell.

First, the researchers showed how the ER exit sites are delivered to and ingested by certain types of lysosomes when cells are starved of nutrients.

Next, the team detailed how this process happens. It starts when starving cells trigger the release of calcium from lysosomes. This causes an enzyme, ALG2, to get recruited to the ER exit sites where it binds to a structure called COPII that is attached to the neck that connects the ER to the ER exit site.

This connection between ALG2 and COPII starts a process called ubiquitination, which is involved in protein degradation. A protein on the lysosome involved in bringing cellular material to the organelle for destruction recognizes the ubiquitin produced by the ubiquitination process, driving the ER exit site to the lysosome.

Once at the lysosome, ALG2, which is attached to the ER exit site on one side, binds its other side to another protein, ALIX. ALIX interacts with ESCRT, a protein complex on the lysosome surface involved in ingestion. This interaction causes the ER exit site and the lysosome to become closer and closer until the ER exit site is engulfed and ingested by the lysosome.

Along with looking at this process in live cells, the team also reconstituted it in an artificial system, confirming how all the different components work together.

The new work details a novel pathway that cells use to combat stress, insight that could help researchers better understand how cells and organisms age. It could also shed light on other processes that involve the ER exit sites, including an unconventional way that viruses are delivered outside the cell through lysosomes, which could help researchers develop new treatments.

 

END

[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Starving cells hijack protein transport stations Starving cells hijack protein transport stations 2 Starving cells hijack protein transport stations 3

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Where have all the right whales gone?

Where have all the right whales gone?
2024-04-12
DURHAM, N.C. – Marine researchers have mapped the density of one of the most endangered large whale species worldwide, the North Atlantic right whale, using newly analyzed data to predict and help avoid whales’ harmful, even fatal, exposure to commercial fishing and vessel strikes. Duke University’s Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab led a collaboration of 11 institutions in the United States that pooled 17 years of available visual survey data covering 9.7 million square kilometers of the U.S. ...

Researchers find no link between COVID-19 virus and development of asthma in children

2024-04-12
Philadelphia, April 12, 2024 – In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, many families worried about the long-term effects posed by the SARS-COV-2 virus. Now, researchers from Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) found that a SARS-COV-2 infection likely does not increase the risk of asthma development in pediatric patients. The findings were published today in the journal Pediatrics. Respiratory viral infections early in life are risk factors for asthma. Since the SARS-COV-2 virus can cause severe lung inflammation and prolonged respiratory symptoms in certain patients, many families were concerned whether COVID-19 might trigger an asthma diagnosis in their children. CHOP ...

Cell’s ‘garbage disposal’ may have another role: helping neurons near skin sense the environment

Cell’s ‘garbage disposal’ may have another role: helping neurons near skin sense the environment
2024-04-12
The typical job of the proteasome, the garbage disposal of the cell, is to grind down proteins into smaller bits and recycle some of those bits and parts. That’s still the case, for the most part, but, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers, studying nerve cells grown in the lab and mice, say that the proteasome’s role may go well beyond that. Its additional role, say the researchers, may shift from trash sorter to signal messenger in dorsal root ganglion neurons — cells that convey sensory signals from nerve cells close to the skin to the central nervous system. Results of their experiments, published April 12 in Cell Reports, show that proteasomes may help those specialized ...

Study reveals potential to reverse lung fibrosis using the body’s own healing technique

2024-04-12
he most common type of lung fibrosis — scarring of the lungs -- is idiopathic, meaning of unknown cause.  Researchers are urgently trying to find ways to prevent or slow idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and related lung conditions, which can cause worsening shortness of breath, dry cough, and extreme fatigue. Average survival following diagnosis of IPF is just three to five years, and the disease has no cure. A recent U-M study from a team led by Sean Fortier, M.D. and Marc Peters-Golden, M.D. of the Division ...

International team co-led by a BSC researcher discovers more than 50 new deep-sea species in one of the most unexplored areas of the planet

International team co-led by a BSC researcher discovers more than 50 new deep-sea species in one of the most unexplored areas of the planet
2024-04-12
An international group of scientists, co-led by researcher Ariadna Mechó of the Barcelona Supercomputing Center - Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS), observed 160 species on seamounts off the coast of Chile that had not yet been known to live in the region and suspect that at least 50 of these species are new to science. The recent Schmidt Ocean Institute expedition to the underwater mountains of the Salas y Gómez Ridge, a remote and underexplored area that stretches from ...

Cleveland Innovation District partners exceeding many targets set by state and JobsOhio

Cleveland Innovation District partners exceeding many targets set by state and JobsOhio
2024-04-12
CLEVELAND – Since the Cleveland Innovation District launched in 2021, the founding institutions have made significant progress, including exceeding many of the targets set by the Ohio Department of Development and JobsOhio. Collectively, the institutions participating in this $500 million public-private initiative have created more than 2,600 jobs, spent nearly  $1.2 billion on research and innovation, commenced construction of two new research facilities, created dedicated research space comprising more than 550,000 square feet, and awarded more than 7,300 degrees and certificates to support workforce development. “The Cleveland Innovation District’s progress ...

A third of women experience migraines associated with menstruation, most commonly when premenopausal

2024-04-12
WASHINGTON (April 12, 2024) – A third of the nearly 20 million women who participated in a national health survey report migraines during menstruation, and of them, 11.8 million, or 52.5%, were premenopausal. The analysis was conducted by researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center and Pfizer, Inc., which makes a migraine medication.  Because of  the underuse of medications to help treat or prevent menstrual migraines, investigators wanted to understand how common menstrual migraines were and which groups of women could most benefit from potential therapies. The study will be presented April 16, at the American Academy of Neurology ...

MD Anderson Research Highlights for April 12, 2024

2024-04-12
HOUSTON ― The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center’s Research Highlights showcases the latest breakthroughs in cancer care, research and prevention. These advances are made possible through seamless collaboration between MD Anderson’s world-leading clinicians and scientists, bringing discoveries from the lab to the clinic and back. Recent developments at MD Anderson offer insights into a combination strategy to improve immunotherapy responses, promising trial results for patients with tumors harboring BRAF mutations, a maintenance strategy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia following chemotherapy, a strategy ...

Soft Robotics appoints new Deputy Editor-in-Chief, Barbara Mazzolai, PhD

Soft Robotics appoints new Deputy Editor-in-Chief, Barbara Mazzolai, PhD
2024-04-12
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., is pleased that Barbara Mazzolai, PhD, has been appointed the new Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the bimonthly journal Soft Robotics. Dr. Mazzolai joins Barry Trimmer, PhD, as part of the executive editorial team for the journal. Soft Robotics is the leading robotics journal devoted to the emerging technologies and developments of soft and deformable robots.  The journal’s coverage includes flexible electronics, materials science, computer science, and biomechanics. The journal breaks new ground as the first to answer the urgent need for research on robotic technology that can safely ...

Wiley releases Mass Spectra of Designer Drugs 2024 to accelerate forensics analysis of fentanyls, cannabinoids, and more

2024-04-12
Wiley, one of the world’s largest publishers and a global leader in research and learning, today announced the 2024 release of the Mass Spectra of Designer Drugs. This indispensable spectral database serves as a cornerstone for forensic laboratories worldwide, enabling swift identification of illicit substances. Sourced from both legal and underground literature, it provides access to the latest novel psychoactive substances (NPS) like variants of fentanyl, xylazine, various opioids, synthetic cannabinoids, and more. This annually refreshed database provides access to 35,094 mass spectra representing 26,712 unique ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Scientists uncover a multibillion-year epic written into the chemistry of life

Monitoring diseases through sweat becomes accessible to everyone

Mathematical model driven evolutionary therapy dosing exploiting cancer cell plasticity

Biodiversity in the margins: Merging farmlands affects natural pest control

1 in 8 pregnant people have a disability, but significant gaps exist in the provision of accessible care

Statins associated with decreased risk for CVD and death, even in very old adults

Climate change is moving tree populations away from the soil fungi that sustain them

Secrets of sargassum: Scientists advance knowledge of seaweed causing chaos in the Caribbean and West Africa

Bioinformatics approach could help optimize soldiers’ training for improved readiness and recovery

Earth scientists describe a new kind of volcanic eruption

Warmer wetter climate predicted to bring societal and ecological impact to the Tibetan Plateau

Feeding infants peanut products protects against allergy into adolescence

Who will like beetle skewers? What Europeans think about alternative protein food

ETRI wins ‘iF Design Award’ for mobile collaborative robot

Combating carbon footprint: novel reactor system converts carbon dioxide into usable fuel

Investigating the origin of circatidal rhythms in freshwater snails

Altering cellular interactions around amyloid plaques may offer novel Alzheimer’s treatment strategies

Brain damage reveals part of the brain necessary for helping others

Surprising properties of elastic turbulence discovered

Study assesses cancer-related care at US hospitals predominantly serving minority populations compared with non-minority serving hospitals

First in-human investigator-initiated clinical trial to launch for refractory prostate cancer patients: Novel alpha therapy targets prostate-specific membrane antigen

Will generative AI change the way universities communicate?

Artificial Intelligence could help cure loneliness, says expert

Echidnapus identified from an ‘Age of Monotremes’

Semaglutide may protect kidney function in individuals with overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease

New technique detects novel biomarkers for kidney diseases with nephrotic syndrome

Political elites take advantage of anti-partisan protests to disrupt politics

Tiny target discovered on RNA to short-circuit inflammation, UC Santa Cruz researchers find

Charge your laptop in a minute? Supercapacitors can help; new research offers clues

Scientists discover CO2 and CO ices in outskirts of solar system

[Press-News.org] Starving cells hijack protein transport stations