PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
FREE PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

A new study identifies possible biomarkers of severe malaria in African children

2021-01-13
(Press-News.org) The levels of small molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) circulating in blood could help identify early on children with life-threatening forms of malaria, according to a study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health, an institution supported by "la Caixa" Foundation, in collaboration with the Manhiça Health Research Center (CISM) in Mozambique. The results, published in Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, could also help better understand the mechanisms underlying severe malaria.

Malaria mortality among young African children remains unacceptably high. To improve the outcome, it is important to rapidly identify and treat children with severe forms of the disease. However, at the beginning of the infection, it is not always easy to distinguish early on between uncomplicated and life-threatening disease symptoms. One characteristic of severe malaria is the sequestration of red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite (P. falciparum) in vital organs such as the lungs, kidneys or brain. This leads to organ damage, which in turn results in the release of small molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) into body fluids, including blood.

"We hypothesised that miRNA levels in plasma would be differently expressed in children with severe and uncomplicated malaria, due to parasite sequestration in vital organs," explains ISGlobal researcher Alfredo Mayor, who coordinated the study. To test this hypothesis, he and his team first used an advanced sequencing technique to identify miRNAs released by human brain endothelial cells when exposed to red blood cells infected by P. falciparum in a dish. They then measured expression of these miRNAs in blood samples from Mozambican children with severe or uncomplicated malaria. They found that six of the identified miRNAs were higher in children with severe malaria. One of these miRNAs, which is expressed by a variety of tissues, was also positively related with the amount of a parasite-derived protein named HRP2. "This suggests that increasing amounts of parasite associated with parasite sequestration may lead to higher levels of secretion of this miRNA by damaged tissues," explains Himanshu Gupta, first author of the study.

"Our results indicate that the different pathological events in severe and uncomplicated malaria lead to differential expression of miRNAs in plasma," says Mayor. "These miRNAs could be used as prognostic biomarkers of disease, but we need larger studies to validate this", he adds. The findings also provide a ground for better understanding the mechanisms underlying severe malaria.

INFORMATION:

Reference

Gupta H, Rubio M, Sitoe A et al. Plasma MicroRNA Profiling of Plasmodium falciparum Biomass and Association with Severity of Malaria Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2021.



ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Seawater as an electrical cable !? Wireless power transfers in the ocean

Seawater as an electrical cable !? Wireless power transfers in the ocean
2021-01-13
Overview: Associate professor Masaya Tamura, Kousuke Murai (who has completed the first term of his master's program), and their research team from the Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering at Toyohashi University of Technology have successfully transferred power and data wirelessly through seawater by using a power transmitter/receiver with four layers of ultra-thin, flat electrodes. In the field of wireless power transfers, seawater behaves as a dielectric with extremely high loss, and achievement through capacitive coupling is difficult. Up until now, it had been thought that wireless power transfers could only be achieved through magnetic coupling. ...

New molecular structures associated with ALS

2021-01-13
Researchers from the University of Seville and the University of Pavia have identified a link between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids in the genome. The accumulation of these hybrids causes increased genomic damage and boosts genetic instability. This finding will make it possible to better understand the molecular basis of the disease, as well as to propose new solutions to curb it. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, characterised by progressive degeneration ...

Evolution in a test tube: these bacteria survive on deadly copper surfaces

2021-01-13
The descendants of regular wild-type bacteria can evolve to survive for a long time on metallic copper surfaces that would usually kill them within a few minutes. An international research team led by Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and the Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology was able to produce these tiny survivalists in the lab and has been able to study them more closely. The team reports on its findings in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Bacterial infections are usually treated with antibiotics. However, in recent decades many pathogenic bacteria have developed an increasing tolerance to common drugs. So-called multidrug-resistant bacteria are of particular concern as ...

How will we achieve carbon-neutral flight in future?

2021-01-13
It is politically agreed and necessary for climate protection reasons that our entire economy becomes climate-neutral in the coming decades - and that applies to air travel, too. This is a technically feasible goal, and there are numerous ways to achieve it. ETH Professor Marco Mazzotti and his team have now compared the options that appear to be the easiest to implement in the short and medium term and evaluated them according to factors such as cost-effectiveness. The ETH researchers conclude that the most favourable option is to continue powering aircraft with fossil fuels in future, but then remove the associated CO2 emissions from the atmosphere ...

TalTech's neuroscientists investigate the causes of a widespread eye disease

TalTechs neuroscientists investigate the causes of a widespread eye disease
2021-01-13
Fuchs' corneal dystrophy is one of the most common eye diseases diagnosed in almost 5% of the population of Europe aged 40 years or over. It is a hereditary eye disease that causes vision impairment and typically manifests in middle age. The first symptoms of the disease - blisters on the surface of your cornea - resemble cataract at first glance. The disease progresses from the centre of the cornea affecting all layers of the cornea. The progression of the disease varies from individual to individual and in severe cases results in vision loss. The molecular neurobiology ...

Copper-indium oxide: A faster and cooler way to reduce our carbon footprint

Copper-indium oxide: A faster and cooler way to reduce our carbon footprint
2021-01-13
With ever-worsening climate change, there is a growing need for technologies that can capture and use up the atmospheric CO2 (carbon dioxide) and reduce our carbon footprint. Within the realm of renewable energy, CO2-based e-fuels have emerged as a promising technology that attempts to convert atmospheric CO2 into clean fuels. The process involves production of synthetic gas or syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO)). With the help of the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction, CO2 is broken down into the CO necessary for syngas. While promising in its conversion efficiency, the RWGS reaction requires incredibly high temperatures (>700°C) to proceed, while also generating ...

Lipid biomarkers in urine can determine the type of asthma

Lipid biomarkers in urine can determine the type of asthma
2021-01-13
In a new study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have used a urine test to identify and verify a patient's type of asthma. The study, which has been published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, lays the foundation for a more personalized diagnosis and may result in improved treatment of severe asthma in the future. About 10 percent of the Swedish population suffers from asthma, a disease that has become increasingly widespread over the past 50 years, with annual global mortality of around 400,000 according to the World Health Organization. Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airways, which can result in symptoms including ...

New studies support blood test for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

New studies support blood test for early detection of Alzheimers disease
2021-01-13
In three recent publications in Molecular Psychiatry, Brain and JAMA Neurology researchers from the University of Gothenburg provide convincing evidence that an in-house developed blood test for Alzheimer's disease can detect the disease early and track its course, which has major implications for a potential use in clinical practice and treatment trials. "This is an extremely dynamic research field right now, thanks to the technological development and seminal scientific progress in the past years. The dream scenario is to have a blood test for the early detection and screening of Alzheimer's disease up and running. That would give significantly ...

Workaholism leads to mental and physical health problems

Workaholism leads to mental and physical health problems
2021-01-13
Workaholism or work addiction risk is a growing public health concern that can lead to many negative mental and physical health outcomes such as depression, anxiety or sleep disorder. Perception of work (job demands and job control) may become a major cause of employees' work addiction. The international group of researchers including the HSE University scientist explored the link between work addiction risk and health-related outcomes using the framework of Job Demand Control Model. The results were published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Workaholics are people who usually work seven and more hours more than ...

High-sensitivity nanophotonic sensors with passive trapping of analyte molecules in hot-spots

High-sensitivity nanophotonic sensors with passive trapping of analyte molecules in hot-spots
2021-01-13
Optical sensors can quantitatively analyze chemical and biological samples by measuring and processing the optical signals produced by the samples. Optical sensors based on infrared absorption spectroscopy can achieve high sensitivity and selectivity in real time, and therefore play a crucial role in a variety of application areas such as environmental sensing, medical diagnostics, industrial process control and homeland security. In a new paper published in Light: Science & Applications, a team of scientists, led by Dr. Peter Q. Liu from the Department of Electrical Engineering, the State University of New York at Buffalo, have demonstrated a new type of high-performance optical sensor which can utilize ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

At three days old, newborn mice remember their moms

Fighting racial inequity by funding Black scientists

Microwaves used to deactivate coronavirus, flu, other aerosolized viruses

Prevalence, risk factors associated with self-reported psychological distress among children, adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic in China

Neonatal antibiotic use associated with reduced growth in boys

Air purifiers may do more harm than good in confined spaces with airborne viruses

Nixing bone cancer fuel supply offers new treatment approach, mouse study suggests

Iron-carrying extracellular vesicles are key to respiratory viral-bacterial co-infection

A research team from Denmark discovers new control mechanism in the innate immune system

Soil health is as environmentally important as air and water quality, say microbiologists

The longevity gene mammalian Indy (mINDY) is involved in blood pressure regulation

Children cannot ignore what they hear when detecting emotions

Nuclear physicist's voyage towards a mythical island

Holocaust Remembrance Day: COVID-19 changed how we remember

Cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking in 152 US metropolitan and micropolitan areas

To combat false news, correct after reading

New neural network enables easy screening of sleep apnoea in patients with cerebrovascular disease

New research: Monitoring online posts by consumers could help improve food safety

Development of rapid method for extraction of natural blue chromophore from cyanobacteria

Spike in use of online communication apps could be driven by isolation during COVID-19

First direct band gap measurements of wide-gap hydrogen using inelastic X-ray scattering

Wirelessly rechargeable soft brain implant controls brain cells

Gut microbiota reveals whether drug therapies work in inflammatory bowel diseases

Change of course on the journey to the island of stability

To find the right network model, compare all possible histories

Energy spent avoiding humans associated with smaller home ranges for male pumas

How does incident solar radiation affect urban canyons?

Addressing health disparities in diabetes requires a broader look at systemic racism

90-day vaginal ring shows promise as method for preventing both HIV and pregnancy

Crunch! Underwater acoustics expose 'shell-crushing' sounds in a large marine predator

[Press-News.org] A new study identifies possible biomarkers of severe malaria in African children