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Hormone therapy use by postmenopausal women may increase incidence of more advanced breast cancer

2010-10-20
Follow-up of about 11 years of participants in the Women's Health Initiative finds that among postmenopausal women, use of estrogen plus progestin is associated with an increased incidence of breast cancers that are more advanced, and with a higher risk of deaths attributable to breast cancer, according to a study in the October 20 issue of JAMA. In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial of estrogen plus progestin, after an average intervention time of 5.6 years and an average follow-up of 7.9 years, breast cancer incidence was increased ...

Scientists find gene linked to alcoholism

2010-10-20
CHAPEL HILL – Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have discovered a gene variant that may protect against alcoholism. The variant, in a gene called CYP2E1, is associated with a person's response to alcohol. For the ten to twenty percent of people that possess this variant, those first few drinks leave them feeling more inebriated than the rest of the human population, who harbor a different version of the gene. Previous studies had shown that people who react strongly to alcohol were less likely to become alcoholics ...

Newborn hearing screening linked with improved developmental outcomes for hearing impaired children

2010-10-20
Children with permanent hearing impairment who received hearing screening as newborns had better general and language developmental outcomes and quality of life at ages 3 to 5 years compared to newborns who received hearing screening through behavioral testing, according to a study in the October 20 issue of JAMA. Permanent childhood hearing impairment is a serious, relatively common condition. Auditory input is essential for development and social functioning, so early awareness of a child's hearing ability is important in creating opportunities for early amplification ...

Associations between drug company information and physicians' prescribing behavior

2010-10-20
Information provided to physicians from the US and around the world directly by pharmaceutical companies can be associated with higher prescribing frequency, higher costs, and lower prescribing quality. Furthermore, exposure to pharmaceutical company information does not improve physician prescribing behavior. These are the findings of a systematic review by Geoffrey Spurling from The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, and colleagues and published in this week's PLoS Medicine. After doing an extensive literature search, the authors analyze and describe the ...

Can effective treatments be found for intracerebral hemorrhage?

2010-10-20
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% and 20% of strokes in high and low-to-middle income countries respectively, but ICH incidence and case fatality do not seem to be declining. In a Health in Action paper published in this week's PLoS Medicine magazine, Colin Josephson, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, and colleagues (from the University of Edinburgh) discuss the effectiveness of treatments for intracerebral haemorrhage. Despite the lack of decline in ICH incidence and case fatality, the authors find that evidence supports organised stroke unit care and secondary prevention ...

TYRX AIGISRx antibacterial envelope shows low infection rate, high CIED procedure success

2010-10-20
Monmouth Junction, NJ (October 19, 2010) – Patients undergoing CIED (Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device) implantation with TYRX, Inc.'s FDA-cleared AIGISRx Antibacterial Envelope enjoyed a 99.5% rate of successful implantation with an overall infection rate of 0.48% in the first 1.9 months following the procedure, as reported in newly published results of TYRX's COMMAND Clinical Study. There were no infections in patients receiving initial implantations of pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, or cardiac resynchronization therapy devices. The infection ...

Why the leopard got its spots

Why the leopard got its spots
2010-10-20
Why do leopards have rosette shaped markings but tigers have stripes? Rudyard Kipling suggested that it was because the leopard moved to an environment "full of trees and bushes and stripy, speckly, patchy-blatchy shadows" but is there any truth in this just-so story? Researchers at the University of Bristol investigated the flank markings of 35 species of wild cats to understand what drives the evolution of such beautiful and intriguing variation. They captured detailed differences in the visual appearance of the cats by linking them to a mathematical model of pattern ...

New nano techniques integrate electron gas-producing oxides with silicon

2010-10-20
MADISON – In cold weather, many children can't resist breathing onto a window and writing in the condensation. Now imagine the window as an electronic device platform, the condensation as a special conductive gas, and the letters as lines of nanowires. A team led by University of Wisconsin-Madison Materials Science and Engineering Professor Chang-Beom Eom has demonstrated methods to harness essentially this concept for broad applications in nanoelectronic devices, such as next-generation memory or tiny transistors. The discoveries were published Oct. 19 by the journal ...

Prostate cancer patients are at increased risk of precancerous colon polyps

2010-10-20
BUFFALO, NY -- Men with prostate cancer should be especially diligent about having routine screening colonoscopies, results of a new study by gastroenterologists at the University at Buffalo indicate. Their findings show that persons diagnosed with prostate cancer had significantly more abnormal colon polyps, known as adenomas, and advanced adenomas than men without prostate cancer. Results of the research were presented Oct. 19 at a 10:30 a.m. session at the American College of Gastroenterology meeting being held Oct. 15-20 in San Antonio, Texas. While most adenomas ...

Study rejects benefits of fish oil capsules in pregnancy

2010-10-20
A University of Adelaide study has found no evidence that taking fish oil capsules during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of post-natal depression, contrary to international recommendations. In an article published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Professor Maria Makrides says a study of 2400 pregnant women in five Australian maternity hospitals between 2005 and 2009 supports this finding. Professor Maria Makrides, who is Professor of Human Nutrition at the University of Adelaide and Deputy Director of the Women's and Children's Health Research ...

Early pregnancy in spring linked to child's susceptibility to food allergies

2010-10-20
A child's likelihood of developing food allergies can be traced back to the season during which s/he completes their first three months of life in the womb, suggests research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. The Finnish researchers base their findings on just under 6000 children, all of whom were born between 2001 and 2006 and lived in one area of Finland. Out of the total, just under 1000 were tested for sensitisation to food allergens between the ages of 0 and 4 years, with the likelihood of a positive test result rising sharply ...

Low testosterone linked to heightened risk of early death

2010-10-20
Low testosterone levels seem to be linked to a heightened risk of premature death from heart disease and all causes, suggests research published online in Heart. The finding refutes received wisdom that the hormone is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The researchers base their findings on 930 men, all of whom had coronary artery heart disease, and had been referred to a specialist heart centre between 2000 and 2002. Their heart health was then tracked for around 7 years. On referral, low testosterone was relatively common. One in four of the men was classified ...

SHIP protein identified as a B-cell tumor suppressor

SHIP protein identified as a B-cell tumor suppressor
2010-10-20
LA JOLLA, Calif., October 18, 2010 – Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system. White blood cells divide again and again, spreading abnormally throughout the body. Lymphomas can arise from two types of white blood cells, T cells or B cells, which divide uncontrollably when the molecular mechanisms that keep them in check go awry. A new study led by Robert Rickert, Ph.D., professor and director of the Inflammatory Diseases Program at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham), explores the roles of two enzymes, called SHIP and PTEN, in B cell growth and ...

Professional sports persons should drink more water

Professional sports persons should drink more water
2010-10-20
Top sports persons must always perform to their maximum capacity, making them the most vulnerable to the effects of dehydration. Now, a new study conducted by researchers from the Universidad de Castilla la Mancha (UCLM) reveals that 91% of professional basketball, volleyball, handball and football players are dehydrated when they begin their training sessions. "Dehydration negatively affects sporting performance, even when the level of dehydration is low (such as a 2% loss of body weight through perspiration)", UCLM researcher and author of the article Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez ...

More than 200 new snails of the same genus described in a single study

More than 200 new snails of the same genus described in a single study
2010-10-20
Two world experts in micro molluscs, Anselmo Peñas and Emilio Rolán, have made an unprecedented description in a scientific publication of a combined total of 209 snail species. Commissioned by the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, the study was unveiled in September in the French capital, and it covers the most new species from a single genus of any study to date. "Never have so many species from a single genus, nor even from a single family, been described in one single study", Anselmo Peñas, lead author of the collaborative monograph between the National ...

Study reveals how sex hormones influence right heart function

2010-10-20
In the largest human study to date on the topic, researchers have uncovered evidence of the possible influence of human sex hormones on the structure and function of the right ventricle (RV) of the heart. The researchers found that in women receiving hormone therapy, higher estrogen levels were associated with higher RV ejection fraction and lower RV end-systolic volume — both measures of the RV's blood-pumping efficiency — but not in women who were not on hormone therapy, nor in men. Conversely, higher testosterone levels were associated with greater RV mass and larger ...

Air pollution exposure increases risk of severe COPD

2010-10-20
Long term exposure to low-level air pollution may increase the risk of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to researcher s in Denmark. While acute exposure of several days to high level air pollution was known to be a risk factor for exacerbation in pre-existing COPD, until now there had been no studies linking long-term air pollution exposure to the development or progression of the disease. The research was published online ahead of the print edition of the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. "Our ...

Adiponectin shows potential in blocking obesity-related carcinogenesis

2010-10-20
A research team from Emory University School of Medicine investigated the role between adiponectin and leptin in obesity-related carcinogenesis. Their findings, published in the November issue of Hepatology, suggest that the protein hormone adiponectin has potential for inhibiting the oncogenic actions of leptin, namely in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and could offer a promising therapy for the disease. Obesity is on the rise and is associated with increased risk and progression of a number of cancers including colon, prostate, breast, and liver cancers. The World ...

Visceral adiposity index directly correlated to viral load in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C

2010-10-20
Researchers at the University of Palermo in Italy provide the evidence that a higher visceral adiposity index score—a new index of adipose dysfunction—has a direct correlation with viral load and is independently associated with both steatosis and necroinflammatory activity in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (G1 CHC). Details of this study are available in the November issue of Hepatology, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). According to public health surveillance data gathered ...

Experts discuss S-equol data at ninth international symposium on role of soy

2010-10-20
Washington, DC (Oct. 19, 2010) The latest research into the health effects and safety of a soy-based compound called S-equol was described in talks and presentations by experts at a special session on Tuesday, Oct. 19 during the Ninth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention and Treatment, held Oct. 16 to 19 in Washington, D.C. S-equol is a compound resulting -- when certain bacteria are present in the digestive track -- from the natural metabolism, or conversion, of daidzein, an isoflavone found in whole soybeans. ...

Experiments find bias in way analysts view firms led by black grads of prestigious universities

2010-10-20
Analysts examining a firm and the qualifications of its top management team discount the educational background of African American managers who graduated from prestigious universities while accepting the qualifications of white managers with the same college credentials, according to two experiments reported in the current issue of Organization Science, a journal of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS®). "We found that possessing high educational prestige was less beneficial for firms led by African Americans than for firms with ...

Novel regulatory process for T cells may help explain immune system diseases

2010-10-20
CINCINNATI - A newly identified regulatory process affecting the biology of immune system T cells should give scientists new approaches to explore the causes of autoimmunity and immune deficiency diseases. In findings posted online ahead of publication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), scientists at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center report a novel process of coordinated cellular communications vital to the maintenance of T cells. If the process breaks down, T cells proliferate rapidly and die off. This could disrupt the immune system's ...

Friends share personal details to strengthen relationships in United States, but not in Japan

2010-10-20
In the United States, friends often share intimate details of their lives and problems. However, such self-disclosure is much less common in Japan. A new study by an American researcher living in Japan finds that this may be because of the different social systems in the two countries, and in particular the extent to which there are opportunities to make new friends. "At first, it seemed strange that in Japan, people didn't open up and share a lot about themselves with each other," says Joanna Schug of Hokkaido University. "But Japanese often look at Americans and think, ...

Docs not immune to drug marketing: Study co-authored by York U prof

2010-10-20
TORONTO, October 19, 2010 – Pharmaceutical promotion may cause doctors to prescribe more expensively, less appropriately and more often, according to a new study co-authored by York University professor Joel Lexchin. The findings, published today in the journal, PLoS Medicine, offer a broad look at the relationship between doctors' prescribing habits and their exposure to information provided by drug companies. Researchers analyzed 58 separate studies of this phenomenon from Canada, the United States, Europe and Australia, dating from the 1960s. "Many doctors claim ...

Research brings cure for Parkinson's disease a step closer

Research brings cure for Parkinsons disease a step closer
2010-10-20
An international collaboration led by academics at the University of Sheffield, has shed new light into Parkinson's disease, which could help with the development of cures or treatments in the future. The collaboration, which was led by Professor Peter Redgrave from the University's Department of Psychology, suggests that many of the problems suffered by patients with Parkinson's disease - difficulties in initiating actions, slow laboured movements and tremors – can be understood in terms of damage to control circuits in the brain responsible for habits. The analysis, ...
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