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Blackologists and the Promise of Inclusive Sustainability

2021-06-19
Historically, shared resources such as forests, fishery stocks, and pasture lands have often been managed with an aim toward averting "tragedies of the commons," which are thought to result from selfish overuse. Writing in BioScience (https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/biosci/biab052), Drs. Senay Yitbarek (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill), Karen Bailey (University of Colorado Boulder), Nyeema Harris (University of Michigan), and colleagues critique this model, arguing that, all too often, such conservation has failed to acknowledge ...

Robot-assisted surgery: Putting the reality in virtual reality

2021-06-19
Cardiac surgeons may be able to better plan operations and improve their surgical field view with the help of a robot. Controlled through a virtual reality parallel system as a digital twin, the robot can accurately image a patient through ultrasound without the hand cramping or radiation exposure that hinder human operators. The international research team published their method in IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica. "Intra-operative ultrasound is especially useful, as it can guide the surgery by providing real-time images of otherwise hidden devices and anatomy," said paper author Fei-Yue Wang, Director of the State Key Laboratory of Management and Control of ...

Novel interactions between proteins that help in recovering from brain injury

Novel interactions between proteins that help in recovering from brain injury
2021-06-19
Patients with brain injury (caused by stroke or trauma) primarily rely on rehabilitation therapy for recovery, as there are no other known effective treatment methods. The rate of recovery from brain injury observed in adults is significantly slower (or the recovery is impossible) than that observed in young children. The consensus among researchers is that the number of excess neural stem cells capable of restoring brain functions is lower in a mature brain than that in the brain of young children. A Korean research team reported a novel mechanism to describe the brain injury recovery process. The researchers reported that when the animal model experiment was conducted, the time taken to recover from a brain injury could be controlled by ...

Common antibiotic found useful in accelerating recovery in tuberculosis patients

2021-06-19
Globally, an estimated 10 million people develop tuberculosis (TB) each year and the disease remains a leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. Standard short-course anti-TB treatment still requires a regimen of at least six months of antimicrobial drugs, and drug-resistant TB is an increasing public health threat. Even after the traces of TB disease are quashed, patients often suffer from significant sequelae, such as lung scarring. TB survivors have approximately three to four times greater mortality than their local population. In pulmonary TB, the most common form of active TB disease, the ...

The 'Mozart effect' shown to reduce epileptic brain activity, new research reveals

2021-06-19
(Vienna, Saturday, 19 June 2021) Music by Mozart has been shown to have an anti-epileptic effect on the brain and may be a possible treatment to prevent epileptic seizures, according to new research presented today at the 7th Congress of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN). Researchers believe that the acoustic (physical) properties within the music are responsible for this effect. Listening to the famous 18th century composer's Sonata for Two Pianos K448 led to a 32% reduction in epileptiform discharges (EDs). These are electrical brain waves associated with epilepsy and can cause seizures or bursts of electrical activity that temporarily affect how the brain works. A team led by Professor Ivan Rektor, from the Epilepsy Centre ...

Study examines heart and kidney outcomes of adults with nephrotic syndrome

2021-06-19
Highlights Primary nephrotic syndrome is characterized by high urinary excretion of protein, low protein in the blood, high cholesterol, and swelling in the arms and legs. A new analysis highlights the high risk of kidney failure and different cardiovascular complications in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome. Washington, DC (June 18, 2021) -- A form of kidney disease called primary nephrotic syndrome is characterized by high urinary excretion of protein, low protein in the blood, high cholesterol, and swelling in the arms and legs. Patients may face a range of negative health outcomes, but the extent of these effects are unknown. In a study appearing in an upcoming ...

Study examines symptoms before and after kidney transplantation

2021-06-19
Highlights In a study of patients waiting for a kidney transplant, those who experienced various symptoms had a higher risk of dying while on the waitlist. Symptoms tended to increase or remain unchanged between transplant evaluation and transplantation; however, at 3 months after transplantation, 9 of 11 symptoms lessened. Washington, DC (June 18, 2021) -- Investigators have examined how various symptoms experienced by individuals with kidney failure are impacted by kidney transplantation. The findings will appear in an upcoming issue of CJASN. People with kidney failure must often deal with numerous symptoms, such as fatigue, cramping, muscle soreness, numbness, dizziness, and loss of appetite. Although kidney transplantation ...

New research adds a wrinkle to our understanding of the origins of matter in the Milky Way

2021-06-19
New findings published this week in Physical Review Letters suggest that carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen cosmic rays travel through the galaxy toward Earth in a similar way, but, surprisingly, that iron arrives at Earth differently. Learning more about how cosmic rays move through the galaxy helps address a fundamental, lingering question in astrophysics: How is matter generated and distributed across the universe? "So what does this finding mean?" asks John Krizmanic, a senior scientist with UMBC's Center for Space Science and Technology (CSST). "These are indicators of something interesting happening. And what that ...

Stronger together: how protein filaments interact

2021-06-18
Just as the skeleton and muscles move the human body and hold its shape, all the cells of the body are stabilised and moved by a cellular skeleton. Unlike our skeleton, this cellular skeleton is a very dynamic structure, constantly changing and renewing itself. It consists of different types of protein filaments, which include intermediate filaments and microtubules. Now, a research team from the University of Göttingen is the first to succeed in observing a direct interaction between microtubules and intermediate filaments outside the cell, and also in quantitatively measuring this interaction. The results of the study were published in Nature Communications. Microtubules are dynamic filaments ...

New study uncovers details behind the body's response to stress

New study uncovers details behind the bodys response to stress
2021-06-18
Study Highlights New research reveals how key proteins interact to regulate the body's response to stress Targeting these proteins may help treat or prevent stress-related psychiatric disorders The biological mechanisms behind stress-related psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are poorly understood. New research now details the interplay between proteins involved in controlling the body's stress response and points to potential therapeutic targets when this response goes awry. The study, which was conducted by an international team led by investigators at McLean Hospital, appears in ...

Carcinogen-exposed cells provide clues in fighting treatment-resistant cancers

Carcinogen-exposed cells provide clues in fighting treatment-resistant cancers
2021-06-18
BOSTON - Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have discovered a biological mechanism that transforms cells exposed to carcinogens from environmental factors like smoking and ultraviolet light into immunogenic cells that can be harnessed therapeutically to fight treatment-resistant cancers. As reported in Science Advances, that mechanism involves spurring the release of small proteins known as chemokines which, in turn, recruit antitumor immune cells (CD8+ T cells) to the tumor site to block metastasis, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of a new generation of immunotherapies. "Immunotherapeutics ...

Memory helps us evaluate situations on the fly, not just recall the past

2021-06-18
CHICAGO --- Scientists have long known the brain's hippocampus is crucial for long-term memory. Now a new Northwestern Medicine study has found the hippocampus also plays a role in short-term memory and helps guide decision-making. The findings shed light on how the hippocampus contributes to memory and exploration, potentially leading to therapies that restore hippocampal function, which is impacted in memory-related aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, the study authors said. In the study, scientists monitored participants' brain activity and tracked their eye movements while looking at different complex pictures. The scientists discovered ...

Animals' ability to adapt their habitats key to survival amid climate change

Animals ability to adapt their habitats key to survival amid climate change
2021-06-18
Birds build nests to keep eggs and baby nestlings warm during cool weather, but also make adjustments in nest insulation in such a way the little ones can keep cool in very hot conditions. Mammals, such as rabbits or groundhogs, sleep or hibernate in underground burrows that provide stable, moderate temperatures and avoid above-ground conditions that often are far more extreme outside the burrow. Michael Dillon, an associate professor in the University of Wyoming Department of Zoology and Physiology, was part of a research group that examined animals' ability to respond to climate change likely depends on how well they modify their habitats, ...

Undiagnosed and untreated disease identified in rural South Africa

Undiagnosed and untreated disease identified in rural South Africa
2021-06-18
BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - A comprehensive health-screening program in rural northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, has found a high burden of undiagnosed or poorly controlled non-communicable diseases, according to a study published in The Lancet Global Health. Researchers found that four out of five women over the age of 30 were living with a chronic health condition, and that the HIV-negative population and older people -- especially those over 50 -- bore the higher burden of undiagnosed or poorly controlled non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The study was co-led by Emily Wong, M.D., a resident faculty member at the Africa Health ...

Study reveals new therapeutic target for C. difficile infection

Study reveals new therapeutic target for C. difficile infection
2021-06-18
Irvine, CA - June 18, 2021 - A new study paves the way for the development of next generation therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), the most frequent cause of healthcare-acquired gastrointestinal infections and death in developed countries. Published today in Nature Communications, the study reveals the first 3D structure of the Clostridioides difficile toxin B (TcdB) in complex with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), a human receptor. The study was co-led by senior author Rongsheng Jin, PhD, a professor in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics at the University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, and Min Dong, PhD, an associate professor at Harvard Medical School. "TcdB is one of two homologous C. ...

New artificial heart shows promising results in 'auto-mode' -- initial clinical experience reported in ASAIO Journal

2021-06-18
June 18, 2021 - An experimental artificial heart includes an autoregulation control mechanism, or Auto-Mode, that can adjust to the changing needs of patients treated for end-stage heart failure. Outcomes in the first series of patients managed with the new heart replacement pump in Auto-Mode are presented in the ASAIO Journal, official journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer. The study reports on the response to "pressure sensor-based autoregulation of blood flow" in ten patients for up to two years after implantation of the Carmat Total Artificial ...

Picky neurons

Picky neurons
2021-06-18
The visual thalamus is classically known to relay visual stimuli coming from the retina to the cerebral cortex. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology now show that although neurons in the mouse visual thalamus connect to both eyes, they establish strong functional connections only with one retina. These results settle partly contradictory results of earlier studies and demonstrate how important it can be to complement structural data with functional analyses. We have two eyes, but perceive the tree in front of us only once. Our brain therefore has the complicated task of combining the information of both eyes in a meaningful way. To do so, visual stimuli first travel from the retina via so-called ganglion cells to the visual thalamus. There, the information does end up ...

Does cannabis affect brain development in young people with ADHD? Too soon to tell, reports Harvard Review of Psychiatry

2021-06-18
June 18, 2021 - At least so far, the currently limited research base does not establish that cannabis has additional adverse effects on brain development or functioning in adolescents or young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concludes a review in the July/August issue of Harvard Review of Psychiatry. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer. While ADHD is clinically defined to have impairments in cognitive functioning, cannabis use by itself is also associated with cognitive impairments: "[T]he evidence to date does not clearly support either an addictive effect or an interaction - whether protective ...

Researchers find optimal way to pay off student loans

2021-06-18
After graduating or leaving college, many students face a difficult choice: Try to pay off their student loans as fast as possible to save on interest, or enroll in an income-based repayment plan, which offers affordable payments based on their income and forgives any balance remaining after 20 or 25 years. There are pros and cons to each option, and trying to discern the better path can be daunting. That's why University of Colorado Boulder's Yu-Jui Huang and Saeed Khalili, a former graduate student in financial mathematics, along with Dublin City University's Paolo Guasoni, decided to throw a little mathematical ...

Use rewards effectively to boost creativity

2021-06-18
HOUSTON - (June 18, 2021) - To boost employees' creativity, managers should consider offering a set of rewards for them to choose from, according to a new study by management experts at Rice University, Tulane University, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and National Taiwan Normal University. The study, co-authored by Jing Zhou, the Mary Gibbs Jones Professor of Management and Psychology at Rice's Jones Graduate School of Business, is the first to systematically examine the effects of reward choice in a field experiment, which was conducted in the context of an organizationwide suggestion ...

Researchers find losartan is not effective in reducing hospitalization from mild COVID-19

2021-06-18
MINNEAPOLIS/ST. PAUL (06/18/2021) -- University of Minnesota Medical School researchers determined that the common blood pressure medication, losartan, is not effective in reducing hospitalization for mildly-ill COVID-19 outpatients. In the multicenter, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial, non-hospitalized patients recently diagnosed with COVID-19 were given either losartan or a placebo and monitored for 15 days. The study's results, which were published in END ...

Scientists detect signatures of life remotely

Scientists detect signatures of life remotely
2021-06-18
Left hands and right hands are almost perfect mirror images of each other. But whatever way they are twisted and turned, they cannot be superimposed onto each other. This is why the left glove simply won't fit the right hand as well as it fits the left. In science, this property is referred to as chirality. Just like hands are chiral, molecules can be chiral, too. In fact, most molecules in the cells of living organisms, such as DNA, are chiral. Unlike hands, however, that usually come in pairs of left and right, the molecules of life almost exclusively occur in either their "left-handed" or their "right-handed" version. They are homochiral, as researchers say. Why that is, is still not clear. But ...

Team describes science-based hiccups intervention

Team describes science-based hiccups intervention
2021-06-18
SAN ANTONIO (June 18, 2021) -- Researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UT Health San Antonio) and colleagues worldwide describe a new science-based intervention for hiccups in a research letter published June 18 in the journal JAMA Network Open. In the publication, the scientists coined a new term for the intervention: the "forced inspiratory suction and swallow tool," or FISST. The team also reported the results of a survey of 249 users who were asked whether it is superior to hiccup home remedies such as breathing into ...

Princeton-led team discovers unexpected quantum behavior in kagome lattice

2021-06-18
An international team led by researchers at Princeton University has uncovered a new pattern of ordering of electric charge in a novel superconducting material. The researchers discovered the new type of ordering in a material containing atoms arranged in a peculiar structure known as a kagome lattice. While researchers already understand how the electron's spin can produce magnetism, these new results provide insights into the fundamental understanding of another type of quantum order, namely, orbital magnetism, which addresses whether the charge can spontaneously flow in a loop and produce magnetism dominated by extended orbital motion of electrons in a lattice of atoms. Such orbital currents can produce unusual quantum ...

Overcoming a newly recognized form of resistance to modern prostate cancer drugs

Overcoming a newly recognized form of resistance to modern prostate cancer drugs
2021-06-18
Cancer cells have an uncanny ability to evolve and adapt to overcome the treatments used against them. While patient survival has been extended by modern drugs that block the production or action of male hormones that fuel prostate cancer -- androgen receptor inhibitors such as enzalutamide, apalutamide, darolutamide, and abiraterone -- eventually these drugs stop working. At that point, a patient's disease is considered incurable, or what doctors call metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. In a new study, a team of researchers led by Joshi Alumkal, M.D., who ...
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