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Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda is warmer and more acidic than ever, 40 years of observation show

Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda is warmer and more acidic than ever, 40 years of observation show
2023-12-08
Decade-long ocean warming which impacts ocean circulation, a decrease in oxygen levels that contributes to changes in salinification and nutrient supply, and ocean acidification are just some of the challenges the world’s oceans are facing. In 1988, a comprehensive sustained ocean time-series of observations, called the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), began at a site about 80 km southeast of the island of Bermuda. There, scientists take monthly samples of the physics, biology, and chemistry of the ocean’s surface and depths. In a new paper published in Frontiers in Marine Science, researchers have now presented the latest findings from ...

Battle of the AIs in medical research: ChatGPT vs Elicit

Battle of the AIs in medical research: ChatGPT vs Elicit
2023-12-08
Can AI save us from the arduous and time-consuming task of academic research collection? An international team of researchers investigated the credibility and efficiency of generative AI as an information-gathering tool in the medical field. The research team, led by Professor Masaru Enomoto of the Graduate School of Medicine at Osaka Metropolitan University, fed identical clinical questions and literature selection criteria to two generative AIs; ChatGPT and Elicit. The results showed that while ChatGPT suggested fictitious articles, Elicit was efficient, suggesting multiple references within a few minutes with the same level of accuracy as the researchers. “This ...

Aston University research finds peer support vital for those taking medication for severe mental illness

2023-12-08
Research has found many challenges to medication adherence in people living with severe mental illness Talking to those with similar conditions on similar medication may offer more reassurance and useful advice The researchers worked with people with severe mental illness to better understand their lived experience. Researchers at Aston Pharmacy School have found that people with severe mental illness could benefit from peer support to help them manage their medication and improve their health and quality of life.  The study, which was set up to review the complexities ...

Even small amounts of physical activity could be valuable in late-stage lung cancer

2023-12-08
Lung cancer kills more people globally each year than any other type of cancer, however new Curtin University-led research has found less than five minutes of daily physical activity could be linked with prolonged life in people living with inoperable forms of the disease.   The team from Curtin School of Allied Health, Curtin enAble Institute and other research organisations measured the daily activity of 89 people living with inoperable lung cancer, from the time of their diagnosis.   They then compared the mortality rates after 12 months between those who engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous ...

Telehealth mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement vs usual care in individuals with opioid use disorder and pain

2023-12-08
About The Study: In this randomized clinical trial of 154 individuals with chronic pain in methadone treatment for an opioid use disorder, relative to usual care, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) plus usual care demonstrated efficacy for decreasing drug use, pain, and depression and increasing methadone treatment retention and adherence. Participants receiving MORE attended eight weekly, 2-hour telehealth groups that provided training in mindfulness, reappraisal, and savoring in addition to usual care. Authors: Nina Cooperman, Psy.D., of ...

First international expert and patient collaboration recommends changes to development, assessment, and approval of mental health medicines for young people

2023-12-08
For the first time, a major group of international experts and patients have cooperated defining new parameters for the development of medicines to treat children and young people.  They make a series of recommendations on how the processes should be improved.  The work is published today in the peer-reviewed journal, The Lancet Psychiatry. The work was led by a group of experts from the Child and Adolescent Network of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), alongside representatives from the European Medicine Agency (EMA) and families ...

Virtual reality simulations can help autistic people complete real-world tasks, MU study finds

Virtual reality simulations can help autistic people complete real-world tasks, MU study finds
2023-12-08
COLUMBIA, Mo. -- Many people associate virtual reality headsets with interactive video games, but a researcher at the University of Missouri is using them for something far more important — helping autistic people navigate public transportation on college campuses. MU researcher Noah Glaser — in collaboration with Matthew Schmidt, an associate professor at the University of Georgia, and others — partnered with a program at the University of Cincinnati on a pair of studies geared toward providing autistic people virtual training opportunities to practice ...

First hints of nuclear fission in cosmos revealed by models, observations

First hints of nuclear fission in cosmos revealed by models, observations
2023-12-08
LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Dec. 7, 2023 — The elements above iron on the periodic table are thought to be created in cataclysmic explosions like the merger of two neutron stars or in rare classes of supernovae. New research suggests fission may operate in the cosmos during the creation of the heavy elements. Combing through data on a variety of elements that reside in very old stars, researchers have found a potential signature of fission, indicating that nature is likely to produce superheavy nuclei beyond the heaviest elements on the periodic table. “People have thought fission was happening in the cosmos, but ...

UTA to train interdisciplinary researchers in mathematics for human health

UTA to train interdisciplinary researchers in mathematics for human health
2023-12-08
The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded The University of Texas at Arlington a $1.1 million grant to train and mentor three multi-level cohorts of interdisciplinary researchers in mathematical and computational techniques to address questions in cancer biology, computational neurology and vector-borne diseases. Led by Hristo Kojouharov, principal investigator and professor of mathematics, the research team plans to recruit and mentor nine undergraduate students, six doctoral students and two postdoctoral researchers. Joining ...

Reimagining the urban jungle: Young Faculty Award supports Zhou’s eco-minded plan

2023-12-08
The entire country faced record high temperatures in the summer of 2023, along with record numbers of heat-related illnesses. But towering above rural and suburban records were the urban heat islands—bubbles of heat that surround cities, increasing the experienced temperature by up to five degrees Celsius (eight degrees Fahrenheit). “Urbanization drastically changes the landscape,” said Associate Professor Nick Zhou, a materials scientist specializing in sustainable building systems. “Most urban land is covered ...

Vocal Fry: A sonic feature of a diverse city #Acoustics23

Vocal Fry: A sonic feature of a diverse city #Acoustics23
2023-12-08
SYDNEY, Dec. 8, 2023 – Vocal fry has a bad reputation in American English. A subtype of creaky voice, a feature of speech that sounds gravelly and pulselike, this manner of speech is sometimes used to form judgment about the speaker. In many languages, the creaky tone changes the meaning of words, exhibited in Lango spoken in South Sudan or Jalapa Mazatec spoken in Mexico. Hannah White and her Department of Linguistics colleagues at Macquarie University researched how creaky voice is reflected in Australian English used in Sydney, and what factors influence its prevalence. She will present ...

Automated system teaches users when to collaborate with an AI assistant

2023-12-07
Artificial intelligence models that pick out patterns in images can often do so better than human eyes — but not always. If a radiologist is using an AI model to help her determine whether a patient’s X-rays show signs of pneumonia, when should she trust the model’s advice and when should she ignore it?  A customized onboarding process could help this radiologist answer that question, according to researchers at MIT and the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. They designed a system that teaches a user when to collaborate with an AI assistant. In ...

CCNY team develops pioneering indoor navigation system

2023-12-07
In a major stride toward revolutionizing indoor navigation, a City College of New York-led team has developed groundbreaking technology that could chart real-time paths, delivering users—both sighted and low vision—a seamless and accurate indoor navigation experience complete with turn-by-turn guidance. The invention has earned a U.S. patent  titled "System and Method for Real-time Indoor Navigation." The innovation is the brainchild of the City College-based CUNY Computational Vision and Convergence Laboratory (CCVCL) headed by Zhigang ...

SLAC brings rapid-fire laser and target expertise to national fusion energy research hubs

SLAC brings rapid-fire laser and target expertise to national fusion energy research hubs
2023-12-07
The U.S. Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University will partner with Colorado State University (CSU), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other institutions in the creation of two inertial fusion science and technology hubs that were announced today by the DOE.  Following on last year’s fusion ignition breakthrough at LLNL’s National Ignition Facility, the hubs aim to accelerate foundational inertial fusion research and technology development toward a potential clean and abundant energy source. In total, $42 million was awarded to collaborations between universities, ...

Cooling down the hot takes on Twitch 

2023-12-07
Twitch. Some see it as a fun online community of gamers and good-natured e-sports fandom. For others, it’s a perilous stream of potentially toxic content and hate speech.   In the ever-evolving landscape of digital communication, the real-time nature of messages on live-stream platforms like Twitch and YouTube Live brings with it unique challenges for content moderation. At present, effective tools for moderating content in live streams are lacking because existing models have been trained on non-real-time social media platforms like Facebook or Twitter. Research Assistant Dong-Ho Lee and Principal Scientist Jay Pujara, ...

Study: How farmers decide to store or sell their grain

Study: How farmers decide to store or sell their grain
2023-12-07
URBANA, Ill. – When farmers harvest their grain, they can choose to sell it right away or store it to obtain better prices later in the season. A new study from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign explores how Illinois corn and soybean producers make those decisions and why the cost-benefit evaluation of storage may differ across farms. Agricultural commodity prices fluctuate in response to changes in supply and demand, which depends on the stockpile of grain inventories around the country — but economists don’t really don't know how farmers decide to sell versus store their grain. “Economic theory provides guidance that Extension ...

Black patients less likely to get referral for home health care after hospital stay

2023-12-07
    When discharging Black patients from the hospital, nurses are less likely to refer them to home health care than white patients, a new University of Michigan study found.   About 22% of Black patients are referred by discharge nurses to home health care compared to 27% of white patients.    The study found that despite a higher likelihood that Black patients were unmarried, lived alone and had more chronic conditions—all risk factors for hospital readmission—they were routinely rated equally ready for hospital discharge as white patients, and ...

Damon Runyon launches post-baccalaureate research internship

2023-12-07
The Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation is thrilled to announce the launch of the Damon Runyon Scholars Program for Advancing Research and Knowledge (SPARK), a one-year intensive cancer research internship program for post-baccalaureate students who come from backgrounds underrepresented in the sciences. The goal of the program is to provide students who have the potential to become leaders in cancer research with rigorous scientific training and a network of mentors and peers to support their next steps into graduate school and beyond.  Damon ...

The Morton Arboretum tree root scientist recognized as top-cited researcher

The Morton Arboretum tree root scientist recognized as top-cited researcher
2023-12-07
LISLE, Ill. (Dec. 7, 2023)— The Morton Arboretum Tree Root Biologist Luke McCormack, Ph.D., has been recognized as one of the most cited and influential researchers worldwide by global information services provider Clarivate’s esteemed 2023 list of “Highly Cited Researchers.”  The list includes influential researchers at universities, research institutes and commercial organizations around the world who have demonstrated significant and broad influence in their field(s) of research. McCormack is the first Arboretum ...

Discrimination during pregnancy may alter circuits in infants’ brains

Discrimination during pregnancy may alter circuits in infants’ brains
2023-12-07
Racial discrimination and bias are painful realities and increasingly recognized as detrimental to the health of adults and children. These stressful experiences also appear to be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, altering the strength of infants’ brain circuits, according to a new study from researchers at Columbia, Yale, and Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles. The study found similar brain changes in infants whose mothers experienced stress from adapting to a new culture during pregnancy. “A leading hypothesis would be that the connectivity changes that we see could ...

Wayne State University announces creation of two research centers and institutes that aim to impact the health of Detroiters and beyond

2023-12-07
DETROIT – Wayne State University Interim Vice President for Research Timothy Stemmler, Ph.D., announced today the university’s Board of Governors approved the creation of two research initiatives that aim to improve the health and lives of the Detroit community and beyond. Center for Emerging and Infectious Diseases The Center for Emerging and Infectious Diseases (CEID) will contribute to the ongoing advancement of diagnostic testing, enabling rapid and accurate identification of infectious ...

New method is better able to map immune response and paves way for new treatments

2023-12-07
A new method, developed at Karolinska Institutet, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and SciLifeLab in Sweden, can identify unique immune cell receptors and their location in tissue, a study published in the journal Science reports. The researchers predict that the method will improve the ability to identify which immune cells contribute to disease processes and open up opportunities to develop novel therapies for numerous diseases. Immune cells such as T and B cells are central to the body’s defence against both infections and tumours. Both types of immune cells express unique receptors that specifically recognise different parts of unwanted and foreign elements, such as bacteria, viruses ...

Researchers reveal uncharted liver-focused pathway in gene therapy immune responses

2023-12-07
INDIANAPOLIS— Indiana University School of Medicine researchers have uncovered vital insights regarding a liver trigger that blocks an undesired immune response from gene therapy, surprisingly resulting in the activation of specific immune cells, despite the liver's typical role in suppressing immune responses. The findings, published in Molecular Therapy, may pave the way for change in immunomodulation strategies for desired and long-lasting effects of gene therapy. Gene therapy treatments involve replacing or introducing a healthy copy of ...

Virtualware and Kessler Foundation renew collaboration in groundbreaking spatial neglect research

Virtualware and Kessler Foundation renew collaboration in groundbreaking spatial neglect research
2023-12-07
East Hanover, NJ – December 07, 2023 – Kessler Foundation, a leader in rehabilitation research, and Virtualware, an international leader in immersive and interactive technologies, expand their collaboration with a new agreement to further research and development aimed at advancing spatial neglect rehabilitation using virtual reality (VR) and tele-rehabilitation technology. This latest development stems from a strong, ongoing partnership initiated in 2018 between the VR innovator and the New Jersey-based disability-focused non-profit. The intervention, ...

New HS curriculum teaches color chemistry and AI simultaneously

2023-12-07
North Carolina State University researchers have developed a weeklong high school curriculum that helps students quickly grasp concepts in both color chemistry and artificial intelligence – while sparking their curiosity about science and the world around them. To test whether a short high school science module could effectively teach students something about both chemistry – a notoriously thorny subject – and artificial intelligence (AI), the researchers designed a relatively simple experiment involving pH levels, which reflect the acidity or alkalinity of a liquid solution.  When testing pH levels on a test strip, color conversion charts provide a handy ...
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