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Drug helps reprogram macrophage immune cells, suppress prostate and bladder tumor growth

Drug helps reprogram macrophage immune cells, suppress prostate and bladder tumor growth
2024-05-21
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE A novel therapy that reprograms immune cells to promote antitumor activity helped shrink hard-to-treat prostate and bladder cancers in mice, according to research from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy and Johns Hopkins Drug Discovery. The study was published online May 3 in the journal Cancer Immunology Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Immunotherapies that help the immune system recognize and fight tumors have revolutionized care for many types of cancer. However, ...

Green infrastructure plans need to consider historical racial inequalities, say researchers

Green infrastructure plans need to consider historical racial inequalities, say researchers
2024-05-21
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Urban planners increasingly are interested in green infrastructure projects for the health and climate benefits they bring to cities. But without attention to historical development patterns and existing power structures, such projects may not benefit all residents equally and may exacerbate social and racial inequalities, says a group of researchers and practitioners of nature-based solutions for urban areas. The researchers outlined their recommendations for a justice-oriented approach to urban greening projects in a paper published in the journal ...

ENDO 2024 press conferences to highlight male birth control, anti-obesity medications

2024-05-21
BOSTON—Researchers will delve into emerging research in diabetes, obesity, reproductive health and other aspects of hormone health during the Endocrine Society’s ENDO 2024 news conferences June 1-4. The Society also will share its vitamin D Clinical Practice Guideline publicly for the first time during a news conference on Monday, June 3. Reporters will have an opportunity to hear directly from members of the guideline development panel. Other press conferences will feature select abstracts that are being presented at ENDO 2024, the Endocrine Society’s ...

Highly sensitive fiber optic gyroscope senses rotational ground motion around active volcano

Highly sensitive fiber optic gyroscope senses rotational ground motion around active volcano
2024-05-21
WASHINGTON — Researchers have built a prototype fiber optic gyroscope for high resolution, real-time monitoring of ground rotations caused by earthquakes in the active volcanic area of Campi Flegrei in Naples, Italy. A better understanding of the seismic activity in this highly populated area could improve risk assessment and might lead to improved early warning systems. “When seismic activity occurs, the Earth’s surface experiences both linear and rotational movements,” said research team leader Saverio Avino from the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (CNR-INO) ...

Research reveals endurance exercise training impacts biological molecules

2024-05-21
As part of an ongoing national research effort to better understand how physical activity improves health and prevents disease, seven University of Colorado Department of Medicine faculty members contributed to an article recently published in Nature, an international journal of science.  The paper, “Temporal dynamics of the multi-omic response to endurance exercise training,” discusses how eight weeks of endurance exercise training affected male and female young adult rats. The researchers found that all bodily tissues that were tested ...

Does managing oxidative stress hold the key to effectively treating Alzheimer’s disease

2024-05-21
Amsterdam, May 21, 2024 – The number of people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is expected to reach 100 million by 2050, but there is still no effective therapy. Leading researchers from around the world assess how oxidative stress (OS) may trigger AD and consider potential therapeutic targets and neuroprotective drugs to manage the disease in a collection of articles in a special supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, published by IOS Press. AD is the most common type of dementia and involves areas of ...

Warming climate intensifies flash droughts worldwide

Warming climate intensifies flash droughts worldwide
2024-05-21
WASHINGTON — Sudden, severe dry spells known as flash droughts are rising in intensity around the world, with a notable exception in mountainous Central Asia, where flash drought extent is shrinking, according to new research. Heat and changes to precipitation patterns caused by a warming climate are driving these trends, the study found. Flash droughts arrive suddenly, within weeks, hitting communities that are often not prepared and causing lasting impact. They are an emerging concern for water and food security. The new study is the first to apply a systematic, quantitative approach to the global incidence of flash drought, mapping hotspots and ...

US public health preparedness and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses

2024-05-21
About The Study: Public health authorities in nearly all states and territories surveyed reported the ability to monitor and test persons exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. However, jurisdictions varied in their capacity to monitor exposed persons, in recommendations for use of antivirals, and in potential use of H5N1 vaccines, if available, among first responders.  Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Noah Kojima, M.D., email nkojima@cdc.gov. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this ...

DRI to host AWE+ wildfire summit

2024-05-21
Today, DRI, one of our nation’s leading applied environmental research institutes, together with its Foundation, announced a new global initiative with the first in a series of summits. The event will be held at Encore Las Vegas from August 21-23, 2024. The AWE+ initiative will promote an Adaptable World Environment of strong, resilient communities in a climate shifting world. AWE+ 2024 - Wildfire Recovery and Resilience: Working Across Silos to Drive Solutions - is a global call-to-action for communities ...

MD Anderson Research Highlights for May 21, 2024

2024-05-21
HOUSTON ― The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center’s Research Highlights showcases the latest breakthroughs in cancer care, research and prevention. These advances are made possible through seamless collaboration between MD Anderson’s world-leading clinicians and scientists, bringing discoveries from the lab to the clinic and back. Recent developments at MD Anderson offer insights into biomarkers that predict immunotherapy responses, a possible treatment strategy for patients with LKB1-deficient cancers, therapeutic targets to prevent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression ...

Polymer research aims to expand possibilities in sensor technology

Polymer research aims to expand possibilities in sensor technology
2024-05-21
Sensors enable us to monitor changes in systems of all kinds.  The materials at the heart of those sensors, of course, ultimately determine their end-use application. Devices made of silicon, for example, enable ultrafast processing in computers and phones, but they aren’t pliable enough for use in physiological monitoring.  They also require a lot of energy to produce. Lehigh University professor Elsa Reichmanis, Carl Robert Anderson Chair in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, recently received a grant from the National ...

New therapeutic avenues in bone repair

2024-05-21
Birmingham researchers have shown PEPITEM, a naturally occurring peptide (small protein) holds promise as a new therapeutic for osteoporosis and other disorders that feature bone loss, with distinct advantages over existing drugs. PEPITEM (Peptide Inhibitor of Trans-Endothelial Migration) was first identified in 2015 by University of Birmingham researchers.  The latest research, published today in Cell Reports Medicine, show for the first time that PEPITEM could be used as a novel and early clinical intervention to reverse the impact of age-related musculoskeletal diseases, with ...

Socioeconomic status transition throughout life and risk of dementia

2024-05-21
About The Study: This cohort study of Japanese older adults identified that upward and downward socioeconomic status transitions were associated with risk of dementia and the length of dementia-free periods over the lifespan. The results may be useful to understand the association between social mobility and healthy longevity.  Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Hiroyasu Iso, Ph.D., email iso@pbhel.med.osaka-u.ac.jp. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.12303) Editor’s Note: Please see ...

Climbing the social ladder slows dementia, Japanese study reveals

Climbing the social ladder slows dementia, Japanese study reveals
2024-05-21
Osaka, Japan – Upward social mobility may ward off dementia, according to a new study. Dementia, a collective term for conditions marked by memory loss and diminished cognitive functioning, strains healthcare systems and devastates quality of life for patients and their families. Research thus far has found correlations between socioeconomic status (SES) – Parent’s asset, education level, income, and work status – and susceptibility to dementia, and SES changes throughout a person’s life, known as social mobility, seem to influence this risk; however, scientific ...

Researchers discover hidden step in dinosaur feather evolution

Researchers discover hidden step in dinosaur feather evolution
2024-05-21
Scientists discover ‘zoned development’ in dinosaur skin, with zones of reptile-style scales and zones of bird-like skin with feathers New dinosaur skin fossil found to be composed of silica – the same as glass Discovery sheds light on evolution from scales to feathers Palaeontologists at University College Cork (UCC) in Ireland have discovered that some feathered dinosaurs had scaly skin like reptiles today, thus shedding new light on the evolutionary transition from scales to feathers. The researchers studied a new specimen of the feathered dinosaur Psittacosaurus from the early Cretaceous ...

Studies reveal cell-by-cell changes caused when pig hearts and kidneys are transplanted into humans

2024-05-21
Surgical teams at NYU Langone Health performed the world’s first genetically modified pig kidney transplants into a human body in September and November 2021, and then transplanted two pig hearts in the summer of 2022. These procedures were done in patients declared dead based on neurologic criteria (decedents) and maintained on ventilators with the consent of their families. Demonstrating the field’s progress, NYU Langone in April 2024 transplanted a pig kidney into a living patient. Now two new analyses, one published online on May 17 in Nature Medicine and the other May ...

SRI earns FDA Orphan Drug Designation for pancreatic cancer

2024-05-21
SRI’s Targeted Antigen Loaded Liposomes (TALL) — a treatment that expands the benefits of immunotherapy such as check-point inhibitors — has been granted Orphan Drug Designation (ODD) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA). As a result, SRI’s future strategic partners can gain tax credits for qualified clinical trials and potentially receive market exclusivity for a period of seven years after the drug’s approval, among other benefits. “FDA's orphan drug designation brings worthy attention to the demonstrated impact of SRI's TALL biotherapeutic for pancreatic cancer,” said Kathlynn Brown, ...

A new gene-editing system tackles complex diseases

A new gene-editing system tackles complex diseases
2024-05-21
The human genome consists of around 3 billion base pairs and humans are all 99.6% identical in their genetic makeup. That small 0.4% accounts for any difference between one person and another. Specific combinations of mutations in those base pairs hold important clues about the causes of complex health issues, including heart disease and neurodegenerative diseases like schizophrenia. Current methods to model or correct mutations in live cells are inefficient, especially when multiplexing — installing multiple point mutations simultaneously across the genome. Researchers from the University of California San Diego ...

Tracking down toxic metals from tobacco smoke

Tracking down toxic metals from tobacco smoke
2024-05-21
Cigarette smoke has been studied for years, revealing a multitude of contaminants, including toxic metals. But exactly which of those metals can be traced to secondhand or thirdhand smoke? Solving this problem has been a challenge for the research community because many of the metals found in tobacco smoke could also come from industrial or naturally occurring pollutants contaminating indoor and outdoor air. Now, a recent study by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has identified 28 trace metals in tobacco smoke. The findings reported in the journal ...

Clarifying the cellular mechanisms underlying periodontitis with an improved animal model

Clarifying the cellular mechanisms underlying periodontitis with an improved animal model
2024-05-21
TMDU researchers have developed a technique that allows a detailed analysis of periodontitis development over time Tokyo, Japan – Periodontal disease, represented by periodontitis, is the leading cause of tooth loss and affects close to one in five adults worldwide. In most cases, this condition occurs as a result of an inflammatory response to bacterial infection of the tissue around teeth. As the condition worsens, the gums begin to pull away, exposing teeth roots and bone. Notably, the incidence of periodontitis becomes more prevalent with age and with populations worldwide living ...

Age, race impact AI performance on digital mammograms

Age, race impact AI performance on digital mammograms
2024-05-21
OAK BROOK, Ill. – In a study of nearly 5,000 screening mammograms interpreted by an FDA-approved AI algorithm, patient characteristics such as race and age influenced false positive results. The study’s results were published today in Radiology, a journal of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). “AI has become a resource for radiologists to improve their efficiency and accuracy in reading screening mammograms while mitigating reader burnout,” said Derek L. Nguyen, M.D., assistant professor at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. ...

SwRI leads courses at 2024 Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting

SwRI leads courses at 2024 Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting
2024-05-21
SAN ANTONIO — May 21, 2024 —As a leader in fuels and lubricants research, Southwest Research Institute is home to a world-class tribology laboratory and expert staff that are developing advanced techniques and technology to study wear, friction and lubrication. SwRI tribologists will share their expertise at the 2024 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Annual Meeting May 19-23 in Minneapolis. The STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition invites members of the lubricant industry ...

Hope for a cure for visceral leishmaniasis, an often fatal infectious disease

Hope for a cure for visceral leishmaniasis, an often fatal infectious disease
2024-05-21
Hope for a cure for visceral leishmaniasis, an often fatal infectious disease     A discovery by Simona Stäger’s team could help come up with a treatment to the most serious form of leishmaniasis.   Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease affecting a growing number of people worldwide. Each year, between 700,000 and 1 million new cases are reported. Caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted to humans by the simple bite of a sand fly, leishmaniasis comprises three clinical forms, of which the visceral ...

How AI helps programming a quantum computer

How AI helps programming a quantum computer
2024-05-21
Generative models like diffusion models are one of the most important recent developments in Machine Learning (ML), with models as Stable Diffusion and Dall.e revolutionizing the field of image generation. These models are able to produce high quality images based on some text description. “Our new model for programming quantum computers does the same but, instead of generating images, it generates quantum circuits based on the text description of the quantum operation to be performed”, explains Gorka Muñoz-Gil from the Department of Theoretical Physics of ...

New research reveals that prehistoric seafloor pockmarks off the California coast are maintained by powerful sediment flows

New research reveals that prehistoric seafloor pockmarks off the California coast are maintained by powerful sediment flows
2024-05-21
New MBARI research on a field of pockmarks—large, circular depressions on the seafloor—offshore of Central California has revealed that powerful sediment flows, not methane gas eruptions, maintain these prehistoric formations. A team of researchers from MBARI, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Stanford University published their findings today in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. This work provides important information to guide decision-making about responsible use and management of the seafloor off California, including site assessments for the development of offshore wind farms. The Sur Pockmark Field—an area about the size ...
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