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An isolated viral load test may generate false positive results for people using long-acting PrEP

An isolated viral load test may generate false positive results for people using long-acting PrEP
2024-07-23
A single laboratory-based HIV viral load test used by U.S. clinicians who provide people with long-acting, injectable cabotegravir (CAB-LA) HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) did not reliably detect HIV in a multi-country study. In the study, a single positive viral load test was frequently found to be a false positive result. However, a second viral load test with a new blood sample was able to distinguish true positive results from false positive results for all participants whose initial viral load test was positive. The findings were presented at the 2024 International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2024) ...

Microwave popcorn to particle accelerators: magnetrons show promise as radiofrequency source

Microwave popcorn to particle accelerators: magnetrons show promise as radiofrequency source
2024-07-23
NEWPORT NEWS, VA - A pocket-size gizmo that puts the “pop” in microwave popcorn could soon fuel particle accelerators of the future. The small but mighty device is a magnetron – a mashup of the words “magnetic” and “electron.” The term was coined in 1921, and the technology was once a wartime secret before making its way into billions of homes as the heart of the modern microwave oven. Now, physicists and engineers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas ...

New research identifies less invasive method for examining brain activity following traumatic brain injury

2024-07-23
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have published new research that reports on a potential alternative and less-invasive approach to measure intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients. This research was published July 12 in the journal Computers in Biology and Medicine. ICP is a physiological variable that can increase abnormally when one has acute brain injury, stroke or obstruction to the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. Symptoms of elevated ICP may include headaches, blurred vision, vomiting, changes in behavior and decreased level of consciousness. ...

Prostate cancer blood test equally effective across ethnic groups

2024-07-23
Stockholm3, a prostate cancer test developed in Sweden, runs a combination of protein and genetic markers from a blood sample through an algorithm to find the probability of a patient having clinically significant cancer.  Studies in more than 90,000 men have shown that Stockholm3 produces significantly better results than the current PSA standard. The test improves prostate cancer diagnosis by reducing unnecessary MRI and biopsies and by identifying significant cancers in men with low or normal PSA values.    However, previous studies have been conducted primarily in Scandinavia ...

Lehigh University team wins 2024 Alfred Noble Prize for work on optimizing bridge maintenance

Lehigh University team wins 2024 Alfred Noble Prize for work on optimizing bridge maintenance
2024-07-23
Lehigh University structural engineering alum Xu Han ’23 PhD and his doctoral advisor Professor Dan M. Frangopol have been awarded the 2024 Alfred Noble Prize, an esteemed interdisciplinary award from a consortium of professional societies, administered by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). “I feel very humbled for receiving such a prestigious award and am very grateful to people nominating me,” says Han, who is now a postdoctoral research fellow at Texas A&M University. Frangopol, Lehigh’s inaugural Fazlur R. Khan Endowed Chair of Structural Engineering and Architecture, is a world-renowned expert ...

3D-printed microstructure forest facilitates solar steam generator desalination

3D-printed microstructure forest facilitates solar steam generator desalination
2024-07-23
WASHINGTON, July 23, 2024 — Faced with the world’s impending freshwater scarcity, a team of researchers in Singapore turned to solar steam generators (SSGs), which are emerging as a promising device for seawater desalination. Desalination can be a costly, energy-intensive solution to water scarcity. This renewable-powered approach mimics the natural water cycle by using the sun’s energy to evaporate and isolate water. However, the technology is limited by the need to fabricate complex topologies to increase the surface area necessary to achieve high water evaporation efficiency. To overcome this ...

Wearable sensors help athletes achieve greater performance

Wearable sensors help athletes achieve greater performance
2024-07-23
WASHINGTON, July 23, 2024 – Today’s athletes are always on the lookout for new techniques and equipment to help them train more effectively. Modern coaches and sports trainers use intelligent data monitoring through videos and wearable sensors to help enhance athletic conditioning. However, traditional video analysis and wearable sensor technologies often fall short when tasked to produce a comprehensive picture of an athlete’s performance. In APL Materials, by AIP Publishing, researchers from Lyuliang University developed ...

Gender differences in electronic health record usage among surgeons

2024-07-23
About The Study: This cross-sectional study of electronic health record (EHR) data found that female surgeons spent more time documenting patient encounters, wrote longer notes, and spent more time in the EHR system compared with male surgeons. These findings have important implications for understanding the differential burdens faced by female surgeons, including potential contributions to burnout and payment disparities. Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Corinna Zygourakis, ...

Injuries with electric vs conventional scooters and bicycles

2024-07-23
About The Study: In this cross-sectional study of micromobility vehicles, an increased number of injuries and hospitalizations was observed with electric vehicles compared with conventional vehicles from 2017 to 2022. These findings suggest the need for change in educational policies, infrastructure, and law to recenter on safety with the use of micromobility vehicles.  Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Benjamin N. Breyer, M.D., M.A.S., email benjamin.breyer@ucsf.edu. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.24131) Editor’s ...

Pioneering technique transforms genetic disorder diagnoses

Pioneering technique transforms genetic disorder diagnoses
2024-07-23
Despite rapid advances in genetic testing in recent decades, more than half of people worldwide with suspected Mendelian genetic disorders do not have an accurate molecular diagnosis. Others endure more than six years of tests before a diagnosis is given. Now, KAUST researchers and scientists across Saudi Arabia have developed NanoRanger, an accurate and rapid method for genetically diagnosing such diseases in a few hours[1]. “Precise, efficient genomic diagnosis is urgently needed to improve patient outcomes and facilitate carrier ...

Electric scooter and bike accidents are soaring across the US

2024-07-23
Electric Scooter and Bike Accidents Are Soaring Across the U.S.  National UCSF study finds some injuries and hospitalizations from popular micromobility vehicles have doubled. In the crowded urban landscape, where small electric vehicles – primarily scooters and bicycles – have transformed short distance travel, UC San Francisco researchers are reporting a major national surge in accidents tied to “micromobility.”  E-bicycle injuries doubled every year from 2017 to 2022, while e-scooter injuries rose by 45 percent. Injured e-riders tended to be slightly older and wore helmets less often than conventional ...

Involvement of TAL1-microRNA axis in the progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

2024-07-23
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive form of leukemia that arises from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors. This disease is most commonly diagnosed in children, where it accounts for a significant portion of pediatric leukemia cases, but it also affects adults. The clinical presentation of T-ALL includes symptoms resulting from bone marrow failure, such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia, as well as symptoms due to extramedullary disease, including lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, ...

JMIR XR and Spatial Computing is inviting submissions for a new theme issue titled “First Look: Early Research, Viewpoints, and Experiences with Apple Vision Pro in Health Care Settings”

JMIR XR and Spatial Computing is inviting submissions for a new theme issue titled “First Look: Early Research, Viewpoints, and Experiences with Apple Vision Pro in Health Care Settings”
2024-07-23
(Toronto, July 23, 2024) JMIR Publications invites submissions to a new theme issue titled “First Look: Early Research, Viewpoints, and Experiences with Apple Vision Pro in Health Care Settings” in its new open access journal JMIR XR and Spatial Computing.   This theme issue aims to gather early research findings, diverse and critical viewpoints, and real-world experiences concerning the utilization of Apple Vision Pro in health care contexts. We invite contributions that explore the following topics:   Medical education ...

Decoding early Lyme disease

2024-07-23
Every year in the United States, an estimated 476,000 people are diagnosed and treated for Lyme disease. The estimate comes from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotics. The best health outcomes are most likely when diagnosis is made within the first weeks of infection. If left untreated, the effects of Lyme disease can linger for years and cause neurological problems, arthritis, and a host of other ailments. But because diagnosing ...

Non-coding RNAs affect breast cancer development through the notch signaling pathway

2024-07-23
Breast cancer (BC) remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat, primarily due to its heterogeneity and propensity for metastasis. The Notch signaling pathway is integral to various cellular processes and has been implicated in the development and progression of BC. NcRNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), have emerged as pivotal regulators of gene expression, affecting cancer biology through their interactions with the Notch pathway. Non-coding ...

Is a gamma-ray laser possible?

Is a gamma-ray laser possible?
2024-07-23
Since the laser was invented in the 1960s, scientists have been working to increase lasers’ peak power and to design machines producing coherent light at progressively shorter wavelengths that can improve image resolution and enable probing of quantum nuclear states. Progress has been made with regard to peak power, most notably with the invention of chirped pulse amplification by University of Rochester researchers in the 1980s, a breakthrough that garnered the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018. However, developing ...

Dual action antibiotic could make bacterial resistance nearly impossible

2024-07-23
A new antibiotic that works by disrupting two different cellular targets would make it 100 million times more difficult for bacteria to evolve resistance, according to new research from the University of Illinois Chicago. For a new paper in Nature Chemical Biology, researchers probed how a class of synthetic drugs called macrolones disrupt bacterial cell function to fight infectious diseases. Their experiments demonstrate that macrolones can work two different ways – either by interfering with protein production or corrupting DNA structure.  Because bacteria would need to implement ...

Salk Professor Janelle Ayres named Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator

Salk Professor Janelle Ayres named Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator
2024-07-23
LA JOLLA (July 23, 2024)—Salk Professor Janelle Ayres has been selected as a 2024 Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Investigator. The HHMI Investigators program awards established scientists with approximately $9 million in funding over seven years to pursue boundary-breaking research in their field. The honor recognizes her influential work in immunology and microbiology and its applications to the global crisis of antibiotic resistance. Ayres is among 26 other 2024 selectees, who will join more than 250 standing Investigators—including Salk Professors ...

NLM extends commitment to LOINC with $5 million award

2024-07-23
INDIANAPOLIS -- The National Library of Medicine has awarded Regenstrief Institute a five-year, $5 million contract extension to ensure the continued maintenance, expansion and public distribution of LOINC®, a  global standard for health terminology. The NLM issued its initial contract to support the creation and development of LOINC in 1999. With this extension, NLM's commitment to LOINC will reach 30 years by the time the award expires in 2029. “The NLM’s continued support of LOINC demonstrates the value the standard delivers to patients, care providers, health ...

Light emission from nanostructures, revealed using 3D printing method for the first time

Light emission from nanostructures, revealed using 3D printing method for the first time
2024-07-23
Dr. Jaeyeon Pyo’s team at the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) has become the first in the world to reveal light emission patterns from 3D-printed nanowires, which has been published as a cover article in the prestigious scientific journal ACS Nano. The higher resolution in display devices signifies the more of pixels in a given screen size. As pixel density increases, movies and images are displayed with greater precision and detail. In this regard, ongoing research aims to fabricate ...

HHMI invests over $300 million in 26 new investigators

2024-07-23
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute announced on July 23, 2024 that 26 of the nation’s leading scientists have been named HHMI Investigators.  Paving the way for new scientific and biomedical discoveries in fields ranging from neuroscience to immunology to structural biology, these scientists come from 19 US institutions and join HHMI’s current Investigator community, comprising more than 250 scientists.  HHMI will invest more than $300 million in this newest cohort over the next seven years, enabling each Investigator to push the boundaries of science. “HHMI is committed to supporting visionary scientists who are pursuing discoveries that will change ...

Blood pressure high for years? Beware of stroke risk

2024-07-23
High blood pressure is known to increase a person’s chances of having a stroke. But a study led by Michigan Medicine narrows in on the cumulative effects of years of high systolic blood pressure — the top number on the blood pressure reading and how hard the heart pumps blood to the arteries — finding that a higher average reading during adulthood is linked with a greater risk for the two most common types of stroke.    The study, published in JAMA Network Open, analyzed the average systolic blood pressure years ahead of the first stroke for more than 40,000 people ...

IMDEA Software creates FIXCHECK, a novel approach that improves automatic software repair by generating test cases revealing defects in 62% of incorrect patches

2024-07-23
IMDEA Software researchers Facundo Molina, Juan Manuel Copia and Alessandra Gorla present FIXCHECK, a novel approach to improve patch fix analysis that combines static analysis, randomized testing and large language models. Their innovations, embodied in the paper: "Improving Patch Correctness Analysis via Random Testing and Large Language Models" were presented at the International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST 2024). Context Generating patches that fix software defects is a crucial task in the maintenance of software systems. Typically, software ...

New car smell reaches toxic levels on hot days

2024-07-23
A study of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by new cars on hot summer days finds concerning levels of formaldehyde and other aldehydes. Consumers are familiar with—and even drawn to—the “new car smell” produced as VOCs from carpets, upholstery, and other interior materials in newly manufactured passenger vehicles. These VOCs can cause a range of health effects, including headaches, inflammation of the eyes, nose and throat, fatigue, irritability, dry cough, lung disease, and disorientation. Jianyin Xiong, Shaodan Huang, and colleagues sought to capture the levels of VOCs in the passenger cabins of new cars on ...

A promising new method uses light to clean up forever chemicals

A promising new method uses light to clean up forever chemicals
2024-07-23
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), nicknamed ‘forever chemicals,’ pose a growing environmental and health threat. Since the invention of Teflon in 1938, PFASs and perfluorinated polymers or PFs have been widely used for their exceptional stability and resistance to water and heat. These properties made them ideal for countless applications, from cookware and clothing to firefighting foam. However, this very stability has become a major problem. PFASs do not easily break down in the environment, leading ...
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