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Hope Foundation announces Goodman for Inaugural Meyskens Lecture

2024-02-16
The Hope Foundation for Cancer Research, the public charity supporting SWOG Cancer Research Network, has recently established the Frank and Linda Meyskens Annual Endowed Lectureship on Advances in Cancer Prevention. Since the early 1980’s, Dr. Meyskens has been a leader in the recognition, development, and clinical usage of Prevention in the management of cancer. Frank and Linda have directed the development of this lectureship to advance the explosion of knowledge that is expanding opportunities to engage Prevention in personalized medicine, including early detection and genetically ...

Rare case of opossum infected by rabies sounds alarm regarding circulation of this virus in urban environments

Rare case of opossum infected by rabies sounds alarm regarding circulation of this virus in urban environments
2024-02-16
A female White-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris) found dead in 2021 in Bosque dos Jequitibás Park in the center of Campinas, one of the largest cities in São Paulo state, Brazil, died from rabies meningoencephalitis, according to a group of researchers at the University of São Paulo (USP) and Adolfo Lutz Institute (IAL), the regional reference laboratory, working with health professionals affiliated with public institutions in São Paulo city and Campinas.  Reported in an article published in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases, the finding serves as an alert to the presence of the virus, which is deadly to humans, ...

Targeting 'undruggable' proteins promises new approach for treating neurodegenerative diseases

Targeting undruggable proteins promises new approach for treating neurodegenerative diseases
2024-02-16
Researchers led by Northwestern University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison have introduced a pioneering approach aimed at combating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In a new study, researchers discovered a new way to enhance the body’s antioxidant response, which is crucial for cellular protection against the oxidative stress implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. The study published today (Feb. 16) in the journal Advanced Materials.  Nathan Gianneschi, the Jacob & Rosaline Cohn Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern’s Weinberg ...

Anoxic marine basins are among the best candidates for deep-sea carbon sequestration

2024-02-16
(Santa Barbara, Calif.) — Anoxic marine basins may be among the most viable places to conduct large-scale carbon sequestration in the deep ocean, while minimizing negative impacts to marine life. So say UC Santa Barbara researchers in a paper published in the journal AGU Advances. As we explore ways to actively draw down the levels of carbon in the atmosphere, sending plant biomass to these barren, oxygen-free zones on the seafloor becomes an option worth considering. “The big picture here is that all the best models that we have say that we have to do some form of net negative CO2 removal in order to hit climate goals,” said geochemist, geobiologist ...

NIH trial data underpins FDA approval of omalizumab for food allergy

2024-02-16
Today’s Food and Drug Administration approval of a supplemental biologics license for the monoclonal antibody omalizumab (Xolair) highlights the vital role of the National Institutes of Health-supported research that underpins the FDA decision.    FDA has approved omalizumab for the reduction of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, that may occur with an accidental exposure to one or more foods in adults and children aged 1 year and older with food allergy. People taking omalizumab still need to avoid exposure to foods to which they are allergic. Omalizumab previously received FDA approval ...

Moffitt study finds neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes for penile squamous cell carcinoma patients

2024-02-16
TAMPA, Fla. — Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy with limited treatment options and poor prognosis, especially in advanced stages. Because of its rarity, few studies focus on better understanding and managing this disease. In a new article published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers share data on the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma, addressing a critical gap in evidence regarding treatment options for this rare and aggressive cancer. The Moffitt team, in collaboration with institutions across ...

New paper proposes standards – and actionable clinical tools – for biomarkers of aging

New paper proposes standards – and actionable clinical tools – for biomarkers of aging
2024-02-16
A new paper led by Harvard researchers has zeroed in on biomarkers of aging using omic data from population-based studies. The team, which included aging and longevity expert Alex Zhavoronkov, PhD, founder and CEO of AI-driven drug discovery company Insilico Medicine, provided a framework for standardizing the development and validation of biomarkers of aging to better predict longevity and quality of life. The findings appeared in Nature Medicine.  Biomarkers are biological characteristics that can be measured and used to evaluate various biological processes, ...

Researchers identify genes and cell types that may have causal role in primary open-angle glaucoma formation

2024-02-16
Although primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 55, there remains no cure for the disease and its biological mechanisms are not well understood. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for the disease, but many patients with glaucoma have normal eye pressure and still lose vision. In a new study published this past month in Nature Communications, researchers from Mass Eye and Ear, led by Ayellet Segrè, PhD, conducted a comprehensive study that combined genetic discoveries from a large cross-ancestry genome-wide association study meta-analysis of POAG, led by Janey Wiggs, MD, PhD, ...

New book helps school leaders focus on what they can do without getting weighed down

2024-02-16
LAWRENCE — No one can do everything. Yet that is exactly what many school leaders feel like they must do. A new book from a pair of school leaders and scholars aims to help those who often feel overwhelmed focus on what they can and should do and how to help teachers and students lead schools to reaching their full potential. “Focused: Understanding, Negotiating, and Maximizing Your Influence as a School Leader,” by Jim Watterston and Yong Zhao, aims to help educational administrators guide schools to success without getting ...

Research grant aimed at improving wastewater monitoring for diseases in rural Appalachian communities

2024-02-16
Testing wastewater to assess the spread of the COVID-19 virus became common and well-publicized during the pandemic, but it has been focused mostly on urban areas. The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) has awarded $400,000 to Virginia Tech, with an additional $50,000 to Virginia Tech from the Virginia Department of Health, for a two-year project to identify and implement improved and new methods to detect pathogens for multiple diseases in the wastewater of rural communities. “My work and research have primarily been focused on rural areas, and prior to the pandemic, most ...

New study analyzes link between digit ratio and oxygen consumption in footballers

2024-02-16
The efficiency of oxygen supply to tissues is a factor in the severity of important diseases such as Covid-19 and heart conditions. Scientists already know that the relationship between the length of a person’s index and ring fingers, known as the 2D:4D ratio is correlated with performance in distance running, age at heart attack and severity of Covid-19. Now Swansea University digit ratio expert Professor John Manning has been working with colleagues to look more closely at the subject. Their findings have just been published by the prestigious American Journal of Human ...

Under pressure - space exploration in our time

Under pressure - space exploration in our time
2024-02-16
In the past decade, humanity has seen the birth and expansion of a commercial space sector with new, private players, addressing technological challenges - from space launch to communication and satellite imagery of Earth. Last year, the global space industry skyrocketed launching more than 2,660* satellites into orbit, and, into the universe, interplanetary probes, landers, and much more. In the United States, SpaceX was responsible for almost 90% of these launches. In parallel to this progression is the expansion of more than 70 countries** demonstrating space capabilities. It affirms the general consensus and understanding ...

Climate change has brought forward the flowering period in Doñana National Park by 22 days

2024-02-16
Researchers from the University of Seville have investigated how the flowering of 51 species of shrubs, bushes and trees has changed over the last 35 years in Doñana National Park so as to understand how plant communities are responding to climate change in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. Over this period, the average temperature in the area has increased by 1 °C and the minimum temperature by as much as 2 °C. As a result, the community’s peak flowering time, the time when the greatest number of species are in flower, has been brought forward by 22 days, from 9 May to 17 April.   This earlier flowering is not ...

Games in the classroom and the boardroom: How ‘serious games’ are helping us learn

2024-02-16
A team of researchers are encouraging us to swap textbooks for games, as they drive the application of games in learning, engagement and research.   Known as ‘serious games’, these games are designed for more than just entertainment. Ranging from digital applications to physical board games, they are developed for learning, problem solving, raising awareness, research, and stakeholder engagement – with potential in both schools and workplaces. A key application will be for educating people on sustainable development and climate change.   Experts leading in the field at the Universities of Warwick, Cardiff, York, and Sussex, ...

Entrepreneurship on the periphery: between precarious work and the search for a meaningful life

Entrepreneurship on the periphery: between precarious work and the search for a meaningful life
2024-02-16
Understanding how the poor deal with the effects of the economic crisis into which Brazil plunged in 2014 was the aim of the research project “The crisis seen from the periphery: struggle for social mobility in the frontiers of (i)legality” conducted by Leonardo de Oliveira Fontes with FAPESP’s support (19/13125-2 and 21/13970-4). An article published in the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research is one of the results of the investigation. Fontes is currently a professor in the Department of Sociology ...

Optimal volume of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity postconcussion in children and adolescents

2024-02-16
About The Study: The findings of this study of children and adolescents with acute concussion suggest that moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity reduced symptoms up to a certain threshold but appeared to offer no further benefit in symptom reduction beyond that point.  Authors: Andrée-Anne Ledoux, Ph.D., of the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, is the corresponding author.  To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/  (doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.56458) Editor’s Note: Please ...

Projecting the future registered nurse workforce after the pandemic

2024-02-16
About The Study: The rebound in the total size of the U.S. registered nurse (RN) workforce during 2022 and 2023 indicates that the earlier drop in RN employment during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic was likely transitory. Updated forecasts of the future RN workforce are very close to those made before the pandemic.  Authors: David I. Auerbach, Ph.D., of Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts, is the corresponding author. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamahealthforum.2023.5389) Editor’s Note: Please see the article for additional information, ...

Lockdown skin cancer diagnosis delays linked to deaths and £6bn costs in Europe

2024-02-16
Delays in diagnosing melanoma due to Covid-19 lockdown may have contributed to over 100,000 years of life lost across Europe and over £6bn in costs, mainly indirectly due to loss of productivity, finds a new study led by UCL and University Hospital of Basel researchers. The authors of the new JAMA Network Open paper say their findings show how vital early detection of cancer can be, while also highlighting the importance of considering unintended side effects in any future pandemic planning. Co-lead ...

RNA interference with zilebesiran for mild to moderate hypertension

2024-02-16
About The Study: In adults with mild to moderate hypertension, treatment with zilebesiran, an investigational RNA interference therapeutic, across a range of subcutaneous doses at 3-month or 6-month intervals significantly reduced 24-hour mean ambulatory systolic blood pressure at month three in this phase 2, randomized clinical trial.  Authors: George L. Bakris, M.D., of University of Chicago Medicine, is the corresponding author. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jama.2024.0728) Editor’s ...

Electrification or hydrogen? Both have distinct roles in the European energy transition

2024-02-16
“Previous research has shown that our power system can be transformed to renewable sources like wind and solar at low cost and low environmental impact. However, the next question is how this renewable electricity can be used to substitute fossil fuel use in the buildings, industry and transport sectors. Our analysis shows that the direct use of electricity, for example, via electric cars and heat pumps, is critical for a broad range of sectors, while the conversion of electricity to hydrogen is important only for few applications,” ...

Toxoplasmosis: evolution of infection machinery

2024-02-16
Researchers have identified a protein that evolved concurrently with the emergence of cellular compartments crucial for the multiplication of the toxoplasmosis pathogen. Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease found worldwide, caused by the single-celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In humans, infection poses a particular risk to pregnant woman, as it can lead to birth defects. Like the closely related malaria pathogen – Plasmodium falciparum – and other related species, T. gondii possesses special organelles, so-called rhoptries ...

Online digital data and AI for monitoring biodiversity

Online digital data and AI for monitoring biodiversity
2024-02-16
The random information posted online could be used to generate information about biodiversity and its conservation. “I think it's quite amazing that images and comments that people post online can be used to infer changes on biodiversity”, says Dr. Andrea Soriano-Redondo, the lead-author of a new article published in the journal Plos Biology and a researcher at the Helsinki Lab of Interdisciplinary Conservation Science at the University of Helsinki. Scientists from the University of Helsinki together with colleagues from other universities and institutions around the world propose a strategy for integrating online digital data from media platforms to complement ...

Heart attack significantly increases risk of other health conditions

2024-02-16
Having a heart attack significantly increases the risk of developing other serious long-term health conditions, a major new study shows.  Researchers at the University of Leeds have analysed more than 145 million records covering every adult patient admitted to hospital over a nine-year period to establish the risk of long-term health outcomes following a heart attack – in the largest study of its kind.  Whilst heart attacks are a serious and life-threatening condition, the British Heart Foundation estimates that nowadays more than seven in 10 people survive them, provided they receive quick and emergency treatment to get the blood flowing to the heart muscle again.  Yet ...

Plasma technology for more effective lithium extraction

Plasma technology for more effective lithium extraction
2024-02-16
New research suggesting a improved method for extracting lithium by applying plasma technology has been recently published. On the 31st of January, the Korea Institute of Fusion Energy(KFE) announced revealed that their researchers have successfully increased the lithium extraction rate by three times compared to pre-existing methods by applying CO2 microwave plasma technology. The most common method of extracting lithium is mixing sodium carbonate(Na2CO3) to saltwater that contains lithium and extracting lithium carbonate(Li2CO3)-which is a mixture of lithium and carbon dioxide. The downside to this method ...

Can astronomers use radar to spot a cataclysmic asteroid?

2024-02-16
How can humans protect the Earth from “devastating asteroid and comet impacts?” According to the National Academies and their 2023-2032 Planetary Science and Astrobiology Decadal Survey, ground based astronomical radar systems will have a “unique role” to play in planetary defense. There is currently only one system in the world concentrating on these efforts, NASA’s Goldstone Solar System Radar, part of the Deep Space Network (DSN). However, a new instrument concept from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory ...
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