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Survival benefit associated with participation in clinical trials of anticancer drugs

2024-05-20
About The Study: Many studies suggest a survival benefit for cancer trial participants. However, these benefits were not detected in studies using designs addressing important sources of bias and confounding. Pooled results of high-quality studies are not consistent with a beneficial effect of trial participation on its own.  Quote from corresponding author Jonathan Kimmelman, Ph.D.: “Many physicians, policymakers, patient advocates, and research sponsors believe patients have better outcomes when they participate in trials, even if they are in the comparator arm. Educational ...

Expanding on the fundamental principles of liquid movement

Expanding on the fundamental principles of liquid movement
2024-05-20
Fukuoka, Japan—From the rain drops rolling down your window, to the fluid running across a COVID rapid test, we cannot go a day without observing the world of fluid dynamics. Naturally, how liquids traverse across, and through, surfaces are a heavily researched subject, where new discoveries can have profound effects in the fields of energy conversion technology, electronics cooling, biosensors, and micro-/nano-fabrications. Now, using mathematical modeling and experimentation, researchers from Kyushu University’s Faculty of Engineering have expanded on a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics. Their new findings may ...

Chemical Insights Research Institute partners with Duke University and the East-West Center to examine dust and ash from devastating Hawai’ian wildfires

Chemical Insights Research Institute partners with Duke University and the East-West Center to examine dust and ash from devastating Hawai’ian wildfires
2024-05-20
ATLANTA - Chemical Insights Research Institute (CIRI) of UL Research Institutes applies cutting edge technologies to evaluate the toxicity of burn-impacted land areas affected by the August 2023 Lahaina wildfires. Created with CIRI research partners from Duke University and the East-West Center (EWC) in Hawai’i, the study known as Lahaina Environmental Assessment Project (LEAP), will collect and analyze residual dust, soil and ash samples from properties affected by the fires. These residues, including fine dust, ...

NCCN publishes new resource for patients with intestinal cancer type most have never heard of before diagnosis

NCCN publishes new resource for patients with intestinal cancer type most have never heard of before diagnosis
2024-05-20
PLYMOUTH MEETING, PA [May 20, 2024] — The National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) today announced publication of new NCCN Guidelines for Patients®: Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma. This free resource for people facing cancer and caregivers is focused on a rare cancer type that typically occurs in the small intestine, where routine screening is impossible, even for high-risk individuals. The small amount of patient information that exists for this cancer type tends to combine it with other cancers of the small intestine (such as sarcomas, neuroendocrine tumors, or lymphomas) despite very different treatment approaches and results. The NCCN Guidelines for Patients: ...

Subduction zone splay faults compound hazards of great earthquakes

Subduction zone splay faults compound hazards of great earthquakes
2024-05-20
Groundbreaking research has provided new insight into the tectonic plate shifts that create some of the Earth’s largest earthquakes and tsunamis. “This is the first study to employ coastal geology to reconstruct the rupture history of the splay fault system,” said Jessica DePaolis, postdoctoral fellow in Virginia Tech's Department of Geosciences. “These splay faults are closer to the coast, so these tsunamis will be faster to hit the coastline than a tsunami generated only from ...

Record low Antarctic sea ice ‘extremely unlikely’ without climate change

2024-05-20
In 2023, Antarctic sea ice reached historically low levels, with over 2 million square kilometres less ice than usual during winter – equivalent to about ten times the size of the UK. This drastic reduction followed decades of steady growth in sea ice up to 2015, making the sudden decline even more surprising. Using a large climate dataset called CMIP6, BAS researchers investigated this unprecedented sea ice loss. They analysed data from 18 different climate models to understand the probability of such a significant reduction in sea ice and its connection to climate change. Lead author Rachel Diamond explained that while 2023's extreme ...

After hundreds of years, study confirms Bermuda now home to cownose rays

After hundreds of years, study confirms Bermuda now home to cownose rays
2024-05-20
For hundreds of years, the whitespotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) has been considered the only inshore stingray species in Bermuda, until now. Using citizen science, photographs, on-water observations and the combination of morphological and genetic data, researchers from Florida Atlantic University’s Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute and collaborators are the first to provide evidence that the Atlantic cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus) has recently made a new home in Bermuda. Because ...

Scientists uncover promising treatment target for resistant brain cancer

Scientists uncover promising treatment target for resistant brain cancer
2024-05-20
For many patients with a deadly type of brain cancer called glioblastoma, chemotherapy resistance is a big problem. Current standard treatments, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy using the drug temozolomide, have limited effectiveness and have not significantly changed in the past five decades.  Although temozolomide can initially slow tumor progression in some patients, typically the tumor cells rapidly become resistant to the drug. But now, Virginia Tech researchers with the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC may ...

Revolutionizing cancer treatment by intracellular protein delivery using hybrid nanotubes

Revolutionizing cancer treatment by intracellular protein delivery using hybrid nanotubes
2024-05-20
In today's medical landscape, precision medicine and targeted therapies are gaining traction for their ability to tailor treatments to individual patients while minimizing adverse effects. Conventional methods, such as gene transfer techniques, show promise in delivering therapeutic genes directly to cells to address various diseases. However, these methods face significant drawbacks, hindering their efficacy and safety. Intracellular protein delivery offers a promising approach for developing safer, more targeted, and effective therapies. By directly transferring proteins into target cells, this method circumvents issues such as silencing ...

Chemist Julian West makes C&EN magazine’s ‘Talented 12’ list

Chemist Julian West makes C&EN magazine’s ‘Talented 12’ list
2024-05-20
HOUSTON – (May 20, 2024) – Rice University chemist Julian West is one of a dozen up-and-coming young scientists featured in Chemical & Engineering News’ (C&EN) 2024 Talented 12, an annual issue of the weekly news magazine that highlights rising stars across all chemistry research disciplines. West, an assistant professor and the Norman Hackerman-Welch Young Investigator in Rice’s Department of Chemistry, is a synthetic chemist whose lab designs novel chemical reactions. Drawing inspiration from biology, West’s research group has found ways to simplify the production of entire libraries of feedstock chemicals ...

Robot-phobia could exasperate hotel, restaurant labor shortage

2024-05-20
VANCOUVER, Wash. – Using more robots to close labor gaps in the hospitality industry may backfire and cause more human workers to quit, according to a Washington State University study. The study, involving more than 620 lodging and food service employees, found that “robot-phobia” – specifically the fear that robots and technology will take human jobs – increased workers’ job insecurity and stress, leading to greater intentions to leave their jobs. The impact was more pronounced with employees who had ...

Study offers new detail on how COVID-19 affects the lungs

Study offers new detail on how COVID-19 affects the lungs
2024-05-20
In some severe cases of COVID-19, the lungs undergo extreme damage, resulting in a range of life-threatening conditions like pneumonia, inflammation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The root cause of those wide-ranging reactions in the lungs has until now remained unclear. A new study by researchers at Columbia and the Columbia University Irving Medical Center sheds light on this mystery. The study found that ferroptosis, a form of cell death first named and identified at Columbia in 2012, is the major cell death mechanism that underlies COVID-19 lung disease. The finding indicates that deliberately halting ...

Body’s ‘message in a bottle’ delivers targeted cancer treatment

2024-05-20
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have succeeded in delivering targeted cancer treatment via small membrane bubbles that our cells use to communicate. A new study published in Nature Biomedical Engineering shows that the treatment reduces tumour growth and improves survival in mice. When our cells communicate, they send out small membrane bubbles known as extracellular vesicles which contain various signalling molecules. Interest in these tiny bubbles, sometimes referred to as the body’s ...

1 in 4 parents say their teen consumes caffeine daily or nearly every day

1 in 4 parents say their teen consumes caffeine daily or nearly every day
2024-05-20
ANN ARBOR, Mich. – A quarter of parents report that caffeine is basically part of their teen’s daily life, according to a national poll. Two in three parents think they know whether their teen’s caffeine intake is appropriate and which products have too much caffeine. Yet a third aren’t able to identify recommended caffeine limits, according to the University of Michigan Health C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health. “Our report suggests parents may not always be aware of how much they should be limiting caffeine consumption for teens,” said poll co-director and Mott ...

What makes some brown algae shimmer and others not?

What makes some brown algae shimmer and others not?
2024-05-20
Compartments of consistently sized, tightly packed microspheres are what makes some brown algae shimmer like opal. The Kobe University discovery not only sheds light on the mechanism behind the alga’s structural coloration, it is also the first to spot the effect in an order of brown algae other than the two where it was known to occur. Most brown algae are indeed yellowish-brown, but scuba divers noticed that a species resembling Sporochnus in the order Sporochnales shimmers like peacock feathers in yellow, ...

Seeking stronger steel, systematic look at 120 combinations of alloy elements provides clues

Seeking stronger steel, systematic look at 120 combinations of alloy elements provides clues
2024-05-20
Decarbonization of automobiles not only requires a shift from gasoline engines to electric motors, but also quality steel parts that help the motors run while lessening the weight of vehicles. High-performance steel materials can offer quieter rides and resist the wear and tear from high-speed rotation in motors. To create them, the process of modifying the steel surface with carbon, nitrogen, and alloy elements needs to be optimized. To understand the interactions between elements in steel, a systematic investigation ...

Tricking the Brain’s inner GPS: Grid cells responses to the illusion of self-location

Tricking the Brain’s inner GPS: Grid cells responses to the illusion of self-location
2024-05-20
Dr. Hyuk-June Moon from the Bionics Research Center at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), in collaboration with Prof. Olaf Blanke’s team at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), has successfully induced self-location illusions with multi-sensory virtual reality (VR) in the MRI scanner and observed corresponding changes in the human brain's grid cell activity. The brain is known to contain grid cells and place cells, which perform global positioning system (GPS) functions that allow us to recognize where we are. While ...

Gallbladder cancer rises among Black Americans as cases decline in other groups

2024-05-20
WASHINGTON, DC (May 20, 2024) — Gallbladder cancer rates have been stable or declining for most Americans over the last two decades, but cases have steadily risen among Blacks, with growing numbers not being diagnosed until later stages, according to a study scheduled for presentation at Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) 2024. “Gallbladder cancer diagnosis at late stage can be highly detrimental,” said lead author Yazan Abboud, MD, internal medicine resident at Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School. “This could be due to a lack of timely ...

Biomarker for gastric cancer and other cancer studies set for digestive disease week

2024-05-20
Washington (May 14, 2024) — Cancer-related studies, including a diagnostic tool for gastric cancer and trends in gallbladder and colorectal cancers, will be presented this week at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2024. Abstracts are available to registered media, and press releases are available where noted. Studies are embargoed until 12:01 a.m. EDT the day of presentation, unless otherwise noted. Here are summaries of the new research on the schedule: Oral microbiome signatures as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer risk assessment, Abstract 949, will be presented Monday, May 20, at 4:15 p.m. EDT.  (A press release is available upon request. Embargoed until 12:01 a.m. EDT ...

Endoscopic studies presented at Digestive Disease Week

2024-05-20
Washington (May 14, 2024) — Studies featuring endoscopic and laparoscopic procedures, including patient views on artificial intelligence in endoscopy and hazards to healthcare personnel of smoke-producing procedures, will be presented this week at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2024. Abstracts are available to registered media, and press releases are available where noted. Research is embargoed until 12:01 a.m. EDT the day of presentation, unless otherwise noted. Here are summaries of the new research: Patients’ sentiments ...

Hunger hormone, antibiotic-induced weight gain, and sleep and digestive health explored at Digestive Disease Week

2024-05-20
Washington (May 14, 2024) — Studies exploring the hunger hormone, weight-loss drugs, sauerkraut and antibiotic weight gain, the impact of physician gender on care, and the relationship between sleep patterns and digestive diseases will be presented this week at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2024. Abstracts are available to registered media. Embargos lift at 12:01 a.m. EDT on the day they are presented unless otherwise noted. Here are summaries of the new research: Performance of a machine-learning gene ...

Innovative 3D printing could revolutionise treatment for cataracts and other eye conditions

2024-05-20
Peer-reviewed – Proof-of-concept study  University of East Anglia researchers have made a significant breakthrough in ocular device technology with the introduction of a novel resin for 3D printing intraocular devices. This innovation has potential to enhance the manufacture of eye implants universally used in cataract and refractive surgeries.   An artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is primarily required for people with cataracts, a condition where the eye’s natural lens becomes cloudy, obscuring vision.  They can also be also used to correct refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), ...

Rigid approach to teaching phonics is ‘joyless’ and is failing children, experts warn

2024-05-20
Experts have released robust research to show that phonics should be taught hand-in-hand with reading and writing to encourage true literacy and a love of reading, not through narrow synthetic phonics. There is widespread disagreement globally across academic and educational spheres about the best way to teach children to learn to read and write. Despite a growing international trend towards a narrow approach to synthetic phonics, experts suggest there is a ‘better way’ to teach reading and writing. In England, the system is among the most prescriptive in the world with ‘synthetic phonics’ being the ...

Meerkat chit-chat

2024-05-20
EMBARGOED UNTIL MONDAY, 20 MAY 2024, 01:01 CEST (00:01 BST/London Time) Meerkats use two different types of vocal interactions to stay in touch with their group mates. Sometimes the call simply broadcasts information, whereas other times meerkats engage in a call exchange with their neighbours, as researchers from the Centre for the Advanced Study of Collective Behaviour at the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior present in a new publication published on 20 May in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. What does it sound like ...

Extreme heat associated with children’s asthma hospital visits

Extreme heat associated with children’s asthma hospital visits
2024-05-20
EMBARGOED UNTIL:  2:15 p.m. PT, May 19, 2024   Session:  A95 – Climate Change and Health Disparities in Lung Disease Extreme Heat and Asthma Hospitalizations in Children in California (2017-2020) Date and Time: Sunday, May 19, 2024, 2:15 p.m. PT Location:  San Diego Convention Center, Room 24A-C (Upper Level)   ATS 2024, San Diego – For children seeking care at a California urban pediatric health center, extreme heat events were associated with increased asthma hospital visits, according to research published at the ATS 2024 International Conference.   “We found ...
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